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us \^11\ »^'*^ 


Entered acoordiDg to Act of Congress, in tke year 1869, by 


In the Clerk's office of the District Court of the United States for the Distrif t of 





In writing (he *' Statistical and Historical account of tho County of Addison/* 
h has not been my intention to intcrfcrs with the histories of the seTeral towns, 
which may be published ; nor state any £icts or Statistics, exoept such as have 
some reference to the County generally. I should haTe been gratified to notice 
tfomc of the distinguiiihed citizens in the sereral towns, especially such as haTC been 
in office in the county ; also the Academies and other High Schools, which have 
bocn establishetl in several towns. But I was unwilling to take these out of the hands 
of ibc historians of the sereral towns, which they will be much better qualified t« 
dttjcribc, and which arc more properly within their province. 

This work was written, when the matcmls were collected, in 1855. Since that 
KTnc changes of a public character have taken place, and some information has 
been received, which I have inserted in tho text or notes ; but most of the chapters 
rtmiin as they were written, — ^no new materials have been collected. 



(county of ADDISON.) 


Territory— Face of the Country — Soil — OriginjJl Forests— Lime— Marble- 
Streams : • 5 

County Seats— County Buildings— Courts— Changes of the Judiciary 19 

Indians— Indian Relics 2^J 

French Settlement in Addison County— Conquered by the Britisli and their 
Retreat— Grants of Land by the French 44 


I^ew Hampshire Charters— Controversy with New York 61 


Opposition West of the Mountain— Negotiations with the Inhabitants of Ben - 
nington— Affitir at Walloomsic —Capture and trial of Hough— Col. Rced*s 

Claim — Captain Wooster's Grant— Dunmore's Grant . . . • 59 

fifiects of the War and the Declaration of Independence on the Controversy- 
Conclusion of the Controversy 70 


lucidents of the War in the County of Addison SU 

Agriculture— Wheat— Transition from Grain to Stock— Sheep 94 

Cattle— Horses : 106 

Agricultural Society— Medlpal Society Il*"^ 


Population — Charactei — Advantages — Dangers 1121 


No. L— Chief Judges of the County Court— Assistant Judges of County Court 
—County Cleiks-State'e Attorneys— Sheriffs — High BailifflB— Judges of 
Probate District of Addison, — District of New Haven 125 

No. IL— Statement of Agriculture, Farms and Implements, Stocks, Products 
Ac, taken from Census of 1850 180 

No. HI —A Table showing the population of the several towns in the County 
of Addison, at each United States Census, since Vermont was admitted into 
the Union. " 181 




Soon after the organization of the Historical Society of Middle- 
bury, the importance of procuring, as early as possible, histories of 
the several towns in the County became a subject of consideration. 
Already nearly all the men who had shared in the occurrences 
and toils of the first settlement had passed away ; and their imme- 
diate descendants, who are the next best witnesses, will soon follow 
them. It is known to all, who have any knowledge of the subject, 
that no histories are so interesting to residents, especially descend- 
ants of the early inhabitants, as the history of the perils and hard-^ 
ships of the first settlement in their respective towns. Yet this 
subject had been everywhere too much neglected, and was likely to 
be neglected, unless some exterior influence should be brought to 
bear upon it The subject was, therefore, brought more distinctly 
before the Society, at their annual meeting on the 29th day of De- 
cember^ 1846. At this time a committee was appointed to consider 
the subject and make report at the next meeting. At a subsequent 
meeting, on the 23d of February, Professor Stoddard, one of the 
committee, made a report, which was accepted, and the plan recom- 
mended was adopted, and a committee appointed to carry it into 
eflbct This committee appointed competent agents in the several 
towm, aad sent to them circulars, embracing the plan recommended 


by the society. But the committee have found it a more diflBcuIt 
task than they had anticipated to accomplish so desirable an object. 
Some of the agents declined the undertaking, and others, who had 
given encouragement, neglected the task so long that all hope from 
them was given up. In many of the towns new agents were ap- 
pointed, and requested to perform the service. In two of the most 
important towns, gentlemen, fully competent to the undertaking, 
had collected materials, and made progress in the work ; but in the 
midst of their labors, one of them was arrested by death and the 
other removed from the State. Notwithstanding the feithful exer- 
tions of Philip Battell, Esq., Secretary of the society and one 
of the committee, a few only of the histories have been completed. 
But it was thought best to delay the publication no longer. On 
examination and inquiry, however, no person could be found willing 
to undertake the publication of the whole together, as was proposed, 
or separately, on account of the limited sale which must attend the 
work. Since the passage of the act of the Legislature at their ses- 
sion in 1858, it is proposed to commence the publication of the his- 
tory of each town separately, as fast as they are written, and the 
towns shall furnish the requisite encouragement. The histories are 
obtained through the agency and published under the direction of 
the society. But it is to be understood that the society take to 
themselves none of the credit or responsibility of the composition. 
These belong exclusively to the several authors. 

As the plan is designed to embrace the histories of all the towns 
in the County of Addison, it is thought proper to introduce them 
with some general ax5count of that territory as a whole. The County 
properly has no history. It has its geography and its geology ; but 
it has no active independent existence ; no acts or laws of its own 
to be recorded. It is a field rather, in which the State operates by 
its acts and laws. It has its courts, but they are established by the 
State ; and it has its officers, but they are appointed or commissioned 
by the State. Its history is only the history of a part of the State, 
and the history of the State is its history. This fact may justify 
the record we make of incidents, which properly belong to the his- 
tory of the State. In doing so we have relied on original docu* 

msTo&T Of ADDISON oouimr. 7 

mfflits, and do not design to give any general higtory, but to confine 
onrselves chiefly to such incidents as are not contained in our present 
State histories, and thus perhaps correct some views and &ct8 stated 
by them. 

The County of Addison is situated on the west line of the State 
and nearly in the centre north and south ; between 43^ 50' and 
44^ 10' north latitude. It is bounded on the west by Lake Cham- 
plain, the western boundary of the State ; on the north by the towns 
of Charlotte, Hinesburgh and a part of Huntington, in the County 
of Chittenden ; on the north-east by a part of Huntington, and by 
Faystcm, Warren and Roxbury, in the County of Washington ; on 
the south-east by Braintree, in the County of Orange, and Roches- 
ter, in the County of Windsor ; and on lie south by Benson, Sud- 
bury, Brandon and Chittenden, in the County of Rutland. It em- 
braces at the present time the following towns : 
Addison, Granville, New Haven, Starksbobough, 
Bridport, Hancock, Orwell, Vergennes, 

Bristol, Leicester, Panton, Waltham, 

Cornwall, Lincoln, Ripton, Weybridge, 

FerrisburgHjMiddlebury, Salisbury, Whiting. 
Goshen, Monkton, Shoreham, 

The County formerly embraced an unincorporated tract of land 
known by the name of Avery's Gore ; the east part of which, by 
act of the Legislature passed November 6, 1833, wa^ added to the 
town of Kingston, now Granville, and the north part was added to 
Lincoln, by act of November 12, 1849. 

This County was established by act of the Legislature October 
18, 1785, and the territory which it contained is described in the 
act as follows: ** Beginning at the northwest comer of Orwell, 
then running eastwardly on the north line of Orwell, Sudbury, 
Brandon and Philadelphia, and then so &r east as to intersect the 
west line of the first town, that is bounded in its charter, or some 
vliQwnor towBS, which are dependent for their original bounds on 
Connecticut River as aforesaid, to the south line of the Province of 
. Quebec, which is the north line of this State ; then westwardly in 
wM lijoe tbrough Misaiaque Bay, kc, to the centre of the deepest 


channel of Lake Ghamplain ; then southwardly in the deepest chan* 
nel of said lake till it intersects the west line from the northwest 
comer of said Orwell ; then east to the bounds begun at ; which 
territory of land shall be known by the name of the County of Ad- 
dison ; and the east line of said County of Addison shall be the 
west line of the counties of Windsor and Orange, so for as they join.'* 

The County by this act embraced the territory to the north line 
of the State, so far east as to include a large part of the Counties of 
Washington and Orleans. The town of Kingston, now Granville, 
not included in the original boundaries, was set off from Orange 
County to this, by act of the 19th of October, 1787. The kct es- 
tablishing the County of Chittenden was passed on the 22d of Octo- 
ber, 1787, making the north line of this County the same as at 
present, except that it embraced the town of Starksboro, which af- 
terwards by the act of 1797 was included in this County. The 
town of Warren, which was included in this County, by act of the 
Legislature in 1829, was annexed to the County of Washington ; 
and the town of Orwell, then in the County of Rutland, was, on 
the 13th November, 1847, annexed to this County. These 
constitute all the changes made in the territory of the County since 
its first establishment, leaving in it the towns above enumerated. 

The eastern part of the County extends over the first range of the 
Green Mountains ; and five of the towns are situated on, or among 
the mountains, and others extend their eastern borders up the west- 
em slope. About a quarter of the county is mountainous, or has 
a soil of similar characteristics. The soil of this tract is generally 
loam of variable compactness, and some is gravelly or sandy. Some 
of the hills are so stony or steep as to be better suited for pasture 
than for tilling. But large portions are not too stony or steep to be 
excellent tilling lands, and are quite productive of many valuable 
crops. When opened for a season to the influence of the sun, they 
produce good crops of com, spring wheat and other grains, and they 
are especially valuable for grazing. The allayial lands on tha 
branches of White River in the eastern towns, and on other streams^ 
are especially valuable for these purposes. The towns west of the 
moontaiss are in part very level, and in part^ what nif ^ CiUad 


roDiiig, with a few hills too prominent to bear that designation. 
Among which is Snake Mountain, a long ridge of moderately ele-^ 
Tated land, lying on the borders of each of the towns of Addison, 
Weybridge and Bridport. In these towns, the preyailing soil is 
clajj of different degrees of stiffiiess, with some loam, gravelly and 
sandy land, on the more elevated portions, which rise above what is 
said by geologists, to have been once covered with water. 

On the borders of Lake Champlain, especially in the towns of 
Addison, Panton and Ferrisburgh, are very extensive flat lands, 
composed of clay, with a mixture of vegetable substances, which 
were obviously once the bottom of the lake. These lands, when 
cleared are remarkably productive of grass ; but for other crops are 
too stiff for easy cultivation, and are liable to suffer when the season 
is too wet or too dry. In this tract are several sluggish streams. 
One of which especially, being of greater extent than the others, 
bean the name of Dead Creek. It rises in Bridport, and runs 
northerly, through Addison and Panton and empties into Otter 
Creek in Ferrisburgh. This, as well as the others, is supplied to a 
moderate extent, from small springs at the bottom of the channel, 
but principally by rain water and melted snow, collected from an 
extensive sur&ce in small ravines. The stream being nearly on a 
level with Otter Creek, the water is increased or diminished by the 
rise or &11 of the latter stream, whose waters set up into it. An- 
other called Ward's Creek, also rises in Bridport, and runs through 
a comer of Addison and empties into the lake about a mile south of 
Crown Point, and another called Hospital Creek empties into the 
lake a short distance north of Chimney Point. The quantity of 
water in these depends on the height of the water in the lake. 
These sluggish streams afford water for cattle in their neighborhood, 
through the summer, except in the driest seasons. 

Lemon Fair rises in Orwell and runs through the eastern part of 
Shoreham, southeast part of Bridport, and northwest part of Corn- 
wall, and empties into Otter Ci^k in Weybridge. In Shoreham 
there is a considerable water power on this stream, but below that it 
ii verjr duggish, and its quanti^ of water depends much on the 
1m||^ of tiia water ia Otter Creek, in the spring and other fresbeti. 


On the borders of this creek are also extensive flat lands, which 
hare no superior for the production of grass. 

On the borders of Otter Creek are also extensive flats, which in 
the spring and other high freshets are overflowed by the waters of 
the creek. A part of the tract, especially in Cornwall and Whiting 
on the west side, and Middlebury and Salisbury on the east side, is 
so low as to be called a swamp, and, except small patches called 
islands, consists of vegetable substances to the depth, in some places, 
of ten feet. These lands when cleared and thoroughly drained be- 
come very productive. 

The natural growth timber on the flat lands last mentioned, was 
pine, cedar, tamarack, soft maple, black ash and elm, with an occa- 
sional mixture of other trees. And similar timber was the growth 
of a similar swamp in New Haven, and another in Shoreham. On 
the flat lands on the border of the lake, the original timber was 
pine, oak, soft maple, black ash, and some other trees in smaller 
numbers. On the western slope of the mountain were a few patches 
of pine, and in other parts of the mountainous region were fine 
groves of maple, beach, birch, black cherry and hemlock, and a very 
handsome growth of spruce, which has become an important article 
for building and for exportation. In other parts west of the moun- 
tains were considerable tracts of pine and oak. Besides these the 
principal trees were maple, beach, ash, basswood, butternut, walnut 
and hemlock. The large quantities of pine and oak have been so 
freely used for building and for exportation, that they have already 
become scarce and high in price. 

In the western part of the County, the lands on the borders of the 
lake, especially in the towns of Bridport, Addison and Panton, are 
greatly deficient in water. There are no considerable running 
streams, except the dead streams we have mentioned. The living 
water from springs is very limited ; and some of these are so strongly 
impregnated with Epsom Salts, that the inhabitants have evaporated 
the water to procure the salts for medicine. It is said that cattle 
are fond of the water, and that the springs were much visited by 
the deer before the settlement of the country. In some parts the 
inhabitants'iure obliged to resort, to a great ^extent, to xain walff* for 


flttnily use ; and fiurmers, who live at a distance from the laike and 
creeks, are much troubled in dry seasons to obtain water for their 
cattle. Except the limited water power on Lemon Fair in Shore- 
ham, there is none in that town or either of the towns abore men- 
tioned of much value. And jet these towns are among the most 
wealthy agricultural towns in the County. 

The range of granular lime stone, which enters this State from 
Berkshire County, Mass., at Pownal, and passes through the Coun- 
ties of Bennington and Rutland, passes also through this County. 
The lime produced from it is of a very superior quality, and is 
thought, by those acquainted with it, to be much superior to the lime 
from Maine, which is common in the Boston market. Considerable 
establishments, — one especially, near the Whiting Railroad Station, 
built by L. P. White, Esq. — have been formed for manufacturing 
it ; and large quantities are already exported by the railroad to the 
eastern towns ; and the demand is such as to authorize an extensive 
enlargement of the business, where the requisite friel is not too ex- 

From this range large quantities of marble are taken out and 
manufactured in Bennington and Rutland Counties, and exported to 
every part of the United States. The marble improves, in its fine- 
ness and compactness, as it advances north, and it is believed that 
the best in the whole range is to be found in Addison County. It 
is of a finer quality than any which has been discovered, unless it 
be the quarry in Sudbury near the south line of this County. It is 
pronounced by competent judges to be superior to the Italian marble 
for statuary, and the only doubt is, whether large blocks can be ob- 
tained sufficiently sound. No sufficient exploration has been made 
to settle that question. No persons have been able and willing to 
invest a sufficient capital for that purpose. Some injudicious ex- 
penditure was made on a quarry about a mile east of the village of 
Middlebury. But it has been in hands not yet able to maka a thor- 
ough exploration. Another quarry, on which there has been some 
expenditure, is at Belden's Falls, two miles north of the village of 
Middlebury. It was purchased, together with the water power, by 
the late Col. Pebkins, of Boeton, and Perkins Nichols, of New 


York, both too fiur advanoed in life to enga^ personally in tibe 
business. Under a contract made with them, a company of men 
undertook to make an examination of the quarry, under the super* 
intendence of a scientific gentleman, Professor Fosteb. The ez^ 
amination was continued for several weeks, and a considerable num^ 
ber of blocks were taken out, and the Professor, to the very last) 
expressed entire confidence that the marble was sound, and that a 
large establishment would soon be made for the purpose of working 
it. But the work was suddenly stopped without any reason known 
to us. 

Doct. Ebbn W. Judd, of Middlebury, was the first person who 
wrought marble by water power in this State. He and his son-in- 
law, Lebbeus Harris, carried on the business extensively for sev- 
eral years ; but both dying, the business was closed. They wrought 
principally the blue and clouded marble in their neighborhood, as 
more easily obtained. They in the meantime purchased the quarry 
of beautiful black marble on the lake shore in Shoreham, large 
quantities of which they wrought at their works in Middlebury. It 
was used principally for chimney pieces ; for which purpose we think 
there is none superior. Doct. N. Harris, who afterwards owned 
the quarry, in company with one or two associates, got out consid- 
erable quantities of the marble, and, in unwrought blocks, put it on 
board boats and sent it to New York, where it is understood there 
was a large demand for it. We believe the quarries in Addison 
County will yet be a source of wealth, as well from the lime as the 
marble to be obtained from them. 

There are also, in several places, valuable quarries of limestone 
suitable for building purposes. The most important are in Panton 
and neighborhood, from which are taken the beautiful building stone 
much used in V ergennes ; and a quarry of excellent dark blue stone 
in the south part of Cornwall, in convenient layers for building, 
with a handsome natural face, which was used for the front of the 
College Chapel, and for underpining of many other buildings in Mid- 
dlebury. In Weybridge and some other towns is found valuable 
building stone. 

The County does not abound in metallic oree. ^' Iron ore is found 


in the south part of Monkton in large quantities. This ore makes 
excellent iron," and haa been extensively manufactured at Vergen- 
nes, Bristol and other places. But it is said, that it is not richj 
and is therefore usually mixed with ore from Crown Point, and other 
west of the lake, iu order to manufacture it economically. 

About a mile north of the ore bed, on the east side of a ridge 
running north and south, is an extensive bed of kaolin. It is white, 
Bometimes grayish white, dry to the touch and absorbs water with 
rapidity. It is said, ^* It might be manufactured into the best China 
ware." Under this conviction a feetory for the manufacture of por- 
celain ware, from this material, was many years ago established at 
Middlebury, on the bank of the creek about a mile south of the 
village. But it did aot succeed, either through a defect in the ma- 
terial, or the inexperience of the manufacturer. But it has been 
extensively used for the manufacture of stone ware, and fire brick. 

Notwithstanding the deficiency of water in some of the western 
towns, we are not acquainted with any equal extent of country, 
which furnishes a more abundant supply of water power than the 
eastern and northern parts of the County. Otter Creek is one of 
the largest rivers in the State. It enters the County from the south 
in Leicester, through a part of which it passes, and is in part the 
boundary between that town and Whiting ; runs between the towns 
of Salisbury and Cornwall ; through the west part of Middlebury, 
between the towns of New Haven and Weybridge, and the towns of 
Waltham and Pan ton, and through Vergennes into Ferrisburgh, 
where it empties into Lake Champlain. There are few rivers, of no 
larger size, which afford, in the same distance, so much safe water 
power. From the head of the falls in Middlebury, to the foot of 
the falls in Vergennes, there is a descent of about three hundred 
feet, in a distance of about thirteen miles, divided into six or seven 
fells convenient for mills. In some of these, the water has a per- 
pendicular descent, in others it falls over precipitous rocks, and in 
some the fall is suflScient to allow the use of the water several times. 
Mills on none of them are endangered by sudden and violent fresh- 
ets. For twenty-five miles above the falls of Middlebury, the banks 
are low, and vei^ extensive level flats adjoin them through the whole 


distance. In a violent rush of waters from the mountains, firozd 
melting snows or heayy rains, the water in the creek, instead of 
rushing in a swollen current down its channel, rises but little before 
it spreads over an immense extent of country, and is not wholly 
drawn off until the stream i3 reduced nearly to its common level.^ 
This of course is a protection to all the &lls below. Similar flats 
above the fills at Yergennes, extending fir up the Lemon Fair, 
furnish a similar security to that power. The waters on some of 
these fills are but partially used, and on several not at all. 

At Middlebury, there is on the east side a cotton fi<5tory in full 
operation, and a large grist or flouring mill. On the west are a 
woollen fictory, a grist mill, saw mill, pail fix^tory, a planing ma- 
chine and other machinery for working wood, besides another wool- 
len fictory not now in operation. At the Paper Mill falls, three 
quarters of a mile firther down there are on the west side, a paper 
mill, oil mill, saw mill, carding machine and trip hammer shop ; 
and on the east side a furnace and machine shop. Belden's fills a 
mile and a half further north, is a very valuable water power, on 
which there are no works. A mile or two further, and four miles 
from Middlebury, is Painter's fills in a similar condition. One or 
two miles further down the stream is the Quaker Village falls, 
where are a grist mill, two saw mills and some other works, and on 
the lipids, just above, there was, if not now, a saw mill. 

Philip C. Tucker, Esq., at our request, has obligingly furnished 
us the following account of the falls at Yergennes and the works on 
it. " The falls of Great Otter Creek at Vergennes, are divided by 
two islands into three separate parts. The width of their head is 
about three hundred and ten feet The height of the fall is thirty 
seven feet. The creek furnishes an ample supply of water through 
the year. On the westerly shore is an iron foundery, a forge with 
four fires, and saw mill owned by the Vergennes Iron Company, 
and canied on by William H. Whitb, Esq., There is also a 
machine shop carried on by Mr. William Boss. On the west 
island, there is a large grist and flouring mill, with five runs of 
stones, and a plaster mill owned and carried on by Capt. Charles 
W. BaADBURT. On the east island there is one saw mill and a 

■ :V 


' i '. 



..'- < 

^ J?^ . .J^ 



m&nnfactorj of hames. The properly on this island is owned by 
Gen. Samuel P. Strong. The hame fectory is carried on by Wni- 
LIAH R. BiXBY, Esq. On the easterly shore, is a large building 
erected in 1854 for manu&ctaring purposes, and a saw mill. The 
manufiMSturing building is one hundred and thirty-five feet long, 
thirty eight wide, and four and a half stories high on the water 
aide, and three and a half stories on the land side. A portion of 
this building is now used for the manufiusture of Sampson's patent 
scales, a new article lately patented. The saw mill is sixty-four 
feet long, thirty feet wide, and fitted for a gang of twenty-four saws. 
These buildings are the property of Gbben, Roberts and Willard, 
but the scale business is carried on by a stock company in connec- 
tion with the patentee." 

A large amount of power is also furnished by the tributaries of 
Otter Creek, which come down from the mountain on the east. The 
first in order from the south is Leicester River, which issues firom 
Lake Dunmore, runs through Salisbury village, and five or six 
miles firom the lake empties into the creek in Leicester. From the 
lake to the foot of the fidls below the village, about a mile and a 
half, is a fii.ll of 150 or 200 feet, available for mills, abnost the 
whole distance. The stream, although not large, has some advan- 
tages peculiar to itself. The water, like that of the lake, from which 
it issues is very pure, and being furnished by springs under the 
lake or in its neighborhood, is so warm, that it does not fireeze in 
winter, and obstruct the wheels by ice, as is common in other 
streams. Besides, when the water is raised by freshets firom the 
mountain, it spreads over the whole surfitce of the lake, and does 
not rush in sudden and violent torrents into the stream ; and it can 
be controlled by a dam. and gate at the outlet, so as to let into it only 
what is needed, reserving the surplus for future necessity. There 
is now on the stream a saw ttiiII near the outlet. About half a 
mile fiirther down, on a fall of 15 or 20 feet, are a forge and shingle 
machine. Less than half a mile below this is a large woollen fiu;* 
tory, with a &11 of about 20 feet. At the first fall at the village 
of about 15 feet, is a large mill pond, on which are a saw mill, trip 
hammer shop and a woollen &ctory. Immediately below th]% 


with a fall of 25 or 80 feet is a grist mill, and immediately below 
the kst mentioned, with a fall of 20 feet is a saw mill, and below 
this at the bottom of the descent, is a fall of seven or eight feet, on 
which a forge formerly stood, but is not now in operation. 

Middlebury River rises in the mountain east of Middlebury, in 
two branches ; the principal of which rises within the limits of 
Hancock. These unite in Bipton, and the stream descending the 
west slope of the mountain, empties into the creek near the south 
line of Middlebury. At the village of East Middlebury, at the 
foot of the mountain, is a series of falls, which furnish several val- 
uable sites for mills. On these are now a forge, two saw mills, a 
grist mill, tannery, two shops witli machinery for boring, sawing 
and turning timber for waggons, a machine for sawing shingles, a 
sash factory and a factory for sawing and fitting barrel staves for 
the Boston market. For two or three miles on each branch in Rip- 
ton, are convenient mill sites nearly the whole distance ; and there 
are now, on the main branch four saw mills, two shingle machines 
and a grist mill ; and on the north branch three saw mills. 

New Haven Biver rises in the northeast part of Bipton, and runs 
northwesterly through Lincoln, Bristol and New Haven, and emp- 
ties into Otter Creek at Brooksville, in the southeast comer of New 
Haven. In its course it receives several streams, on all of which 
are mifls or forges ; one in Lincoln, called Downing Brook, which 
rises in the northeast part of Suirksborough, one in Bristol, called 
Baldwin Creek, and another in the south part of Bristol, called 
O'Brian Brook. On this stream and its tributaries, are now in Bris- 
tol, seven saw mills, two grist mills, one trip hammer, one sash and 
door fiictory, one chair factory, one carding and clothing factory and 
two forges. In Lincoln, there are six saw mills, one shingle and 
one clapboard machine, and two forges. At East Mills in New 
Haven, are a grist mill, saw mill and woollen factory. At the lower 
fells at Brooksville, is a very extensive axe factory, established and 
owned by Brooks Brothepis, which, from time to time, from small 
beginnings, has been greatly enlarged by its enterprising proprie- 
tors. On the same fells is a saw mill. Along the whole line of 
Miid river, is a large amount of water power yet unemployed. 


To these streams may be added Little Otter Creek, which has 
considerable Trater power and a number of mills in Ferrisburgh ; 
and Lewis Creek, which rises in Starksborough, and after running 
a considerable distance, through Hinesburgh and Charlotte in Chit- 
tenden County, returns into this County in Ferrisburgh. On this 
latter stream in Starksborough, are a saw mill, grist mill, carding 
machine, works for dressing cloth and a furnace, which is employed 
principally for casting plough shares. Li Ferrisburgh also, there 
are several mills. Both these streams empty into Lake Champlain 
near each other in Ferrisburgh. 

The Brook Trout is the most common and nearly the only fish 
found in the streams, which come down from the mountains and 
hills. In the early settlement they were found in great abundance, 
often weighing two or three pounds. But being a favorite fish for 
the table, great havoc has been mado of them by the fishermen, and 
the number and size have greatly diminished. It is rare to take one 
weighing half a pound, and they are generally much smaller. In 
Lake Dunmore, the source of Leicester River, at an early day, 
were found large quantities of Lake Trout. The water being pure 
and clear, like that of Lake George, the fish were of the same qual- 
ity and size. They were frequently caught weighing fifteen or 
twenty pounds, and it has been said sometimes twenty-five pounds. 
It has been said also, that formerly some trout were found in Otter 
Creek. But we are not aware that they have been found for many 
years past. The principal fish found, until lately, in this Creek or 
Lemon Fair, are bull-heads, suckers, rock-bass and eels. The fol- 
lowing communication from our friend, Dr. Russell, will give some 
, of the fish, which now prevail in both these streams. 

" Hon Samuel Switt — Sir : — Agreeable to your request, I herewith communi- 
cate the Ikcts, connected with the introduction of Pickerel into Otter Creek: In the 
spring of 1819, Hon. Daniel Cbipman and others, induced the formation of com- 
mittees in the towns of Middlcbury, Salisbury, Leicester and Whiting, to visit 
Lake Champlain to procure fish for the purpose of putting them into Otter Creek. 
The arrangement was successfully carried out ; and at that time large quantities of 
the different Tarieties of fish usually taken in Lake Champlain were placed in Otter 
Creek. From the diary of our deceased townsman, £sek W. Juod and others, I 
lean, that the eommitteo fi)r Middlebury, consistbg of Jaues Saiteult, IIau^'et 


WxLLMir, DAKiKi U Poim, Giovoi Chzpilui and Chauxcbt W. Fxtllsr, ob tb* 
12Ui of Maj Tinted I^ka Cliamplain, and flihed with seines at Chimney Point. 
The partj oamped ont the night of the 18th, and did not reach Middleboiy, on 
th«r retarn, until the middle of the next night The flah taken were transported 
in water, whioh was frequently changed on the passage. They were placed in Ot> 
ter Greek aboTO Middlebury Falls, the same night Of the many yarieties, brought 
from the lake, all haTO cUsappeared, except the Pickerel. They hare greatly in- 
ereayd, both in use and quantity. Some weighing oyer twenty weight, — ^notwith- 
standing, the large quantity annually taken from the creek. They are found through 
the creek, the whole Iteigth, from Sutherland's Falls to the Vergennes Falls, and 
the whole length of Lemon Fair. They are ai much improTcd in quality as in sin. 
It is said that those taken aboTC the Qreat Falls at Vergennes, are greatly superior 
in quality to those taken bebw, which oome up from the lake. 

Too much praise cannot be rendered those Ikr seeing and disinterested ntn, who 
ionrted themselTes so suocessfiilly Ibr our benefit, and placed within the fiaeh of 
erery resident of the yalley of Otter Creek and Lemon Fair, a luxury not to b^ 
exceeded from any other water. Respeotftilly your friend, 

W. P. BU881L.»* 




The act incorporating the County in 1785, established the towns 
of " Addison and Colchester to be half shires," '/-for the time being," 
and directed '^ that the times and places for holding County Courts, 
er Courts of Common Pleas annually, be as follows, viz., at Addi- 
son aforesaid, the first Tuesday of March, and at Colchester the 
second Tuesday of November, and that the Supreme Court be held 
on the second Tuesday of August^ alternately at Addison and Col- 
chester." The Governor and Council were authorized '^ to appoint 
County Officers and commissionate them for the time being." The 
Judges of the County Court, appointed under this provision " for 
the time being," were John SxRONGhof Addison, Chief Judge, and 
Gamaliel Painter of Middlebury, and Ira Allen of Colchester, 
side or Assistant Judges, and Noah Chittenden Sheriff. 

The first term of the Court was held at Addison, on the first 
Tuesday of March 1786. An act passed in February 1781, had 
provided that the freemen shculd elect four Assistant Judges of the 
County Court ; and before the next term of the Court, the freemen 
of the County had elected William Brush, Hiland Hall, Sam- 
uel Lane and Abel Thompson, Assistant Judges, and the Court 
was held by them " at Captain Thomas Butterfibld's in Colches- 
ter," on the second Tuesday of November 1786. The March term 
1787 was held according to the act at Addison ; and the County of 
Chittenden, which included Colchester, being established before No- 
vember, that term was also held at Addison. The Judges chosen 
by the fireemen in 1786, held the court in 1787 ; and since that 
time, only two Assistant Judges have been appointed. Until the 
idteration of the ocmstitution, in 1860, tiieee with other County Offi- 


cers were appointed by the Legislature. The Court continued to be 
held at Addison until the September term 1792. At their October 
session in 1791, the Legislature passed an act removing the Court 
to Middlebury, but providing that it should not take effect until 
** April next," and of course the March term 1792 was held at 
Addison. Since that time the Courts have been uniformly held at 

There were no County buildings in Addison, and the Court held 
its sessions at the houses of Benjamin Paine at Chimney Point, 
of Zadock Everest, Esq., of Jonah Case, and of his widow after 
his decease, all on the shore of Lake Champljyn. The Courts were 
also held for some time at public houses in Middlebury ; in the 
years 1792 and 1793 at the public house of John Deming, which 
stood on the ground now occupied by the Congregational Church; 
and afterwards until the Court House was completed, at the public 
house of Samuel Mattocks. The first Court House was com- 
menced in Middlebury in 1796, but was not occupied by the Court 
until 1798. It was built by subscription of the citizens of Middle- 
bury and vicinity. The jail had been previously built. 

Hon. Gamaliel PAiNTElt,^who owned a large tract of land on 
the cast side of Middlebury Falls, on the second day of May 1791, 
and previous to the removal of the Courts to that place executed to 
** John Willard, Benjamin Gorton and Jabez Rogers, together 
with all the rest of the inhabitants of the County of Addison, and 
to their successors forever,'' a quit claim deed of the following tract 
of land in Middlebury, " viz., beginning at the southeast corner of 
a half acre lot of land, that he the said Gamaliel sold to Samuel 
Miller, Esq., and is the same lot where the said Miller now 
liveth ; thence south 80 minutes east, eight chains and ten links to 
a stake standing on the east side of a road ; thence east one chain 
and six links to a stake ; thence north 30 minutes west eight chains 
and ten links to the south line of Miller's lot ; thence west one 
chain and six links to the bounds begun at," **for the only expressed 
purpose and use of a Common never to be divided, or put to any 
other use." This tract is in the form of a pai-allelogram, about 
four and a quarter rods wide, extending from the house lot owned 


by the late Edward D. Barber, Esq., in front of Mr. Warner's 
lot and the Addison House, to the house lot owned by the late Ru- 
FUS Waixavright, and now occupied by his widow. 

On the 22d of May 1794, Judge Painter executed another deed 
to '' Jabez Rogers, Joseph Cook and Eleazer Claghorn, to- 
gether with all other inhabitants of the County of Addison," of a 
tract of land in Middlebury, ^' bounded as follows, beginning at a 
heap of stones at the southwest corner of an acre lot of land, which 
said Painter formerly sold to Simeon Dudley ; thence running 
south, 30 minutes east, on the east line of a certain piece of land 
said Painter formef ly gave to the people of said County, three 
chains and seventy-eight links to a stake ; thence east 30 minutes 
north three chains and seventy- three links to a stake ; thence north 
SO minutes west three chains and seventy-eight links to a stake, 
standing in the south line of suid Dudley* s lot ; thence a straight 
line to the bounds begun at, containing one acre and sixty-five rods," 
'' for the express use and purpose of erecting a court house and 
jail thereon, and as a common, never to be divided or put to any 
other use." This lot lies east of, and adjoining, the lot first men- 
tioned ; and on this lot the court house and jail were erected. The 
Dudley lot, which forms the northern boundary, is that on which 
Samuel Mattocks built his public house, and on which the Ad- 
dison House now stands ; and it is understood that in erecting the 
present house, it was extended south several feet beyond the limits 
of the lot, on the land of the County. 

The court house was built on the brow of the hill five or six 
rods north of, and nearly in a line with, the house occupied by Mrs. 
Wainwrigiit. The jail house had been previously built of wood 
on the same line, and within a rod or two of the south line of tho 
Dudley lot. It contained a tenement for the family of the jailor, 
as well as a dungeon and other rooms for prisoners. This jail was 
built by a ^^ tax of two pence on the pound " on the list of tho 
County for the year 1793, granted by the Legislature in November 
1792, and payable into the County Treasury by the first day of 
December 1794.'' •• Eleazer Claguorn, Gamaliel Painter, 

Sahukl Millkk, Jabi'z Rogers, Joseph Cook, Samul'l Jewett 



and Elijah Foot were appointed a committee to receive and lay 
out the money.'* 

The legislature at that time being in the practice of removing 
their annual sessions from one principal town to another, the court 
house was built with reference to their use. One high room arched 
overhead, with long windows, and seats rising towards the rear, and 
a gallery over the entrance at the west end, constituted the whole 
interior of the building. The General Assembly held its session in 
it in the years 1800 and 1806. The inhabitants of the town having 
contributed towards its erection, it was used also as a town room. 
And until the completion of the new church, in 1809, it was occu- 
pied by the Congregational Society as a place of worship, and for 
all meetings of the society. There being no other suitable room in 
the village, it was used for public meetings of every chai-acter. 

By the arrangement of the roads in the vicinity and the busi- 
ness, which centered there, these buildings were left in an exposed 
condition, without enclosures, and the whole grounds around them 
became a thoroughfare for teams and other modes of travel. The 
jail, especially, came to be regarded as too unsafe and uncomfort- 
able for the purpose for which it was designed. Accordingly, in 
November 1809, the legislature passed an act assessing a tax of 
one cent on a dollar on the lists of the several towns in the County 
(except the city of Vergennes, which maintained a Jail of its own) 
for the purpose of erecting a jail in Middlebury, to be paid into the 
treasury of the County, by the first day of February 1811, and 
authorized the Judges of the County Court to appoint an agent to 
superintend the erection. They appointed Hon. Daniel Chipman, 
who proceeded to procure a suitable lot for its site, and in Decem- 
ber 1810, received a deed from Artemas Nixon, of a vacant lot 
on the corner made by the road leading east from the Court House, 
and another leading thence north. On this he erected a jail house 
of stone, at a cost of about four thousand dollars. After the com- 
pletion of this buikling, the old jail house was sold to Capt. Jts- 
TUS Foot, and by him was removed to the lot east of the hotel, 
repaired, fitted up and occupied by his family for a dwelling house. 
It is now owned by C>lvin Hill, Esq. 


In 1814 the Court House, in its exposed condition, came to be 
regarded as a nuisance, rather than an ornament, and was removed 
to the place where it now stands. On the first of January, 1816, 
and after the Court House was removed, Judge Painter deeded to 
the County a tract of land, *• being that piece or parcel of land, on 
which the Court House now stands in Middlebury, together with a 
free and oix?n passage on the whole front of the same to the Center 
Turnpike road, so called, with a passage around the liiid Court 
House on the north, east and south sides of the same, for the pur- 
pose of repairing or fitting up the said House, or for the erection of 
a new Court House on the premises at all times," '' for the express 
purpose of erecting, keeping and having a Court House for the 
Coimty of Addison aforesaid, on the said premises, where the same 
is now erected, so long as the premises shall be used for the purpose 
aforesaid, and no longer," with a quit claim of the right to erect 
buildings on the neighboring lands within certain distances. The 
width of the " free passage around " the House was fixed by a deed 
from the Corporation of Middlebury College, who received the land 
by will fi^m Judge Painter to R. and J. Wainwrigiit, at one rod. 

The Court House having so high a room for the sessions of the 
Courts, having been much racked by the removal, and being other- 
wise out of repair, was found to be not only inconvenient, but so 
cold that it could not be kept comfortable in the cold weather in 
winter, when most of the Courts were held ; and for that reason the 
Supreme Court held its sessions, for severa.! winters, at the public 
houses. The County Court therefore, in the year 1829, ordered 
Samuel Swift the Clerk, and Seymour Sellick the Sheriff, to 
divide the building into two stories. The Agents accomplished this 
purpose during that season, finishing the upper story for the ses- 
sions of the Courts, with one room adjoining for a consultation room, 
and three rooms below for Jury rooms and other uses, in the style 
in which it still remains. When finished, the Court Room was said 
to be the best room for the purpose in the State. The expense of 
the alteration was $1250,11. The town of Middlebury paid toward 
this expense $250, in consideration that th«y were to have the use 
of the large room in the lower story for a town room, and a sub- 


Bcription was made by the citizens to the amount of §113,50. The 
balance was paid from the funds of the County, received for licen- 
ses, without any tax, and a large share was advanced by the clerk 
in anticipation of future receipts. 

In the year 1844 the belfry and roof were found to need repair, 
and other parts of the exterior were regarded nearly as offensive, 
on account of its style, as the interior had been ; and the * court or- 
dered the Herk to make the requisite repairs and alterations. This 
was accomplished the same season at an expense of $822,70, of 
which the town paid $il37. The balance was paid from the County 
funds, as in the case of former alterations. By means of these al- 
terations nothing remains of the first Court House but the frame. 

In the meantime the stone jail built in 1811 was found, like the 
old one, unsafe and entirely uncomfortable and oppressive to pris- 
oners confined in it, and not in accordance with the philanthropic 
views, which prevailed ; and it had been many times indicted by the 
grand jury. The legislature, in October 1844 therefore granted a 
tax of six cents on a dollar of the lists of the several towns in the 
County except the city of Vcrgennes, for the purpose of erecting a 
new jail, provided the inhabitants of Middlebury would, before the 
first day of February 1845, procure conveyed to the County of Ad- 
dison a suitable piece of land, to the acceptance of Silas H. Jeni- 
SON, HiRVEY MuNSiLL and Silas Pond, and appointed Samuel 
Swift and Austin Johnson Agents, to superintend the erection. 
The lot now occupied for that purpose was purchased and paid for 
by the citizens of Middlebury, and accepted by the above mentioned 
commissioners. The agents believing that, as the population and 
business of the County should increase, and a more speedy commu- 
nication by rail roads should be opened, the number of criminals 
would increase ; and desiring to erect a prison, which would be ad- 
equate to such an emergency, and not require to be soon replaced, 
adopted a plan larger than present circumstances required. They 
accordingly erected a large brick building, the front of which was 
designed for the residence of the Sheriff's family, with an oflBce for 
the sheriff. Through this room is the only communication with 
the prison from the outside. The prison is in the rear of the build- 


ing, in vhich are twelve cells for securing each prisoner by himself 
in the night, six in the lower and six in the upper range, with a large,^ 
well lighted and ventilated room in front of them, for the occupation 
of the prisoners in the day time. The prisoners in this room arc, 
at all times, subject to inspection, by means of a grated opening, 
firom the rooms occupied by the family. By the same means the 
least disturbance or noise, by night as well as by day, may be heard. 
The expense of the cells was much larger than was anticipated. The 
iron work alone cost about $1500 ; and slabs of strong stone were 
purchased and hauled from Brandon, for the floors, caps and sides 
of the cells, from six to eight inches thick, and of the size of the 
length, width and height of the cells. When the legislature as- 
sembled in October 1846, the tax had been expended, the agents 
were largely in debt and the jail not completed. Application was 
therefore made for a further tax. The representatives from the 
County, to whom the application jb by law referred, consented to 
another tax of five cents on a dollar, — wholly inadequate for the 
purpose, — on condition that the town or village or citizens of Mid- 
dlebury would give a bond to the satisfaction of the judges of the 
County Court, to secure the payment of all the debts, and the com- 
pletion of the Jail, and by the act, RuFUS Wainwrigut was ap- 
pointed an additional agent. To him the other agents committed 
the whole management of the business. A subscription was raised 
among the citizens, the debts were paid and the prison completed, 
but the plan was not carried out to its full extent. The whole ex- 
pense was about $8000. After the completion of this building, the 
old stone jail hou^ was sold to Mr. Oliver Wellington, who, 
after great alterations and at great expense, has since occupied it as 
a dwelling house. 

From the year 1787 to the year 1825, the County Court consis- 
ted of a chief judge, and two assistant judges, appointed expressly 
to those offices, and was independent of the Supreme Court. In 
November 1824, the Legislature passed an act reorganizing the 
Supreme and County Courts, and providing, that the Supremo Court 
should consist of a chief judge, and three assistant judges, and 
that the County Court, " from and after the third Thursday of Oc- 


tober then next/' should consist of a chief judge, who should bo one 
of the judges of the Supreme Court, for each circuit, and two as- 
sistant judges, appointed as before required by law. And the State 
was for that purpose divided into four circuits. The number of 
Judges of the Supreme Courts and of the circuits was afterwards 
increased to five. To the County Courts, by this act was given 
** original and exclusive jurisdiction of all original civil actions, 
except such as are cognizable before Justices of the Peace," " and 
appellate jurisdiction of all causes civil and criminal appealable to 
such Court," and " original jurisdiction of all prosecutions for crim- 
inal offences, except such aa are by law made cognizable by justices 
of the peace ;" and in such cases tlie jurisdiction of the Supreme 
Court extended only to questions of law, arising out of the trial in 
the County Court. The clerk, to be appointed by the County 
Court, was to be also clerk of the Supreme Court. 

At the session in October 1849, the Legislature made a further 
alteration in the organization of the judiciary system. The act 
passed at that session provided, that the State should be divided into 
four judicial circuits, and that one circuit judge should be appointed 
for each circuit, and these judges were constituted chief judges of 
the County Court in each County, and chancellors in their re- 
spective circuits. These were distinct from the Judges of the 
Supreme Court, and, with the two assistant judges, constituted the 
County Court. The first circuit was composed of the Counties of 
Bennington, Rutland and Addison. 

The Legislature at their session in October 1857, repealed the 
law last mentioned, and provided that the Supreme Court shall con- 
sist of one chief judge and five assistant judges. These judges 
are constituted chief judges of the County Court and Chancel- 
lors in the several Counties ; and for this purpose it is made the 
duty of the Supreme Court to assign one of the judges to each 
County. This act substantially restores the system adopted in 1824. 

By the first constitution of the State, adopted in 1777, it was 
provided ** that the General Assembly when legally formed, shall 
appoint times and places for County elections, and at such times 
and places the freemen in each County respectively, shall have the 

HisTOKY or audAox county. 27 

liberty of choosing the judges of the Inferior Court, or Court of 
Common Picas, Sheriffs, Justices of the Peace and Judges of Pro- 
bate, commissioned by the Governor and Council, during good be- 
havior, removable by the General Assembly upon proof of malad- 
ministration." By the amended constitution, adopted by the con- 
vention in 1786, it was provided, that the above mentioned officers 
should be annually elected by the General Assembly, ** in conjunc- 
tion with the council." And they continued to be thus elected, 
until the amendment of the constitution adopted in 1850. Until 
this time no provision was made in the constitution for the election 
of a state's attorney or high bailiff. An act passed in February 
1779, provided *' that in each County there shall be one State's 
Attorney, and that they be appointed by the respective County 
Courts." Col. Seth Stores, then residing in Addison, was ap- 
pointed by the Court in 1787, the first State's Attorney of Addison 
County. Afterwards the State's Attorney, as well as the High 
Sailiff, was appointed in the same manner as other officers. 

At the time of the election of the Council of Censors in 1848, 
thfe evils of the then existing mode of electing County Officers by 
the legislature, had become more and more apparent for several 
years, and had come to be condemned generally by the people. The 
nomination, according to practice, being made by the County mem- 
bers had become a subject of trafio between the parties interested, 
and was subjected to an influence, which could not be made to bear 
upon the mass of the people. It also occasioned much delay of the 
appropriate business of the Legislature. Accordingly the conven- 
tion, which was held in 1850, in pursuance of the recommendation 
of the Council of Censors, adopted the amendment now in force. 
This provides, that the assistant judges of the County Court, 
Sheriffs, High BaiL'fl& and State's Attorneys, shall be elected by the 
fireemen of the Counties, the Judges of Probate by the freemen of 
their respective districts, and Justices of the Peace by the freemen 
of the several towns. The votes are to be given at the freemen's 
meeting on the first Tuesday of September, to be sent to the next 
session of the Legislature, and there canvassed by a joint committee 
of the Senate and House of Kcpre^jcntativcs. The officers cho.^eu 


are commissioned by the Governor, and hold their oflBces for one 
year from the firat day of December following. 

By an act of the legislature in February 1787, the County of 
Addison was constituted a Probate District, and Probate Courts 
were established in it, and until the year 1824, the whole constitu- 
ted but one Probate District. The Legislature, at their October 
session in that year, divided the County into two Districts, by the 
names of Addison and New Haven. The District of New Haven 
embraces the towns of Addison, Panton, A'crgcnnes, Waltham, New 
Haven, Bristol, Lincoln, Starksborough, Monkton and Ferrisburgh. 
The remainder of the County constitutes the District of Addison.* 

*Sco Appendix No. 1. for list of County CCiccrs. 

HZ8T01iY 07 ADI^KOX gOV2fTT. 29 



In what we have to say of the Indians, the original inhabitants of 
the County of Addison, it is not our .purpose to enter into any 
learned dissertation on their character, customs or history. Such 
treatises may be found elsewliere. We regard it as belqpging to 
our province to speak only of their residence in the County, and of 
their depredations so far only as they affect the County and its set- 
tlement, and that not in detail. It is but a very short time since 
we commenced any inquiries on the subject. But from the accounts 
we have obtained, during our short examination, we find satisCewtory 
evidence, in the Indian relics found in different towns, that the 
County of Addison was the established residence of a large popula- 
tion of Indians, and had been for an indefinite period. The borders 
of Lake Champlain, Otter Creek, Lemon Fair and other streams, 
furnished a convenient location for that purpose.* 

Previous to the discovery of Lake Champlain, in 1609, the 
Iroquois, or Five Nations, which together formed a powerful Indian 
tribe, claimed and occupied &n extensive country south of Lakes 
Erie and Ontario, and the River St. Lawrence, and extending to 
and including Lake Champlain and Western Vermont, and previously 
had been undoubtedly settled in this County. It is supposed by 
many, that thcii* settlement extended as far north as the River 
Sorel, which forms the outlet of Lake Champlain, and that the 

*In a oonversation, which Philip Battell, Esq., had. several years ago, with 
an inteUigent Indian woman, she stated that the Indian names of aU tlie streams 
and waters in this region were familiar-y known among the Indians, and that the 
old Indian, who died at Bristol, as mentioned elsewhere, could have given the names. 
She said the name of Otter Creek, was W unageequ'tuc, which the French called 
La RiTiere aox Loutres, both which mean The River of Otters. Tho nam* of Join 
Donmoroi ihe aaid, was Moosalamoo, Salmon Trout Lake. 


river was called the Iroquois for that reason, and Champlain so rep- 
resents it. But others suppose, that it was called by that name, 
because it came from the country of the Iroquois. When Samuel 
Champlain, the French leader, came up the lake on his tour of 
discovery, in 1609, the Iroquois had withdrawn from the islands in 
the north part of the lake, which now constitute the County of 
Grand Isle, and which the Indians, with Champlain, represented, 
had been inhabited by them. lie says, in his account of this excur- 
sion : '* I saw four beautiful islands, ten, twelve and fifteen leagues 
in length, formerly inhabited, as well as the Iroquois River, by 
Indians, but abandoned, since they have been at war, the one with 
the othef." *^ They retire from the rivers as far as possible, deep 
into the country, in order not to be soon discovered.'' And again 
he says, '^ Continuing our route along the west side of the lake, I 
saw, on the east side, very high mountains capped with snow. I 
asked the Indians, if those parts were inhabited. They answered, 
yes ; and that they were Iroc^uois, and that there were in those parts 
beautiful vallies, and fields fertile in com, as good as I had ever 
eaten in the country." In anticipation of this expedition, Cham- 
plain, had entered into a treaty with the Algonquiiis, who dwelt 
along the north bank of the St. Lawrence, between Quebec and 
Montreal, in which *^ they promised to assist the stranger, in his 
attempt to traverse the country of the toquois, on condition, that 
he should aid them in a war against that fierce people ;" and he and 
the two Frenchmen with him, came armed for the conflict, witli 
muskets. The Indians described the place, where they expected to 
meet their enemies, and they, as well as the French in Canada, 
spoke of this as the country of the Iro<|uois. On the border of the 
lake, near Cr(X\vn Point,* as they expected, they met a war party 

♦ Historians generally represent that this battle took place at Lake George. The 
editor of the Documentary History of New York, says in a note, •* The reference in 
Champlain's map locates this engagement between Lake George and Crown Point, 
probably in what is now the town of Ticonderoga, Essex County." We find no 
authority, in Champlain's account for either of these opinions. Ho says they 
met their enemies, '*at a point of a cape, which jets into th© lake on tlie west 
ride." We know of no other point, which better answers the description than the 


of the Iroquois, who defied them. But, when Champlain, at a 
single fire of his arquebus, killed two chiefs and mortally wounded 
another, and another Frenchman fired from another quarter, they 
fled in alarm, at the new and unheard of weapons of war, and were 

Previous to this, incessant wars were carried on between the Al- 
gonquins, aided by the Ilurons, a powerful tribe, occupying an 
extensive country in Canada, extending as far west as the lake from 
which they derived their name, on one side, and the Iroquois on the 
other. For many years subsequently, the latter had no aid from 
European Colonies or European arms. When the Dutch had pos- 
session of New York, tliey were too much engaged in commerce, * 
and traffic with the Indians, to take part in their wars. But the 
wars still continued with gixiat fury, between the French colonists 
and Indians, and the Iroquois miaided and without fire arms. The 
latter were particularly hostile to the French, because they had fur- 
nished their enemies with their new and deadly weapons. After 
the English in 1664, obtained possession of New York, they enlisted 
in the wars, which were still continued between the French colo- 
nists and their Indians on tlie north, and the English colonies and 
their Indians on die south, until the conquest of Canada in 1760, 
The Iroquois still claimed this territory, and their claim was ac- 
knowledged by the government of New York. But it does not 
appear, that after the discovery of the lake and their retreat on 
that occasion, they ever had any permanent settlement here. The 
Mohawks and the other confederate tribes seem to have occupied the 
_j , 

•ape, which runs up between the lake and Balwaggy Bay, at Crown Point. Hon. 
JoHif W. Steoko, thinks the place of this battle was ** on Sandy Point, being the 
extreme north-western terminus of Crown Point, and the entrance of Bulwaggy 
Bay." In one of his numbers in the Vergennes Citizen on ** Local History," 
after describing the place as such ** as would be chosen by the Indians for defence," 
and giving other reasons for his belief, he says : ' ' The writer, in passing this place, 
aeveral years ago, was surprised at the number of arrow heads, that lay on the 
shore and in the water, and on examining closely he found several pistol and mus' 
ket balls, two French military buttons, a copper coin of the fifteenth century and 
two clamBey musket flints." 


region of the Mohawk River, and the territory south of Lakes Erie 
and Ontario.* 

In the mean time, Lake Champlain and its neighborhood was a 
thoroughfare, through which the hostile parties made their excur- 
sions in their alternate depredations on each other. In the latter 
part of the 17th century and the fore part of the 18th, many of 
these incursions took place. In 1089, while the French and Indi- 
ans were making fruitless arrangements to invade the settlements in 
New York, at Albany, and its neighborhood, the Iroquois fitted out 
an expedition, invaded Canada, plundered and burnt Montreal and 
destroyed other settlements in the neighborhood. The next year, 
1690, the French and Indians fitted out two expeditions. One pro- 
ceeded into New Hampshire, destroyed the fort at Salmon Falls, 
killed many of the inhabitants and took many prisoners ; the other 
proceeded by the way of Lake Champlain, attaxiked and burnt Sche- 
nectady, and killed and captured many of the inhabitants. In 
. 1691, the English and Irocjuois made an excursion into Canada, 
through the lake, and made a successful attack on the settlements 
on the River Richelieu, and killed many of the settlers. In 1695, 
the French and Indians invaded the territory of the Iroquois, and, 
after several battles, in which the latter were aided by the English, 
under Col. Schuylkr, they were driven back. In 1704, the Eng- 
lish settlements on Connecticut River, having extended as far as 
Deerfield, the French and Indians, coming up the lake to the mouth 
of Onion River, and following up that river, invaded and destroyed 
that place, and killed and took captive many of the inhabitants. 

In the meantitne the English had come to the conclusion, that 
there would be no security from the ravages of the Indians, but by 

* It is universaUy admitted, that the Iroquis claimed the whole of this terntory. 
We think also that their claim extended, along the R ver Richelieu, as far as the 
8t Lawrence, and that they had a permanent residence here. No history pretends 
that any other tribe settled here. But it is not improbable, that on account of the 
wars, which had for some time been carried on between them and the Algonquins, 
they had been induced to remoTe their residence fiirther from the neighborhood of 
their enemies, at least, from the borders of the lake, before Champlair's diwjovery 
of it. They had at least left the islands at the north part of the lake before that. 
And CHiJCPLiiH's party did not meet any enemy until they reached Crown Point. 


eonquering the French, as well as the savages. In 1709 and sev- 
eral following years, attempts were made, through the lake, to in- 
vade and conquer Canada. And while the English and French gov- 
ernments were at peace, for some years previous to 1725, wars were 
still carried on by the Indians, aided occasionally by the English 
and French colonies. In 1746, while the French were in posses- 
sion of Crown Point, an expedition from that place was fitted out 
by the French and Indians, who captured Fort Hoosick, which be- 
fore that had been built at Williamstown, Massachusetts, near the 
southwest comer of Vermont. 

During all these expeditions and until the French were driven 
from Crown Point in 1759, this territory, including the whole of 
Western Vermont, was exposed to the depredations of the Indians, 
and settlements in it were wholly unsafe. Even the proprietors of 
Bennington, who had obtained a charter in 1749, did not venture 
to commence a settlement of that town until 1761, after the conquest 
of Canada. 

In the short time, in which our attention has been directed to the 
subject, we have collected such information as we have been able, 
respecting the Indian relics found in the County, as the best evi- 
dence of the extent of Indian settlements. Our inquiries have not 
extended to all parts of the County. They have generally been 
made of those farmers and others, whom we have incidentally met. 
And now the printers threaten to ti e id upon our heels, and we are 
compelled to stop our inquiries. But such facts as we have obtained, 
we present below, and we trust the reader will find in them satis- 
&ctory evidence, that the Indians once had a permanent settlement 
here. But the permanent settlement, we think, must have closed 
with the discovery of Lake Champlain, by the French leader, Sam- 
uel Champlain, two hundred and fifty years ago, and the manu- 
facture of the implements we describe, of course ended then. 
There may have been a temporary residence of some tribes, while 
the'French had possession of Crown Point, or during the Revolu- 
tiooary war, while the British had the control of the lake. But 
we have, we think, the testimony of history, that after the Iroquois 
were first overcome ofiF by the fire arms, which were used by Cham- 


PLAIN and his Frenchmen, they never returned to occupy this region 
by a permanent settlement. Besides, after the Indians were fur- 
nished by Europeans with fire-arms and other needed implements, 
they had no occasion to manufacture them. 

The main object of our inquries has been to find evidence of the 
extent of Indian settlements in the County. But, if our time had 
permitted, we might have presented some other views of the subject. 
The want of time also has prevented our giving illustrations of some 
of the less common manufactures, as we intended. The following 
are the results of our inquries, and the sources of our information : 

Professor Hall, in his account of Middlebury, in 1820, states 
that on the farm in the south part of the town, on which Judge 
Painter first settled, now owned by William F. Goodrich, on an 
alluvial tract, near Middlebury River, — and his statement is con- 
firmed to us by Mr. GooDiucu, — '' arc found numerous articles of 
Indian manufacture, such as arrows, hammers, &c., some being of 
flint, others of jasper. A pot, composed of sand and clay, of curious 
workmanship, and holding about twenty quarts, has recently been 
dug up here nearly entire. '^ 

Almon W. Pinney, states, that in an old channel of the same 
river, on the old Smalley farm, and not far from the same place, 
the water had washed away the bank and uncovered parts of a 
broken *' camp-kettle," as he called it, holding about a pailful and 
a half, of the same material as the above, curiously ornamented by 
flowers or leaves wrought on the sides. There were also found 
there half a bushel of perfect and imperfect arrow heads, one of 
which was four inches long. 

Enoch Dewey, states, that on his farm, in Middlebury, on which 
his father was an early settler, two miles southeast from the village, 
and west of his house, on dry land near a brook between the hills, 
he has ploughed up on two separate spots, chippings, or fragments 
of stone, obviously made in manu&cturing arrow heads and other 
implements, together with a bushel or more of perfect and imperfect 
arrow heads all of grey flint. 

On the house lot of the writer, in the village of Middlebury, 
several years ago, was ploughed up an Indian pestle of hard grey 


Stone, made round and smooth, and rounded at the ends, about fif- 
teen inches long and two and a half inches in diameter. 

Mr. RuFUS Mead, editor 'of the Middleburjr Register^ states, 
that on the farm on which his father lived, and his grandfather was 
an early settler, in the west part of Cornwall, have been found 
large numbers of arrow and spear heads, from two to five inches in 
length, and, among them, stone chips, worked off in the construc- 
tion of arrow heads, and many imperfect arrow heads, apparently 
made by unskilful artists, or spoiled in the manufacture ; that at 
every ploughing for many years, these relics have been ploughed 
up. This locality is near a spring, and on ground sloping to 
Lemon Fair Flats. On this slope for some distance, the land is 
springy, and on several of the neighboring farms, similar relics are 
found. In that neighborhood was also found a stone gouge, in the 
regular shape of that tool, six or eight inches long, and two and a 
half inches wide. This tool Mr. !Mi:ad thinks, was used for dig- 
ging out their canoes, the wood being first burnt and charred by 
fire. The arrows, he says, were of flint, partly light and partly 
black ; and he is confident they were made of materials which are 
not found in this country. Otter Creek, and Lemon Fair, which 
empties into it, are navigable for boats from the head of the falls at 
Vergennes to this place. 

Deacon Warner states, that on his farm in Cornwall, first set- 
tled by Benjamin Hamlin, were found, at an early day, a great 
variety of Lidian relics, arrow heads, spear heads, and other imple- 
ments of which he docs not know the use : also chippings and frag- 
ments of stone, made in the construction of the articles, and defect- 
ive and broken implements. Some of the articles were made of 
flint stone, and some, designed for ornament, of slate. This locality 
is on a rise of ground near a Beaver Brook and Beaver Meadow. 
The brook empties into Lemon Fair, and is navigable for boats from 
that stream, except in dry weather. 

Aljout three quarters of a mik) from the above, on the same 
Beaver Brook, and on the farm of Ira Hamlin, is found similar 
evidence of the manufacture of Indian relics, among other things, 
gouges, chisels and arrows, of three or four different kinds of stone. 


This statement was rececived from Mr. Hamlin, and communicated 
to us, with specimens of the manufecture, by RuFUS Mead, Esq., 
who was also personally acquainted with the locality, and generally 
witli the facts. 

Major Orin FtELD, of Cornwall, states, that on his farm, on the. 
road leading south from <he Congregational Church, scattered arrow 
heads have been frecjuently found, and Judge Tilden says, that on 
his farm, not far distant, similar discoveries have loen made. Major 
Field also says, that on the same farm, then owned by Benjamin 
STiiVENs, he was shown by Mr. Stevens, in 1807, what was re- 
garded as the ioundation of an Indian wigwam or hut. It was a 
ridge of earth, about six inches high, in a square shape, the aides 
of which were eight or twelve feet long, the ridge running all around 
except at the east end was a vacant space, apparently designed for a 
door way. The earth was thrown up, to form the ridge on the out- 
side. The ridges have now disappeared. 

Major Field also says, that on the farm of his fiither, on which 
his grandfather was an early settler, in a burying ground on sandy 
land, in digging a grave in 1802, there were thrown up three Indian 
relics, of the same size and shape and in the form of a heart, about 
five inches long and three wide at the top. A smooth and straight 
hole, one-half inch in diameter, was bored through the length, the 
exterior surface being swollen to accommodate the hole. The sides 
were worked to an edge. 

Austin Dana, Esq., of Cornwall states, that on his farm, which 
adjoins Lemon Fair, he has often ploughed up large numbers of 
points, from one and a half to seven inches long, all which he 
thinks were designed for arrow heads, intended for shooting animals 
of different sizes, together with some which were broken, and a stone 
gouge eight or ten inches long, in the proper shape of that instrument. 
Pieces of the arrow heads he has often used for gun flints. He has 
also found, at three different springs on his farm, as many different 
pavements of stone, designed and used for fires in their huts, which 
have evident marks of the effects of fire. They are made of cob- 
ble stones, pounded down and made level and solid, like a pave- 
ment, six or seven feet in diameter. He says also, that on several 


farms lying north of his. he has seen hearths formed in tbo samo 
way. and obviously for the same purpose. ' These arc always on tho 
border of the Fair, or of brook.s running from the hills into it. 

Jesse Ellsworth, of Cornwall, states, that on his farm, near 
Lemon Fair, on low ground, ho has found arrow and spear heads 
often, and a pestle. Some of the spear and arrow heads are grey, 
and others black. 

On the flirm or the Lite Joseph S:.riTii, in Salislmry, and other 
farms in the neighlx)rIiood, have ];ccn found also similar relics scat- 
tered over tlic land. But we do n<^t regard it necessary to mention 
further cases of this kin<l. Almost every firmer of whom wehavo 
inquired, has found them, more or les.-?, scattered over his farm. 

Deacon SamCiil Jame.-, whose farm is in the south part of Wey- 
bridge, and v/hose house is at the eitst foot of a ritlge of land, about 
two miles west of tlic village of Middlebury. states that on the e:tst 
side of the road, which passes by his house, on a dry sandy hill, 
near a Beaver Brook and meadow, are found *many aiTOw heads, 
many of them imperfect, together with chippings and fragments of 
stone, which funiish evidence, that it had been a place for the man- 
ufacture of Indian implements. On the hill west of liis house, 
found a rounded relic, two inches in diameter, about a foot Icng, 
rounded at one end, and the other end made in the form of a gouge, 
two and a half inches wide, but not wrought to an edge. 

PmiiO Jewi:tt, Esq., of Weybridge. gave us a particular account 
of his discovery of Indian relics, but unfortunately our mem.oran- 
dum of his statement has been mislaid. He stated however, that on 
his farm, in the neighborhood of Lemon Fair and at a place near a 
large spring, at every ploughing, he has ploughed up large quanti- 
ties of arrow and spear heads, and fragments of the materials of 
which they were made, and some broken and imperfect articles ; on 
the whole, furnishing evidence of one of the most extensive manu- 
factories, lie says also, that he has often used pieces of the stone, 
of which the articles were ma<le, for gun flints. 

Columbus J. Bowdisii, Esq.. of Weybridge, states, that on his 
farm, next north of Mr. Jewett's, and also on Lemon Fair, and near 
m spring, he has often ploughed up arrow and spear heads, andchip- 


pings and fragments of the materials of which they were composed 
furnishing satisfactory evidence, that that was a place where tho 
relics were manufactured. He says also, that in ploughing at one 
time, his plough hit a stone, at the bottom of the furrow, which 
he dug up, and found to be a stone gouge, about a foot long. He 
also states, that he has found on his farm, and in the locality of the 
arrow heads, places designed for fires in the Indian huts, which 
showed tho effects of fire. These resemble those described by 
Austin Dana, except that they are made of ledge stone, and raised 
a little above the level of the ground. 

Mr. Samuel Wright, resides on the farm in "Weybridge, between 
Otter Creek and Lemon Fair, and at their junction, on which his 
father Capt. Silas Wright, formerly lived, and on which his 
brother Hon. Silas Wright, Jun.,* was brought up from his in- 
fancy. It is the same farm, on which ThomaS Sanford was the 
first settler, in 1775, and on which he was captured and carried to 
Canada, and imprisoned. ^Ir. Wright says, that he has often 
found, and ploughed up on the farm, Indian arrow and spear heads, 
some of which were broken, also pestles and other implements. He 
ploughed up, in one place, where they had been buried, a collection 
of them, consisting of fifteen or twenty articles, some of which ho 
presented to us. And he says, similar relics are found on all the 
neighboring farms. We have a perfect spear head picked up on 
the fann of his neighbor, Jehiel Wright, who says that other 
relics have often been ploughed up there. He says also, that on the 
narrow strip of hard land, on the border of the streams, formed by 
the overflowing of the water, he has seen evidence of tillage, such 
as corn hills and potato hills, and that on the neighboring lands are 
heaps of stone, which show evidence of being burnt by fire kindled 
about them. These he supposes were built for their fire in the huts, 
to secure them from being burnt. He states also, that he learned 
from Mr. Sanford, that sugar was made by the Indians, in an ex- 
tensive forest of maples there, and that their sap troughs were made 

♦In the large open ground, in tho centre of Weybridge, in front of tho Congre- 
gational church, tho friends of Hon. Silas WaiGUT, have erected a Tery handsome 
marble monument , and surrounded it by an iron fence. 


of birch bark. If there 13 no mistake in this, the sugar, at least, 
must have been made on a temporary residence of Indians, during 
the Revolutionary war, or while the French were in possession of 
Crown Point. All signs of sugar making, by the original inhabi- 
tants, must have disappeared. 

Hon. Harvey Munsill, of Bristol, at our request has sent us 
the following communication : 

«« BIII3T0L, April 22d, 1859. 
'• Hox. Samttel Swift — Dear Sir ; — As it regards the Indians ever having made 
Bratol their pcrroanetit place of residence, for any length of time, I cannot say ; 
hut there is strong presumptive evidence tending to show, that it has been, nt least, 
temporarily their residence and hunting ground. For traces of their presence are 
marked by their having scattered promiscously over the country many of their 
Indian relics, such as the stone axe, grooved gouge, chisel, spear and arrow points. 
And some others, the names and uses to us unknown. A stone resembling a rolling 
pin, was found several years ago a I the Loutherly part of the (own ; and a very 
perfect grooved gouge was found by my father, in his life time, and since my re- 
membrance, which, according to the best of my recollection, was about fifteen 
inches in length, which was deposited by him in the museum in Hartford, Connec- 
ticut, Some twelve or fourteen of the specimens, that I left with you, a short 
time since, — some perfect and some partly made, — were picked up by me, on my 
own premises in Bristol village, within a short distance of each -other, that is, 
within twenty or twenty-five feet of each otfier, and from the chips, and broken 
fragments of the same kind of stone, I have come to the conclusion, that they 
were ma^le on the spot. I have found many others, within a short distance from 
this location, when ploughing, which I have from time to time given away. About 
twenty years ago, there were two or three families of Indians, that came from Can- 
ada, and stopped a few weeks in the woods, a little north of Bristol village, between 
the road leading out of the village north to Monkton, and tbe mountain east, and 
among them was a very old man, who called himself about ninety-eight years of 
age, and who was quite intelligent, and could speak our language so as to make 
himself well understooi While they were stopping near our village, Capt. Noblb 
lluNSOH, and Abraham Gaige, two of my nearest neighbors, and myself, visited 
them for the pprpose of making some inquiries respecting the Indian habits and 
eostoms ; and among other inquiries, how the stone spear and arrow points were 
made, and where the stone, from which they were made, was obtained. To these 
inquiries, he said he could give us no information, for he had no knowledge on the 
sabject. He also informed us that he had himself used a steel arrow point, made 
in the same ghape of the stone arrow points, when he was quite young. He said 
it had often been a subject of conversation among their people, how the arrow and 
spear points were made, but he had never seen any one. who could give any infor- 
mation on that subject, not even that which was traditionary. The stone, which I 
left with you, which some call an axe, he said was used for skinning deer and other 


g.iino. T!ic oKl hmii die I \(}ry snJ Icniy, v.liile stopping near us. and wasbaricd in 
our burying grounJ ; the Rov. FiLixois Whitney preached a funeral sermon, and 
all the Indians attended. Respectfully yours, 


The stone left witii us and ciilied hy some an axe, is about five 
inches long, two Avide, and tlirec fourths of an inch thick, and re- 
duced to an ed^e on one end. Wo have several instruments of 
tho kind, but generally of smaller size, and thinner. The relic 
which Judge Mrx^iLii describe.-^ ^" as resembling a rolling pin," 
TN'Ould well serve the u^ic of tliat household implement, and we might 
judge it to be designed for that purpose, if we could suppose the Indi- 
ans made much use of ^' pie crust.*' As their history now i-s un- 
derstood, it has generally been called a pestle. It is a smouth round 
stone, twenty inches in length, two and a quarter inches in diame- 
ter in the centre, and tapering slightly toward the ends, which arc 
rounded. It is now in tlie possession of the Historical {Society of 

While commencing our inf|uirie3 on the subject of Indian relics, 
we saw in the possession of Justus Cobb, Esq., of the late firm of 
Cobb and Mead, an instrument ingeniously wrought, in the shape 
of a double hatchet, but the edges on each side v;ere only worked 
down to the eighth of an inch. It is five inches long and two wide. 
In the centre is a smooth hole obviously designed for a handle, three 
fourths of an inch in diameter, and of about the same depth, the 
surface of the stone around the hole )>eing swollen accordingly. It 
might have been intended to bore the hole through, or perhaps to 
fasten the handle with thongs. This relief v/e understood, was 
found at the mouth of Otter Creek. Knowing that our friend, 
Philip C. Tucker, Esq., is much devoted to similar inquiries, and 
believing him to be acquainted with all the discoveries in that neigh- 
borhood, wo wrote to him for such intbrmation as he might have. 
His letter in answer to our request, is dated March 24, 1859, and 
encloses a letter from Mr. James Crank, who calls it a ** battle axe," 
and says it was picked up by his brother, Georgic F. Crane, at Fort 
Cassin, mouth of Otter Creek, '^ on the embankment thrown up 
during the last war, to prevent the British fleet from ascending to 
Vergennes;^' that he loft it in tho hands of Mr. Cobb, and he 


adds, " I have picked up many Indian relics at Fort Cassin, and at 
other points on Otter Creek, in the vicinity of the Lower Falls, many 
of which are now in possession of P. C. Tucker,- Esq." 

The first part of ilr. Tucker's letter, relates to the same subject. 
He then adds : — 

•' This potnt appears to have been a pi ice long occupied by the native inhabitants 
of this rcglf-n. Many arrow heads and flome fjpcar heads have been found there, 
and whenever the ground is ploughetl, even to this dny, it is not unccmmon to find 
Eomc things of thit kind. Indian implements have been found in Addison, Panton, 
Ferrisburgh, Waltham and Vergennes. I have stone arrow lieaids, spear hcatls, n 
hatchet, a gouge, and some other articles, which I cannot give names to frum thoFc 
diftercnt towns. Some of the latter, I showe*! to the celebritcd Ojibwny chief, who 
"Wixs here several years since, in the hope, that he could enlighten nc as to their 
intendcl uses. After examining them cnrefully, he ol»Ferve<l. that he had never 
8cen any article like them among the Indiana, and could not imagine what they 
were designed for. 

Among other relics, I have a roughly fonncd arrow hea 1, made of copper. There 
8 no appearance of any metaHir tool having been eniphyed in its formation, :ind 
it appears to have been pounde I into form with stone. I think it an umloubtc 1 au- 
t:qnc, and thnt it was made before ^the dl.scovery of tlie continri.t by Kuropeans. 
It was ploughcil up in Ferrisburgh, not more than one and a half miUs from here, 
itomc eighteen or twenty years ago. As no known locality of copper exists in tlii.s 
reg-rtn, it seems diHi'iult to make even a rational guess, as to where ilie material 
for this arrow head came fi-om. I have -ome times made a visit to drctnn hmd^ en 
Ihl.^ matter, and fancied, that it originated at Lake Superi r. from tlio mines of 
"whioh I h ive a specimen of native copper, which any one could readily pound even 
with a stone, into this or any other jdain form.'* 

*• From tho mouth of Groat Otter Creek, throirga Ferrisburgh, Panton Ver- 
gennes, to Waltham, say thirteen or fourteen miles, Indian relics exiht upon botli 
banks, and have of^en been di^:covored. I doubt not they extend inuoh furtlior, 
prooably as fir towirds t!ie heail waters as comfortable c.inoo navigation cxtendetl. 
Mmy y-.'ars ago, I think m ]8'20 or 1830, I lial (piitc a favorable opjx)rt unity to 
examine one of these localities. At the arsenal ground in this place, seme forty 
ro^ls below the scam boat wharf, there is a bluff of land on tlic bank of the creek, 
a portion of which w:is ploughcl up at the time referred to, for the purpose of 
using tlie earth to fill the arsenal wharf. While it was loose from the ejects of the 
plou.:;h, a very heavy rai'i fell, and thoroughly drenched it, disclosing quite a lir;:o 
number of arrow heads, and a great amount of cliippingr?, or fragments, estaidish- 
ing beyond a question, that one maqaf ictory of arrow heads, at least, was upon 
this identical spot. An I a moat lovely spot it mast hvvc been too, w'.icn tint m in- 
af&cturo was going on." 

'* Perhips it wonM not be inappropriate to Biy a few words about the matcvial 
uaed tor arrow and spear heads, an I other relics. The larg^^r port'on of ti)c arrcj-.v 
hesdi in xnjr po^^Aftsioo, arc mode of that kind of bouUIer, common upon our lands. 


\Thich the farmers dignify with the name of ** hard heads,** and which ia a tctj 
hard silicious rock. Otiicrs are made from what I call black jaapcr, which is not 
an uncommon boulder rock in this region. I have one, which I am inclined to call 
chlorite ilate, and several which, with my limited knowledge of mineralogy, I do 
not assume to name My best spear head, is of a light colored stone, and is seven 
inches long. My hatchet appsars to be a very fine grained clay slate stone, and is 
five inches long My gouge is a fine one, thirteen inches long, and over two inches 
wide, at the cutting end, and looks as much like chlorite as any other rock.'* 

• To what uses the hatchets, gouges and spear heads were put it is very difScult 
to say. Certainly the former could have done nothing eftectually with wood, and 
tnvditlon, I think, has not told us, that the Indians ever used the spear as a weapon 
of war. My own rough impression is, that the spear heads meant Jlsh and not 

At the time of our first application to Mr. Tucker, a request 
was published in the Vergennes Citizen^ that anjr persons having 
information of Indian relics, would communicate it to him. On the 
26th of April, 1859, he ^rote us again on the subject, and among 
other things says : " The notice in the Citizen^ hj^d no other results 
than bringing in a few additional arrow heads. One piece of in- 
formation however, grew out of it, which I believe to be true, that 
my copper arrow head, has another of the same metal to*match it, 
and a far better one.'' It was ploughed up a few years ago, in 
Ferrisburgh ; and, although he has not been able to see it, he says, 
" I have no doubt of its existence." In speaking of the Indian 
relics in Bristol, which Judge MuNSiLL has described, ho says, " I 
have very reliable information as to the existence of similar relics 
in Monkton, and particulaily in the region of the pond. Some 
thirty years ago, an Indian burying ground was disclosed in that 
vicinity, and some four or five skeletons discovered, which '^re 
much talked about at the time, and which I quite well recollect" 
Mr. Tucker states also, that about thirty-five years ago, he was 
shown on the farm of Norman Munson, Esq., in Panton, what was 
called an " old Indian fire place," which he thinks '* showed evi- 
dence of fire," and he thinks it could not have been made by any 
body but Indians. 

In the possession of the Historical Society, are a mortar and 
pestle, found several years ago, on the farm owned by the late Col. 
JoHX Hackett, on White River, in Hancock. The pestle is twelve 
inches long and two inches in diameter, and undoubtedly of Indian 


manufacture. The mortar consists of a stone, eight inches square, 
aiid eight and a half inches deep. In the top is a round smooth 
cavitj, which constitutes it a mortar, five and a half inches in di- 
ameter, and three and a half inches deep. This hollow was prob- 
ably wrought by the Indians, but the shaping of the stone shows 
rather evidence of civilized manufacture. We do not mention either 
of these as evidence of a permanent and ancient residence. They 
were probably left by the Indians in some of their excursions against 
the settlors at the east The White River would form a commodi- 
otis route for that purpose. 

We have indeed little confidence in any thing, except the articles 
composed of stone, and those obviously made on the gi-ound, as evi- 
dence of such residence. The forests must have covered and oblit- 
erated, and time wasted all other satisfactory evidence. 

Anticipating the very natural inquiry, of what materials these 
relics were composed, and where the Indians found them, we 
wished, in addition to the information given by Mr. Tucker, relating 
to those in his possession, to furnish satisfactory testimony respect- 
ing those in our possession. We accordingly requested Rev. C. F. 
Muzzy, who has made mineralogy, for many years, a prominent 
subject of examination and study, to examine the specimens, and give 
us the requisite information. Mr. Muzzy, was graduated at Middle- 
bury College in 1833, has since been a missionary in Southern In- 
dia, and is now on a visit to this country for his health. The fol- 
lowing is his reply : 

•* Hoir. S. Swift — My Dear Sir : — The slight examination I have been able to 
make, of those arrow heads and other curiosities, in your possession, has convinced 
me, that they are composed of Quartz Rock, Flint or Horn-stone, sometimes called 
Corneas Limestone, Chlorite Slate, and a species of Fcldspathic, or Gianitie Rock, 
and that they are found in this vicinity, either in sitiit or as eratic bowlders. Of 
most, if not all of them, I have found specimens in this town. 

Believe me yours, very respectfully. 

C. F. MUZZY." 





The first settlement hy Europeans in tlic County of Addison, was 
niiidc by the French, on the cast shore of Lake Champlain, opposite 
Crown Point, in pursuance of tlieir plan to extend their settlemenrts, 
and fortifications, and set limits to those of the English. In the 
year 1730, a few individuals or families, came up the lake from 
Canada, and established themselves at Chimney Pomt, in Addison, 
and built a block house and windmill, on the point where the tav- 
ern house now stands. The next year troops were sent out and 
erected Fort Frederic, on the west side of the lake, now known as 
Crown Point. They afterwards in 1756, built a fort at Ticonder- 
oga. Other settlers followed in the train of the army, and prob- 
ably most of them were in some way attached to the garrison. Both 
the French and English, regarded the control of this lake of great 
importance, as one of the most convenient lines of communication 
into each other's territory, in the northern pait cf America. The 
British, in the early part of that century, planned several expedi- 
tions through the waters of the lake to Canada, for the purpose of 
subduing that province to the crown of England, but they uni- 
formly failed. After the treaty of Utrecht, in 1713, a season of 
peace prevailed, between the English and French, which gave the 
French in Canada, an opportunity to improve their condition ; and 
when wars afterwards succeeded, they were confined to other dis- 
puted territories, on this continent, by which the French were ena- 
bled to extend themselves in this direction without opposition. But 
during the French and Indian war, which commenced in 1755, one 
of the principal objects of the British, was to make an effective de- 
nccnt upon Canada, and for that purpose an expedition was set on 

niSl^RT OF ADLISON cou:(TT. 45 

foot every year from the coramoncement of the v»*ar, to proceed with 
a large force through the lake. A disgraceful failure attended theni 
all, until the expedition under General Amherst, in 1759. These 
failures occurred throudi the ignorance and indiscretion of ministers 
at home, or the imbecility of the officers entrusted with the com- 
mand of the troops. In the year 1758, more efficiency was given 
to the war by the appointment of Mr. Pitt to the ministry. General 
Abercrombie was that year appointal to command the expedition 
against the French forts on Lake C hamplain, and prosecuted the 
enterprise with more vigor than his predecessors. He advanced as far 
as Ticonderoga, and made a violent assault on the fort ; but meet- 
ing with unexpected obstacle^?, he retreated without taking the place. 
In the year 1759, General Amherst, commander in cliief of the 
British forces in America, took command of the expedition, reached 
Ticonderoga, and without much opposition captured the fort there 
on the 27th of July, and ])efore he reached Crown Point, the French 
gaiTison had bunit their forts on both sides and abandoned them. 
The settlers also in the neighborhood retreated with the army, and 
thus ended the French settlement in the County of Addison. 

The French settlers had cleared o£F the timber along tho 
shore of the lake, three or four miles north of Chimney Point. 
Most of it probably had been used in erecting the forts and other 
buildings connected with them, and the cabins of the settlers, and 
by the garrisons and families in the neighborhood. This was prob- 
ably the extent of the settlement, although the population was 
rather thickly crowded together. The cellars and other remains of 
numerous huts were found afterwards by the English settlers, scat- 
tered over the whole tract, and many of them are still seen there. 
On the Strong farm were four, on the Vallaxce farm three or 
four, and on others two or three. The l)uildings of the French set- 
tlers were burnt the next year after their retreat, by the Mohawks. 
Kalmer, the author of an early history, which Hon. John W. 
Srong found in Montreal, gives an account of his visit to the place 
in 1749. He says, ^^ I found quite a settlement, a stone windmill 
and fort, with five or six small cannon mounted, the whole inclosed 
by embankments." The remains of these embankmcnls. surround- 


ing Chimney Point, we have seen within a few years, and they arc 
probably still to be seen. Kalmer further says, that, within the 
enclosure, they had a neat little church, and through the settlement 
well cultivated gardens, and good fruit, such as apples, plums and 
currants. Old apple trees and plum trees, planted by them are 
still standing. 

The first permanent settlement by the English in this County, 
was on that tract. This clearing and its beautiful location on tho 
borders of the lake, were the occasion that a prosperous neighbor- 
hood was found here earlier than elsewhere, and it was for some 
time considered the most eligible place for holding the courts, when 
the County was first organized. In the spring of 1765, ZadoCK 
Everest, David Vallance and one other person came from Con- 
necticut, and commenced a clearing on their respective farms, on 
which they lived and died, about three miles north of Chimney 
Point. They put in some crops and remained until fall. In Sep- 
tember, of the same year, JouN Strong and Benjamin Kellogo, 
came on by the lake to Crown Point, then in possession of the Brit- 
ish. After stopping a day or two, they extended their explorations 
cast and south, and went as far east as Middlebury Falls. "While 
on this expedition, they were delayed by a violent storm and swollen 
streams for several days, until their provisions were exhausted, and 
they were two days without food. When they returned to the lake, 
Stkoxo concluded to settle on the farm on which he resided until 
his death, and which is still in the possession of his grandson. Judge 
Strong. With the aid of the settlers, Strong erected a log house 
around an old French chimney, near the lake. V ALLAN ce, in a 
similar manner, converted the remains of another French hut into 
a tenement, which he afterwards occupied, for some years, with his 
family. In the fall they all returned to Connecticut. In February 
following, Strong came on with his family, and was the first Eng- 
lish settler, it is said, in Wcsteni Vermont, north of Manchester, 
and his fourth son, JouN Strong, Jun., in June 17G5, was the first 
English child born north of that place. EvERiST and Kellogg, 
who were married during the winter, came on with their wives in 
the spring, and Yallance also returned with his family the same 


season. From John W. Strong, mentioned above, we have obtained 
many of the above details. His father's family resided in the house 
with his grandfather, and he learned the facts from his grand- 
parents, and especially from his grand-mother, who lived to a great 
age, and often amused him in his chiWhood with the stories of their 
early history. 

The result of Amherst's expedition was, that on the opening of 
the campaign of 1760, Montreal was surrendered to him ; and Que- 
bec and every other French post in Canada having been conquered 
and captured, the whole province, by the treaty which followed on 
the 10th day of February 1763, was surrendered to the British 

The French, having had uninterrupted possession of Lake Cham- 
plain for nearly thirty years, not only claimed the control of its 
waters, but the right to the lands on both sides of it, and made 
grants of seigniories to favorite nobles and officers, and of smaller 
tracts to others. The grants in the County of Addison were less 
numerous than at the north part of the lake. As early as the year 
1732, a grant had been ma^le to one Contre Couer, Jun., lying on 
both sides and including the mouth of Otter Creek. On the 7th 
day of October 1743, a grant was made to *' Sieur IIocquart In- 
tendant of New France,'' of a tract ^^ about one league in front by 
five leagues in depth, opposite Fort St. Frederic, now Crown Point, 
bounded on the west by the lake, east by unconceded lands," north 
and south the lines running east and west. And on the first of 
April 1745, another grant was made to IIocquart, lying north of 
and adjoining the other tract, three leagues in front on Lake Cham- 
plain, by five leagues in depth. Both these, making four leagues 
on the lake, and five leagues east and west, constituted the ^^ Seign- 
iory Hocquart," which extended from Willow Point, near the south 
line of Addison, north, and included the whole of the towns of Ad- 
dison and Panton, and is represented on an old English map, as ex- 
tending, as it must, some distance beyond Otter Creek, and inclu- 
ded Middlebury and other lands east of that stream. Soon after 
the execution of the treaty, by which the French government sur- 
rendered Canada to the British, on the 7th of April 1763, Hoc- 


QUART conveyed his sjigiiiory to MicaEL CiiiRTiEU LoTBiNlERB. 
As the inhabitants of Canada, by the treaty, became the subjects of 
the British government, it was claimed that the grants by the French 
government were valid, and should be confirmed by the British 
government, and Lotbiniere prosecuted his claim perseveringly 
before the latter goveenmcnt, from thic time of his purchase until 
the year 1776, before it was settled. 

Lotbiniere claimed, as evidence of his title, the ** frequent 
clearances,'' and *• various settlements," on these lands, which the 
war hail not wholly obliterated ; although it is probable that none of 
them were made under the authority of this grant. It is stated by 
Governor Tkyon of New York, in a letter to Lord Dartmouth, 
president of the board of trade and plantations, '*that when the 
French, on the approach of Sir Jeffrey Amherst, in 1759, aban- 
doned Crown Pointy there were found no ancient possessions, nor 
any improvements worthy of consideration, on either side of the 
lake. The chief were in the environs of the fort, and seemed in- 
tended mostly for the accommodation of the garrisons." 

The lines between the provinces of Quebec and New York, h ad 
been settled by the British government on the 20th of July 1764, 
at the latitude of 45"^ on the lake. It was finally decided, that as 
the territory south of the Piiver St. Lawrence, including the lands 
on Lake Champlain, was owned by the L'oquois, or Five Nations, 
and that these tribes, by treaty, had submitted to the sovereignty 
and protectfon of Great Britain, and had been considered subjects, 
all the possessions of the French on Lake Champlain, including the 
erection of 'the forts at Crown Point and Ticonderoga, were an in- 
trusion and trespass, and of course that government had no right to 
make grants there, and therefore the British government denied 
the claim of Lotbiniere, as they did all others, for lands south of 
latitut^ 45^, but consented to give him lands in Canada. 

In the meantime, all the lands, which had been granted by the 
French government east of Lake Champlain, had been granted 
anew by the governor of New Hampshire, in the name of the Brit- 
ish crown, and the governor and council of New York had spread 
their grants to the reduced olficers and soldiers of the army, which 


had been disbanded after the conquest of Canada, on the top of 
the New Hampshire grants. 

And previous to all these, and many years even before the settle- 
ment of the French, in 1696, Godfrey Dellius purchased of the 
Mohawks, who claimed the whole of this territory, a large tract of 
land extending from Saratoga along both sides of Hudson River and 
Wood Creek, and on the east side of Lake Champlain, to twenty 
miles north of CroTvn Point, and the purchase waa confirmed under 
the great seal of New York; but in 1699, the grant was repealed 
by the legislature, '* as an extravagant favor to one subject." 

The Mohawks also, on the first day of February 1732, sold to 
Col. JoHT^ Henry Lydius, a large tract of land embracing most of 
the Counties of Addison and Rutland. There is a map of this tract 
in the possession of Henry Stevens, Esc^., President of the State 
Historical Society, of which we have a copy, laid out into thirty- 
five townships, with the name of each. The southeast corner is at 
the sources of Otter Creek, and the northwest at its mouth, and the 
territory embraces the whole length of that stream, running diago- 
nally through it. The west line — and the east is parallel with it — 
is marked as runninor from the north, south IG deforces west 58 
miles 20 chains. On the back of the map is the following certifi- 
cate. *'Feb. 2. 1763. A plan of a large ti-act of land, situated 
on Otter Creek, which empties itself into Lake Champlain, in 
North America, easterly from and near Crown Point, purchased by 
Col. John Henry Lydius, of the Mohawk Lidians, by deed dated 
Feb. 1732, and patented and confirmed by his Excellency "Wil- 
liam SuiRLEY, Esq., Governor of the Province of Massachusetts 
Bay, August 31, 1744, divided into townships, and sold by the said 
Lydius, to upwards of two thousand British sulyccts, chiefly be- 
longing to the Colony of Connecticut." 

The New York town of Durham, and probably other towns in 
Rutland County, were originally settled under this grant. Two of 
the citizens, Jeremiah Spsxceu and Oliver Colvix, belonging to 
that town, in their petition to the General Assembly of New York, 
dated October 17, 1778, say, '* That the township of Durham was 
originally settled by the late inhabitants, under Col. John Lvlius: 


That discovering the imperfection of their title, they applied to and 
obtained letters patent under New York. That many of the inhab- 
itants (of which your petitionere are) have since been compelled to 
purchase the New Hampshire title to their lands, under a penalty 
of being turned out of their possessions by a mob." 




Bbnning Wentworth was appoiutcJ governor of New Hamp- 
shire, in 1741, with authority from the King to issue patents of 
unoccupied lands within his province. Claiming that that province 
extended the same distance west as the provinces of Connecticut and 
Massachusetts, that is, to within twenty miles of Hudson River, on 
the third day of January 1749, he granted the charter of Benning- 
ton, on that line, to which he claimed the province extended, and 
six miles north of the line of Massachusetts. This grant occasioned 
a correspondence and mutual remonstrances between the governors 
of New York and New Hampshire, in relation to the rights of their 
respective provinces. The governor of New York claimjd and con- 
tended, that the grant to the Duke of York in the year 16G3, whidi 
was confirmed to him in the year 1674, a ter the conquest of tlie 
Dutch in 1673, and extended to the west bank of Connecticut 
River, settled the claim of New York.* 

Notwithstanding the controvei*sy between the governors of these 
two provinces, and the opposition made by New York, to the issuing 
of grants by New Hampshire, Governor ';Vt:N'nvoRTn continued to 
grant charters of townships, as applications were made for them. 
During the following five years, from 1750 to 1754 inclusive, sixteen 
townships were chartered, principally on the east side of the moun- 
tains. From that time to the year 1761, during the prosecution of 
the French war, the territory became a thoioughfare for the excur- 
sions of French and Indian scouting parties, and was, on that a3- 

* Nearly the whole h'story, which wo have given of the controversy between the 
gov mors of New Hampshire and iiew York, and subsequently, betwe<*n the latter 
nnd the Green .fountain Boys, is t.ikcn from original documents, m the Doci:rcei- 
tary History of New York. 


count, in so disturbed a state, that no grants were made or asked 
for. After the conquest of Canada, in the year 1760, and after quiet 
and security had been restored to the territory, numerous applications 
were made, and in the year 176 1 no less than sixty towns were char- 
tered. In that year, all the towns in the County of Addison were 
chartcreil, except as follows : Ferrisburgh, Monkton and Pocock, 
now Bristol, were chartered in 1702, Orwell, and Whiting, in 
August 17G3, and Panton, was re-chartered on the 3d of November 
17t>4:. And this was the last charter granted by the gOYcmor of New 
ILnnpshire, within the territory. The whole number of charters 
of towns granted by him in this State, is one hundred and thirty- 
one, besides several others to individuals. 

Lieut. Governor Colden* of New York, disturbed and alarmed by 
the great number of grants made by New Hampshire, issued his 
proclamation on the 28th day of December 1763, warning all per- 
sons against purchasing lands under those grants, and requiring all 
civil oiliccrs ^ to continue to exercise jurisdiction in their respective 
functions, as far as to the banks of Connecticut River," and enjoin- 
ing the sheriff of Albany to rctur n to him '' the names of all ard 
every person or persons, who under the grants of Now Hampshire, 
do or shall hold pos3cs."?ion of any lands westward of Connecticut 
llivcr, that they may be proceeded against according to law.'' 

On the 19th of March. 1764, the governor of New Hampshire, 
i.ssued a counter proclamation, in which lie contends, ^' that the 
patent to the Duke of York is obsolete, and cannot convey any c<ir- 
tain boundary to New York, that can be claimed as a boundary, as 
plainly ai)pears hy the several boundary lines of the Jerseys on the 
vrcst, and the colony of Connecticut on the east,'' and encourages 
tiie gi-antees under New Hampshire, ^' to be industrious in clearing 
and cultivating their lands,'' and commands ''all civil officei*s to 
continue and be diligent in exercising jurisdiction in their respective 
offices, as far westward as grants of land have been made by this 
govern lijcnt, and to deal with any person or persons that may pre- 
sume to interrupt the inhabitants or settlers on said lands, as to law 
:ir.(l ju.stico doth appertain." 

A\ an (\'n-1v ijcrijvl of t]>o controvcrr-v. and soon after the first 


grant was made by Xew Hampshire, it was agreed by the gover- 
nors of the two provinces, to refer the question in dispute to the 
king; but no decision had yet been mad?. Tlie king had. on the 7th 
of October 1763, issued a proclamation in behalf of the reduced 
ofHcers and privates of the lately disbanded army, diiecting bounty 
lands to be granted them. Li view of this order, and the great 
number of grants made by New Hampshire, in tlie disputed terri- 
tory, Governor Coldkx, alxmt the time of issuing his proclamation, 
above mentioned, wrote several pressing letters to the board of trade 
in England, insisting on the gi-ant to the Duke of York, as conclu- 
sive of the right of Jscw York and urging a speedy decision of tho 
question. Li his letter of the Oth of February 1704, he represents, 
that great numbers of the officei*s and K)ldiers had jipplitnl to him 
for grants ; and in his letter of the 12th of April, of the same year, 
lie says, '-'about four hundred reduced officers and disbanded sol- 
diei-s, have already applied to me for lands. pursu;int to his Majesty's 
proclamation, which at this time are to be surveyed for them in that 
part claimed by New Hampshire. Y'our lordships will perceive the 
necessity of determining the claim of New Hampshire speedily.'' 
It was charged also, at the time by the claimants under Xew Hamp- 
shire, and stated by historians of that period. — on vrhat authority 
we know not, — that a petition, with forged signatures of many of 
the New Hampshire settlers, was sent with the governor's letters to 
England, requesting that the territory should be annexed to New 
Y'ork. In the i)ublic remonstrances of the New Hampshire claim- 
ants, conjectures were expressed, that there were ^'more or less 
wrgng representations made to his majesty to obtain the jurisdiction," 
and that his " majesty and ministers of State had been egregiously 
misinformed."' However that may be, in pui-suance of the urgent 
solicitations of Governor Coldkn, the king in council, on the 20th 
day of July, 17()4, without notice to the opposite party, adopted an 
onler, settling the west bank of Connecticut Kiver as the boundary 
of the two provinces. 

The only charter of which we have knowledge, as being issued, 
by the governor of New Hampshire, after the king's order, was that 

of Panton. as herefore menti'>iio<-l. dated November .^, 17W. which 


was before notice of the order had been received in this country, 
that not arriving until the following spring. On the receipt of the 
order, Governor Wentworth, us well as the governor of New 
York, issued his proclamation, giving notice to all persons concerned, 
of the decision of the King in council, fLxing the boundary. And 
in all his subsequent transactions, he seems to have acquiesced in 
the decision, and recognized the jurisdiction of New York over the 
territory. The clainuiuts under New Hampshire expressed no op- 
position to that jurisdiction at the time, not suspecting that the titles, 
which they had derived IVom the British govcrnm.ent througli ono 
jigent, and had paid for, would be superceded by grants from tho 
same authority, throu;:li another ngcnt, and that, under these cir- 
ciinistances, they fdiould -be compelled to ro-purcliaso their lands, 
under much more ()pprcs:>ive condition3, in order to hold them. 

And su'jli would seom to Lave been tlic views of tlie British gpv- 
ernmont at Iiome. The order in council settling the boundary does 
not soem to ho a deeision, iva to what had been or legally was tljo 
bound.iry, but it says, the King '• doth hereby order and declare 
tho western bank^j of tho river Connecticut,'' '• to be the boundary 
Hne lietwec-n tlio xii'.l twft i provinces." On the 11th of April 17G7, 
Lord ^'iiia.uriiNi:. piv.sidont Oi the board of trade, wrote to Gover- 
nor ?JoouE, of YiCW Yoik, reciting that two j-^etitions had Ijeen prc- 
scntetl to the Kin^^ '• one by the h^ociety for the Piopagation of tho 
Gospel, and the oth.-r by'EL KoniNSo:;, in behalf of himself 
and more than one thov..-:nid other grantees,"' says, •' In my letter 
of the 11th of Decern- icr, I was very explicit upon point of former 
grants ; you are therein directed to take care, that the inhabitants 
lyln;^ wer'tviard of the hno, reported hy the Lords of Trade, as tho 
boundaries of the two j»rovinees, be not molw?te<l, on account of ter- 
ritorial (lilTerencee, or disputed juri:xlietion ; for whatever province 
the settlors n:ay !)ch!n;.; lo, it should make no diflerenee in their 
proix'rty, provided their titles to their lands sliouhl be Ibund goiJ 
in oihor resj>ects, (.i- that tliey htive i;een long in uninterrupted pos- 
sosiion of them."' And W a<[ds, '* the unre:;so:iablenes3 of obligin^^ a 
very large tract of country to nay a ^:eeond lime tiic innnense sum 
of thirty tliroe thousand pounds in fees, necording to the allegation 


of this petition, for no other reason than its being found necessary 
to settle the h'nc of boundary between the colonics in question, is so 
unjustifiable, that his majesty is not only determined to have the 
strictest inquiry made into the circumstances of the charge, but 
expects the clearest and fullest answer to every part of it." 

On the 24th of July 17G7, the King in council, adopted an order 
on the subject. This onler, after reciting at length the report ** of 
the committee of council for plantation affaii-s,*' says ** His Majesty, 
witli the advice of his privy council, doth hereby strictly charge, 
require and command, that tlie governor of New York, for the time 
being, do not (upon pain of Ilis Majesty's highest displeasure) pre- 
sume to make any grant whatever, of any part of the lands de- 
scribed in said report, until Ilis Majesty's further pleasure shall bo 
known concerning the same.'' 

While the controversy was pending between the two governments, 
and before the King's order settling the boundary was known, a 
collision arose out of it in Pownal. But the facts in the case pre- 
sented a different question from that, which so extensively prevailed 
afterwards among other patents granted by New York. One called 
the Iloosick patent was granted as early as 1G88. The charter of 
Pownal, when granted by New Hampshire, included part of this 
patent ; and the New Hampshire grantees claimed possession of 
certain lands, on which several Dutch families had settled imder the 
Hoosick patent. In August 1764, the slieriff of Albany, in pur- 
suance of the proclamation of Governor Cold ex, before mentioned, 
hearing that the New Hampshire claimants had dispossessed several 
of the Dutch families, and were about to drive off others, went in 
pursuit, taking with him ** two of the justices and a few other good 
people," and arrested '' Samuel Asuley, who called himself a 
deputy, Samuel Robixsox, a justice of the peace," and others, 
who claimed the land, and committed them to the jail in Albany. 
But they were aftcrwanls bailed and not further prosecuted. Gov- 
ernor WiiXTWORin being informed of this tmnsaction, wrote to 
Governor Coldex, remonstrating against it, and requesting him to 
r.:^l^v*'» the prisor»'>ra. To \vl;i'j]j tl^o <^ovt»iT.or, with tlie advice of 
the CiuFicij. i\:o!;'«i, .*..; ;.« :i .- si'ii'O \^..^ r iMuniitcd '-within the 


undoubted jurisdiction of New York, he could do no further therein, 
than to recommend that the bail be moderate,'' and added that the 
controversy respecting the boundary "already lies with His Majesty." 

As soon as the boundary was settled by the king's order, a large 
number of grants were made by the governor of New York, to re- 
duced officers and disbanded soldiers, and others, who made appli- 
cation for them, and soon extended over nearly the whole ten*itory 
chartered by New Hampshire. The valleys of Lake Champlain 
and Otter Creek, were granted principally to reduced officers, and 
a large territory, north of Addison County, was reserved for non- 
commissioned officers and soldiers. A small tract was also reserved 
for them in the County of Addison, near the bend of the creek in 
Weybridge and New Haven, an(J perhaps some contiguous territory. 

At first the governor and council of New York, seemed desirous 
to encourage actual settlers under the New Hampshire grants to 
take out new charters under New York, in confirmation of their 
former titles. On the 22d of May 17G5, the following order was 
adopted : 

*' The council taking into consideration the case of those persons, 
who are actually settled on the grants of the governor of New 
Hampshire, and that the dispossessing of such persons might be 
ruinous to themselves and theii- families, is of opinion, and it is ac- 
cordingly ordered by his Honor, the Lieutenant Governor, with the 
advice of the council, that the surveyor general do not, until fur- 
ther order made, return on any warrant of survey, already or which 
may hereafter come to his hands, of any lands so actually possessed 
under such grants, unless for the persons in actual possession thereof 
as aforesaid." 

Another order was adopted, July 11, 1766, by which it was 
ordered, that all persons holding or claiming lands under " the New 
Hampshire grants, do as soon as may be, appear by themselves or 
their attorneys, and produce the same, together with all deeds, con- 
veyances, or other instruments, by which they derive any title or 
claim to said lands, before his Excellency in council, and the claim 
of such person or persons, which shall not appear as aforesnid, with- 
in the space of three months from the date* hereof be rejected." 


In pursuance of these orders, several individuals in the towni 
west of tte mountains, made application for a confirmation of their 
New Hampshire titles ; but much larger numbers, and nearly all 
in some towns east of the mountains, took confirmations of their 
titles from Xew York. We have no documents which enable us to 
ascertain the number or dates of the grants made, from the time of 
the order establishing the boundary to that which forbid further 
grants. It seems there was some delay on account of the stamp act 
then in force, the governor being ^'determined not to issue any 
papers except such as were stamped," and '* the people refusing to 
take them on that condition ;'' ''of course the offices were shut up," 
as represented by Governor Moore, in his letter of ^ the 9th of June 
1767, in answer to Lord Shelburne's letter above mentioned. But 
he adds, '* No sooner was the stamp act repealed and the offices 
opened again, but petitions were preferred, by many of tlie inhabi- 
tants here for grants of land lying on Connecticut River." Again, 
refering to the order limiting the time for making application, ho 
Bays, '' This had the desired effect, and in a few months, petitions, 
memorials, &c., were lodged by persons sent up from thence, setting 
up claims to ninety-six townships." 

Petitions had been sent up from the towns east of the mountains, 
for establishing one or more counties in the territory, and on tho 
22d of October 1765, the committee made a report to the governor 
and council, that, on account of the state of the country, it was in- 
expedient to establish counties, but they recommended to the' gover- 
nor to "appoint a competent number of fit persons for conservation 
of the peace and administration of justice in that part of the prov- 
ince." And on the 11th day of July 1766, an ordinflnco was 
adopted," for establishing a court of common pleas and a court of 
general sessions of the peace," and judges and other officers wero 
appointed. On the 19th of March 1768 *• a large tract of land 
containing forty townships," was by letters patent " erected into 
a County by the name of the County of Cumberland." This 
County was bounded east by Connecticut River, south by Massa- 
chusetts, west by the highest part of the Green Mountain, and 
north by the sam:), or ucirly tlic siimj, line wljich divides the present 


(bounties of Windsor and Oraugo. On tiic 2Sdof December 1772, 
it was ordered, that writs issue for tlie election of two representa- 
tives to the general assembly from that County. 

On the 16th of March 1770, all the territory east of the moun- 
tains, and north of the County of Cumberland, was formed into a 
County, by the name of Gloucester, and the usual county officers 
were appointed. Soon after the tciTitory west of the mountains, 
and north of the nortli lines of the towns of Sunderland and Arling- 
ton, and embracing considerable territory also west of the lake, waa 
established as a County by the name of Charlotte ; and the re- 
mainder of the New Hampshire Grants w;is embraced in the County 
of Albany. Previous to this division into counties, the whole terri- 
tory was regarded as belonging to tlie County of Albany, and jus- 
tices of the peace, and other oincers of that County, exercised 
authority in that territory. By order of the govenior and council, 
September 8, 1773, an ordiance was issued establishing courts, to 
be held in the County of Charlotte juinually, ^* at the house of 
Patuick Smith, E.sq., near Fort Edward." 

The order of the king in council, staying further grants of land, 
seems not to have been very satisfactory to Governor Moore, but 
he and his successors professed to regulate fhcir proceedings by it, 
and applications were frequently made by succeeding governors to 
the board of trade, urging that the order might be rescinded. But 
the board of trade, instead of rescinding it, complain that the gov- 
ernor of New York *' had taken upon him,'' contrary to the instruc- 
tions, **' to pass patents of confirmation of several of the townships," 
and had '^ also made other grants of lands within the same." 




While a consixlcrablo portion of the settlers on the east side of 
the mountain, s?eniet} thus inelinetl to submit to the claims of New 
Yorkj and accept confirmations of their charters, nearly all on tho 
west side refused to take such confinntitions under the governors 
proclamation, with ''a quit rent of half a crown or two and sixpence 
sterling,"' for each hundred acres, and with the exhorbitant fees of 
the govenior and other ofiicers conccruod in completing the titles, 
which it is said, amountcnl to one or tv.o tl'.ousand dollai*s for each 
charter. And the controversy with New Yoik was transferred from 
the governor of New llanipshire, lo tlie c]aiir.r.nts under his grants. 
These chose, rather than submit to the terms rrcaiircd, and pay for 
their charters a second time, uiid-jr less iavorable con«li lions, to de- 
fjnd the titles tliey had in si;uh way as they mu5ft : and acc^ordingly 
made their prei)arations fjr tliat purple. They proceeded to 
orgmize the several tov/ns an<l appointnl the requisite ofiicers, and so 
fir ns their circumstances allowed, a'doptcd the hiws of Xew Hamp- 
shire : ))ut. being witliout a!!y e.Tlabli.->lied government or law, where 
their peculiar circumstances re([i;ired, they became ** a law unto 
themselves.*' To be tho better prepjired for the impending cricis, 
the several towns west of the mountains appointed committees of 
safety, and these occasionally met in convention, to consult for tke 
general defence. For this purpose they orjL'anized a military force, 
"of which Etuax Allex was appointed Colonel Commandant, and 
Setii Warxer, Remembrance Baker, Kodert Cocxran and 
others were aj)pointed captains." lho?e leader;* every abV 


bodied man stood ready, when called on, to enter the service. Thus 
organized they waged an exterminating war against all settlers, 
under a New York title, on lands which were claimed under a 
• Kcw Hampshire grant, and against all persons acting oflScially with- 
in the territory, under the laws of the former State. All rights 
and powers, claimed under the authority of that State were denied 
and resisted. If surveyors were sent to survey lands granted under 
that authority, tliey were met by a competent force and expelled 
from the territory. If justices of the peace, or constables living in 
the territory, who liad taken oflice under the government of New 
York, att(»m[)ted to discharge their several duties, or otherwise in- 
terested themselves in favor of that government, the leaders with a 
competent force visited and arrested them, and having administered 
eufScient punishment, banished them from the territory. If any 
man, claiming title under that State settled himself down in his hut 
on lands claimed by the ^* Green Mountain Boys,'' they appeared 
on the ground, and, if he hesitated to relinquish his claim, leveled 
his cabin to the ground, desolated his land and crops, and left him 
and his family, houseless and destitute, to seek a shelter where else 
he might. No sheriff or other officer was permitted to serve process 
iVom tlie courts of Albany. If by any means writs of ejectment 
had been served, as was the case in the early state of the contest, 
and judgments obtained in the courts at Albany, or if any of the 
active agents, in defence of their claims, had been indicted as riot^ 
ers, and the sheriff had been sent, with the posse coinitcUus^ to ex- 
ecute the writs of possession, or arrest the rioters, he was set at 
defiance by a superior force and prevented from serving his process* 
The inha])itants called out from the neighboring towns in New York, 
to constitute a possCj were too little inclined to use force against the 
(jreen Mountain Boys, to be relied on, and generally fled before 
they came to close quarters, and left the sheriff, with his few friends 
from Albany to fight the battles. At a general meeting of. the 
committees at Arlington, in March 1774, it was, among other things, 
resolved, *' That as a country, we will stand by and defend our 
friends and neighbors so indicted, (as rioters) at the expense of our 
livci and fortuncii/^ 


The daimants under New Hampshire, were not permitted, in 
the Courts of New York, to give their grants in evidence in defence 
of their claims. The Green Mountain Boys therefore, decided to 
make no further defence there, but to defend themselves, as they 
might, by force. Whenever the leaders chose to give their proceed- 
ings the forms of kw, they established a court among themselves, 
and constituted themselves the triers, as well as complainants and 
executive oflScers, and passed and executed their own sentence. 

While these proceedings were going on in the " New Hampshire 
Grants," the friends of New York were constantly plying the gov- 
ernor and council and legislature of that State for relief by com- 
plaints, petitions and remonstrances, accompanied with aflSdavits to 
sustain them, while the government looked on with amazement and 
were puzzled to find means adecjuate for a remedy. The '* Ben- 
nington Mob,'' as they were called, had not only inspired the 
"Yorkers" in the territory with terror and dismay, but satisfied 
the New York government, that the means within their control 
were insuflScyent to meet the force brought against them. On the 
19th of May, 1772, Governor Tryon of New York wrote a letter 
to Rev. WiLLTAM Dewey, minister of Bennington, and other in- 
habitants of that place and vicinity, inviting them to lay before the 
government 'Hho causes of then* illegal proceedings," and request- 
ing them to appoint Mr. Dewey and certain others, as agents to 
lay their grievances before the governor and council, and giving 
assurance of "full protection to any persons they should choose,!' 
" except Robert Cochran, as also Allen, Baker and Sevil, men- 
tioned in his proclamation of the 9th of December last, and Seth 
Warner, whose audacious behavior to a civil magistrate has sub- 
jected him to the penalties of the laws of his country.'' 

Stephen Fay and his son Dr. Jonas Fay were appointed agents, 

and by them was sent a general answer to Gov. Tryon's letter, dated 

June 5, 1772, explaining the grounds of their grievances, signed 

by Mr. Dewey and others ; and of the same date a more detailed 

reply, in explanation of their proceedings, signed by Ethan Allen, 

Seth Warner, Remembrance Baker and Robert Cochran. 

These letters were laid by the governor before the council and refer- 

62 histohy of addison couxtt. 

red to a committ39, who reoomru^ndeJ that the govei-nor "should 
afford the inhabitants of tho3e townships all the relief in his power, 
by suspending, until his ilajesty's pleasure should be known, all 
prosecutions in behalf of the crown, on account of the crimes with 
which they stand charged );y the depositions before us, and to re- 
commend to the owners of the contested lands, under gmnts of this 
province, to put a stop during the same period to all civil suits con- 
cerning the lands in question.'' This recommendation was adopted 
by the council, and when communicated, through the agents, to 
the people of Bennington and vicinity, was received with enthusi- 
asm and accepted by thorn as entirely satisfactory. But this prom- 
ise of peace was soon disturbed and the controversy was renewed 

and prosecuted as fiercely as ever. 

The governor of Is ew York, with the advice of the council, . 

issued one proclamation after another, offering largo rewards for the 
apprehension of Alle.v, Bakfr, Wauner, Coci:RAN, and other riot- 
ers to iio purpose. To as little purpose the legislature passed severe 
resolutions; and on the 9th of March, 1774, a law, which, for its 
savageness. has no superior in the legislation of any civilized com- 
munity. Referring to the riots which had taken jdacc in the 
counties of Albany and Charlotte, by certain of the leadei^s, naming 
Ethan Allkx and others, it enacts, among other provisions, that 
'• as often as either of the above named persons, or any other person 
shall be indicted in either of the counties aforesaid, for any offence 
perpetrated after the passing of this act, made capital by this or 
any other law." the governor is authorized *'to make his order in 
council, requiring and commanding such offender or offenders to 
surrerider themselves respectively, within the space of seventy days 
next after tlie f.rst publication thereof," *4o one of his Majesty's 
justices of the peace for either of said counties respectively, who 
are hereby rec^uired to commit them without bail or mainprize," 
to the jail in Xew York or Albany. "And in case the said offend- 
ers shall not respectively surrender themselves pursuant to such 
order," *^he or they shall from the day to be appointed for his or 
their surrendry, as aforesaid, be adjudged and deemed to be con- 
victed and attainted of felony, by verdict and judgment without 
beiipfit of clergy." 


Governor Tky^n had before that, on the Sl^'t of August, 177o, 
called on Gen. IIaldimaxd, commanuor of the British forces, for 
ft sufficient number of regular troops to quell the riots, and after- 
Trar^ls, September 1, 1774, a similar application was made to Gen. 
Gag 2, both of whijh wcro declined. A})plioati<)n ^Yas also mido to 
the hom? government for regular troops and dojlined. 

The first open and forcible collision, arising oui of this contro- 
ver:3y, subse.^ent to the occiirn^nce of the lloosick patent, as men- 
tionoJ above, oo:;urred on the Walloomsie p?vtont. This patent was 
granted to Jamej D^lancv, Geiiaudus SruYViC.-AXT and others, 
Jul/ 15, 1730, abjut ten years previous to the first charter granted 
by New Hampshire, and was the field on whicii Bennington battle 
was fought, August 10, 1777. The charters of Bennington and 
Shaftsbury covered a part of this tract, and the farm of James 
Breckenridge was laid on this interfering territory. •• Commis- 
sioners and a surveyor were a]>pointed to nrake partition of certain 
lots," on this tract, --for the more effjctual collecting of his Majes- 
ty's quit rents.''. Lieut. Governor Coldi:n in his pro?lai.iation of 
December 12, 1709, states that '* the said commissioners, l)eing 
employed in surveying the said lots, were on the 10th day of 
October last past, interrupted and opposed by a number of armed 
men, tumultuously and riotously a.>sembled for the de;dared pur- 
pose of preventing the said partition, who by open force coin})elled 
the commissionora and survevor to desist from iheir survev, and 
by insults and menaces, so intimidated the said coiiimi.vsioiicrs, 
that, apprehensive for the safety of their persons, tlioy f>iind it 
necessary to relinquish any further attempt to perform their trust,'* 
and represents *-that James B.ilckeniuixje, Ji.iaDiAii Due, 
Samuix Il">3t.\'Sox and three others were among the principal authors 
and actors in the said riot," and comnrands and ro{|uires the sheriff 
of Albany to apprehend and commit '■ the before named rioterj 
and offenders," and if necessary to take the posse coinUatns, 
B:iECX«.\KiDGi: and Robinson, in their affidavit, ^.^xi^^ that they 
resiste^l the surveyor, but say ''afcv- more people assembled, a 
fo\7 of which had guns;" that they '-forbid their runnhig, for v/o 
held our lands by our New Hampshire charters," --and if they run, 


they must run it as disputed lands." Whatever the facts were, the 
commissioners and surve3'or quit the premises. 

Actions of ejectment were soon after commenced against Breck- 
ENRiDGE and eight others, whose land had been granted to reduced 
officers and others, and at the succeeding term of the circuit court 
at Albany, judgments were obtained against him and three others. 
It is said ** that Breckenridge made no defence, being within 
twenty miles of Hudson's River;" but more probably because his 
land waa included in the Walloomsic patent, granted prior to tlie 
charter of Bennington. 

From the result of these legal proceedings, " It was hoped that 
the riotous spirit would subside," and commissioners were again 
Bent to make partition of the patent, who made complaint, that "on 
the 20th of September they were again opposed and prevented 
from effecting said partition by a riotous and tumultuous body of 
men," *^ among whom was Silas Robinson," and three others 
named. And thereupon Governor Dunmore issued a new proclama- 
tion for the apprehension of the rioters. The sheriff afterwards 
reported, that in obedience to the proclamation, he had arrested 
Silas Robinson, one of the rioters ; and thereupon the governor 
and council made an order directing the attorney general to prose- 
cute him. He was afterwards bailed but never ti'ied. 

The following case, among numerous others which we might re- 
cord, will illustrate the character of the proceedings of the " Green 
Mountain Boys," or at least show how they were regarded and 
represented by the ** Yorkers." Benjamin Hough, who repre- 
sented himself as an " Anabaptist preacher of the gospel," resided 
in Socialborough, a New York town on Otter Creek, embracing 
the whole or a part of each of the towns of Clarendon and Rut- 
land, bad accepted a commission of justice of the peace, and was 
an active friend of New York. In March, 1775, he preferred his 
petition to Gt)vemor Tryon, stating his sufferings, and praying for 
relief, accompanied by his own affidavit, and those of other per- 
sons to sustain his petition. In his own affidavit he states, amon g 
other things, *' that he was attacked by about thirty persons, a 
number of whom were armed with firelocks, swords and hatchets, 


vas seized and carried a prisoner to Sunderland," where he was 
kept in custody until they sent to Bennington " for Ethan Allb.v 
and Seth Warner;" that on the 30th day of January 1775, 
" the rioters appointed a court for the trial of this deponent, which 
consisted of the following persons, to wit : Etuan Allen, Robert 
Cochran" and four others, **and they being seated, ordered this 
deponent to be brought before them ;" *^ that Etha!^ Alle?? laid 
the three following accusations to the charge of this deponent, to 
wit : 1. This deponent had complained to the government of New 
York of their (the rioters) mobbing and injuring Benjamin Spen- 
cer and others ; 2. That the deponent had dissuaded and discoura- 
ged the people from joining the mob in their proceedings ; and 
3rdly, That the deponent had taken a commission of the peace un- 
der the government of New York, and exercised his office, as a 
magistrate in the County of Charlotte, alledging that this deponent 
well knew, that they (the mob) did not allow of any magistrate 
there:" that the judges having consulted together for some time, 
Ethan Allien pronounced the following sentence, whicli he read 
from a paper, which he held in his hand, to wit : '' That he should 
be tied up to a tree and receive two hundred lashes, on the naked 
back, and then, as soon as he should be able, should depart the New 
Hampshire Grants, and not return again, upon pain of five hundred 
lashes." After the execution of this sentence, Allen and Waknei; 
gave a certificate, that he had ** received a full punishment for his 
crimes," and the inhabitants were directed to give him " a free and 
unmolested passport toward the city of Now York," *^ he behaving 
. as becometh." 

But not to trespass further upon the province of State history, 
in detailing the incidents 4f this controversy, we add only a few, 
which occurred within the limits of the County. 

Colonel Reid, of a Royal Highland regiment, had received from 
the government of New York a grant of land, as a reduced, or half 
pay oflScer, on Otter Creek, including the falls at Vergennes, whose 
tenants had been dispossessed, in August 1772, by Ika Allen and 
others. This occurred, while the agents, who had been appointed 
by the inhabitants of Bennington, at the request of Governor Tryon, 


as stated in a former page, were in a negotiation v,!t!i the governor 
ami council, wliicli resulted in the conciliatory measure by them 
adopted. This proceeding, ^vhen it came to the knowledge of Gov- 
ernor TiiYux, so irritated him that he wrote a severe letter to the 
*' inhabitants of Bennington and the adjacent country," charging 
them with a ** breach of faith and honor, raa<io by a body of your 
people in dispossessing several settlers on Otter Creel:,'' at the very 
lime the negotiations wxre going on, and re<{uiring their '^ assistance 
in putting forthwith thoec families, who have been dispossessed, 
into re-possession of the lands and teneme]its/' 

The following is the substance of the answer of the committees 
of '• Bennington, and the adjacent country '^ to this letter, signed 
by EruAN' Allex, clerk, on the 23th of August 1772, in cxplanar- 
tion of the proceedings complained of The people, having noticed, 
that '• ilr. CucKiJURX, a noted surveyor,"' had taken ^* a tour to the 
northerly parts of the Ncvr ilampshire Grants," (on Onion Kiver) 
'•to sarvey and make locations on lands," which had been granted 
by NlW Hampshire, '^ rallied a small party and pursued and ovcr- 
t 'ok him and his party, and in their pursuit, passed the to.vns of 
Panton and New Haven, near the mouth of Otter Creek, dispos- 
sessed Col. IIeid of a saw mill in said Panton, which by force," 
and without right, ''he had taken from the original owners more 
than three years before, and did, at the same time, extend his 
force, terrors and threats into the town of New Haven," *• who so 
terrified the inhabitants, (which were about twelve in number) that 
they left their possessions and farms to the conquerors, and escaped 
with the skin of their teeth." '\ Col. Kt:iD, at the same time, and 
with the same force, did take possession of one hundred and thirty 
saw logs, and fourteen thousand feet of pipe boards," and convert^ 
them to their own use. In 17C9, a man by the name of Pang- 
corn, built there a saw mill, and a few claimants under the New 
Hampshire grant, were in possession of the lands in that year. 
After they were driven off, llian's men built a grist mill. Tho 
committees also deny, that there was any breach of faith, as the 
result of the negotiations between Governor Tryon and the dele- 
gates from Bennington was not known at the time, and the agents 


were not aut!iori::oJ to complete any arrangemcntSj so as to be bind- 
ing on the pcoV.o of llie Grants, until ratified bj them. They also 
promptly reluijd to obey the governor's requisition to afford as.sij- 
tanco in restoring Col. ]Ikid\-^ men to the possession of the lands. 
And thu3 ended the result of the negotiations for conciliatory meas- 
ures between the parties in 1772. 

The latter part of June, or the fore part of July 1773, Col. 
Rkid. engaged several Scotch immigi-ants, lately arrived at New 
York, to settle on his lands, of v.hich he Ijad been dispossessed, as 
above mentioned, and went with them to Otter Creole. On entering 
upon the lands, they found several persoris settled on lhc:n. claiming 
title under the New Hampshire chartei^. One of tijem was Joshua 
Kyuf, who afterwards removed to rji<ldlebury, and settled in the 
south' part of that tov;n. Col. ll'-:iD. in some way. got rid of these 
tenant.s, and entered into possession of the mill and lands claimed 
by him. The Green Moant.iin Boys, learning this fact, Alle.v, 
Warner and BAiCi-ni, witli a strong force, consisting, as represented 
by the Sot^h tenant 5, of more thin one hundred men well armed, 
marched for Otter Cieek. and on tire lltli day of August, appeared 
on the ground, drove off tlie Scotchmen, burnt their houses and 
other building', tore down tlie mill, whicli, it was said, Col. Ekid 
had lately built, broke the mill atones in pieces and tiirew them 
down the falls. John Ca:\ii:rox, one of the Scotch tenants, in liia 
affidavit, as to the manner in which they went into possession under 
Col. Reid, states, ^' That the persons*' (the tenants in possession) 
" did agree voluntarily, to remove from Col. Retd's land, till the 
King s pleasure should be known, provided Col. Rkid would pur- 
chase their whole crops then on the ground, that they might not 
lose their labor, which Col. Reid consented to, and paid them the 
full value for it accordingly.'' The affidavit also states, ^That the de- 
ponent was much surprised to see, among the rioters, Joshua IIydf, 
one of the three men, who had entered into a written obligation 
with Col. Reid, not to return again, and to whom Col. Reid, on 
that account, had paid a sum of money for his crops.'' * 

* Mr. Thompson, in his history of Vermont, in stating this transaction, Fays 
nothing about the Toluntary removal of the New Hampshire claimants, and a 


A tract of " three thousand acres of land on the east bank of 
Lake Champlain, irithin a mile and a quarter of the fort there," 
was granted under the great seal of the Province of New York, " to 
David vVoosxiiR,! of New Haven, in the Colony of Coimecticut, 
Esquire, being a captain on half pay, reduced from His Majesty's 
fiifty-first regiment." This tract was in the north part of Addison 
and probably extended into a part of Panton. In his deposition 
laid before the governor and council, dated February 20, 1773, he 
states, among other things, that ** on visiting these lands | he found 
five families, which had then lately settled," ** some of them, pre- 
tending to have no right at all, promised to leave said lands. The 
othera the deponent then served ejectments on, which issued out of 
the inferior court of common pleas of Albany. Whereupon they 
also submitted, and desired the deponent to give them leases of part 
of said lands, which this deponent consented to ; gave them per- 
mission to remain on the lands, acknowledging him to be their land- 
lord, until it was convenient for him to return and give them leases 
in form." He states also, ** that in the month of September pre- 
ceding, he went to his lands in order to give leases to the settlers," 
and '* that upon the deponent's arrival on his lands, the settlers 
thereon and others, collected together in a body, about thirteen in 
number; when the deponent offered those who had settled on his 

promise not to return on being paid for their crops, but says, " On their arriTal, 
the New Hampshire settlers were a second time compelled to abandon the place. 
Rev. Dr. Merrill, in preparing his history of MidUlebury, obtained from Htdb*8 
family, after his decease, also a diflercnt account of the manner in which he was 
dispossessed of his furm. This states, that he was arrested and made his escape, 
and sent back word to Col Reid, that, if ho Was allowed to depart in peace, ho 
would never come back to his land, and soon after sold it, end the purchaser took 
possession. Hyde, on his way to Connecticut after his ezpubion, met Allen's 
company at Sudbury and returned with him. 

t This Captain David Woosteb, at the commencement of the revolationary war 
was appointed by the legislature of Connecticut a msjor general of the troops of 
that State. Being at home in New Haven in April, 1777, when the British troops 
came up the sound and btimed the town of Danbury, he volunteered and joined 
the troops suddenly raised to oppose them, and while rallying the troops under his 
command, received a mortal wound, of which ho soon died. 

t This first Titit was in 1767 or 1708. 

Tii^TOiiY ui- m'j:^-'j:: county. 69 

lands, leases, which they absohitely rcftised to -accept, on any terms 
whatever ; but declared that they would support themselves there 
by force of arms, and that they would spill their blood before they 
would leave the said lands."' Whereupon, ^^ being well armed with 
pistob," he *^ proceeded to serve two declarations in ejectment on 
two principal ringleadei-s,'' *' notwithstanding they continued their 
firelocks presented against him during the whole time; that after 
the deponent had served the said ejectments, they declared with one 
vaicc, that they would not attend any court in the Province of New 
York, nor would be concluded by any law of New York respecting 
their lands.'' 

Among other gi-ants by New York, within the present limits of 
Addison county, a considerable tract of land was granted or re- 
served to the Earl of Dimmore, who was governor of that State in 
1770 and 1771, embracing, as it appeal's by an ancient map, the 
town of Leicester and at least a part of Salisbury, from Otter 
Creek to the Grepn Mountains, and including the lake which still 
bears his name. On the borders of this beautiful lake, and in the 
midst of the romantic scenery which surrounds it, a large establish- 
ment has been recently built, as a retreat for the accommodation of 
sammer visitors, and for the resort of pleasure parties at other sea- 
sons, by an incorporated association, chiefly under the super intend- 
ance of the late Edward D. Barber, Esq. The establishment 
has since been purchased by a company of southern gentlemen, 
who are siill er.largmg and ornamenting it, intending to make it a 
summer resii.-ence for themselves and a large number of others. 

While the question was pending in 1772, as to the location of 

the public buildmgs for the county of Charlotte, Lord Dunmore's 

land was proposed for that purpose, especially for the reason that it 

was a3 central at that time as the state of the population would 

allow, and because it was near Crown I*oint, where military aid 

could be obtained to quell riots of the disaffected, if necessary. 

Lord Dunmore offered, that if his lands were fixed on,, he would 

"most cheerfully build a court house or other buildings, which 

may be thought requisite.'' 




It was well, probably, for the conteiuling parties, that the com- 
mencement of the revolutionary war opened a new field and pre- 
sented a i;iew object for their efforts and anxieties, and checked the 
asperity of the controversy and the violence of the collisions. 
The controversy, Avhich in the outset, was sufficiently complicated, 
had become more and more entangled and hopeless of settlement 
by every movement which had been made on either side. 

But, although the commencement and continuance of the war 
changed in some measure the position and operations of the parties, 
it did not change their settled and unwavering determination to 
maintain their several claims. The State oF New York had no 
thought of surrendering their claim to jurisdiction over the New 
Hampshire Grants. And the inhabitants of the Grants had as 
little thought of ever submitting to that jurisdiction; but they 
began more openly and boldly to insist on establishing themselves 
as a separate and independent State. And several circumstances 
at this time occurred to encourage their hopes. They had before 
acknowledged the sovereignty of the British government, and tlieir 
right to dispose of their destiny. By the declaration of indepen- 
dence, that sovereignty was thrust out of the way, and Congress 
had taken its place. They had renounced all allegiance to New 
York, and did not acknowledge that government as having any 
authority over them. And as they had not been received into the 
Union, in the capacity of a separate State, they denied the au- 
thority of Congress to exercise any authority over them, until 
they were placed upon the footing of the other States, as a part of 


ths corifcJeracj by which that body had been constituted. They 
were of course, in their own view, without a government. 

Until this time the counties of Cumberland and Gloucester had 
generally submitted to the government of New York, which had 
established courts and appointed the officers of those counties. 
Jlxit there were always many individuals opposed to that jurisdiction. 
The idea of estiiblishing a separate government led the inhabitants 
to look around them and consider their state. The condition of 
their land titles was uncertain. Many of them, from various causes 
had failed to obtain a confirmation of their titles, and they began 
to discover that the heavy quit rents and expenses which would be 
required would bo an unreasonable burthen, 'Svhich,'' in language 
not very different from that of more modem land reformers " they 
consider an innovation upon the rights of mankind, for whose use 
such lands were given by a bountiful Providence, without reserva- 
tion, and v*-hich ought not, in their opinion, to be charged with 
taxes, other than for the general support and defence of the State 
and government.'' They discovered also that the seat of govern- 
ment was so remote that ^* the obtaining of justice is rendered labo- 
rious, tedious and expensive," and that the influence of the govern- 
ment is ''weak and dissipated,'' ''to the great encouragement of 
the lawless and wicked." 

It is understood that the excitement which raised the mob in 
March, 1775, to stop the proceedings of the court at Westminster, 
and arrest and imprison the judges and other officers, had no refer- 
ence to the question of land titles, or jurisdiction. But it is not 
improbable, that the scarcity of money, and their inability to pay 
the heavy amount of debts put in suit, which produced that excite- 
ment, might have stimulated an opposition to the government, 
whose courts and sheriflf were a terror to the whole community. 
Accordingly, " a meeting of the committees appointed by a large 
body of inhabitants, on the east side of the Green Mountains," was 
held at Westminster, on the 11th day of April, of that year, which 
adopted spirited resolutions against the government of New York. 
In the meantime, agents were sent from the west side of the moun- 
tains to encourag3 those ri-^ing dispositions, and ascertain the pre- 


vailing sentiments of those counties, as to tlic cslallisliineut of 
an independent government. 

Soon after Ethan Allex and Seth Warxer returned from the 
capture of Ticonderoga and Crown Point, they ** set off on a 
journey to the Continental Congreses, with the design of procuring 
pay for the soldiers under them, and soliciting authority to raise a 
new regiment in the New Hampshire Grants. In both these objects 
they were successful." The Congress ^' recommended to the Pro- 
vincial Congress of New York, tlat after consulting General 
Schuyler, they should employ, in the army to be raised for the 
defence of America, those called ' Green Mountain Boys,' under 
Buch ofGcers as the said * Green Mountain Boys' should choose." 
Allen and Warner, notwithstanding their outlawry, repaired with 
the recommendatiDn, to the Congress of New York ; and that body 
with some delay and reluctance, resolved that a regiment of Green 
Mountain Boys should be raised, not exceeding five hundred men, 
and to consist of seven companies ; who were to choose their own 
officers, except the field officers. ^' A lieutenant colonel was to be 
the highest officer." The committees of several townships assem- 
bled at Dorset, and made choice of *^ Seth Warner, lieutenant 
colonel and Samuel Safford for major." 

*' Knowing the vakie of Colonel Allen's experience and activity, 
General Schuyler persuaded him to remain in the army, chiefly 
with a view of actiiig as a pioneer among the Canadians."* On 
the 24th of September, 1775, in an attempt to capture Montreal, 
with a small body of troops, he was taken prisoner through the 
failure of Major Brown to co-operate with him, as agreed between 

By virtue of his election as lieutenant colonel, Warner prompt- 
ly raised his regiment, and, joined the forces under General Schuy- 
ler, in the invasion of Canada, and performed very active and 
tiseful services. But neither he or his officers had received their 
commissions from the government of New York. On the 16th 
day of September, 1775, General Montgomery commanding the 

♦ Spabk's Memoir of Ethan Alm-l\. 


forces, which were be^eiging St. John's, *■ issued an order appoint- 
ing Warn'EH colon3l of a regiment of Green Mountain Ran^^eri, 
re<iuiring that he should be obeyed as such." This, it is presumed, 
was designed only as a temporary appointment, and on the 20tli 
clay of November following, on account of the destitute condition 
of his troops, General Montgomkry discharged them, and they re- 
turned home. But Warner waa not long permitted to remain in- 
active. In January, 177G, he received a letter from General 
AVoosTER, afbr the defeat of the Americans at Quebec, commend- 
ing him and his " valiant Green Mountain Boys," in which he snys, 
'• let me beg of you to raise as many men as you can, and have 
them in Canada with the least possible delay, to remain till we can 
have relief from the Colonies. You will see that proper ofBcci-s 
are appointed under you," and promises, that his troops should 
*• have the same pay as the Continental troops." Wahner promptly 
complied with the request, and he and his troops were in Canada 
in a very short time, and remained there until the retreat of the 
American army. Through the hostility of the government of 
New York toward the Green Mountain Boys, or for some other 
culpable cause, he had received no commission, and he and his 
troops performed those services as volunteers. ^^ Congress, on the 
5th day of July, 1776, resolved to raise a regiment out of the 
troops who had served with so much reputation in Canada, to be 
commanded by a lieutenant colonel. Warner was accordingly 
appointed lieutenant colonel and Samuel Saffoud, major." *■ 

No event had more decided tendency to strengthen the cause of 
the Green Mountain Boys, and encourage them to hope that Con- 
gress would finally recognize their independence, or to exasperate 
the people and government of New York, than the raising of this 
regiment, separate from and independant of that government. Com- 
plaints were made by the Yorkers on the Grants, that this measure 
rendered their condition more uncomfortable and hopeless ; and the 
government of New York sent frequent remonstrances to Congress, 
demanding that the regiment should be disbanded. 

• D. Chipman's Memoir of Warner. 


In the raeantiinej reports were in circulation, tliat a con3i(ler;0)'e 
number of the members of CongresS; v.cre in favor of admitting 
Vermont into the Union, as an independent State. On the 11th 
day of April 1777, Thomas Youxa, of Philadelphia, an ardent 
friend, wrote a letter to the inhabitants, that after learning ^'the 
minds of several of the leading members, '' he could assure them, 
that they liad nothing to do but to choose delegates to a convention, 
who should choose delegates to the General Congress, and form a 
constitution for the State." And he added, as a reason, why noth- 
ing more had been done in their behalf, '• until you incorix)rate, 
and actually announce to Congress your having become a body ix>li- 
tic, they cannot treat you as a free State '* 

In the meantime measures had been taken preparatory to a dec- 
laration of independence, and at an adjourned meeting of the con- 
vention, held at Westminster, on the loth day of January, 1777, 
composed of delegates from all the Counties, a fornial declaration 
was adopted, •* that the district of territory, known by the name 
and description of the New Hampshire Grants, of right ought to 
l)e, and is hereby declared forever hereafter, to be considered as a 
free and independent jurisdiction or State, by the name of New Con- 
necticut, alias Vermont." And at a meeting of the convention 
afterwards, on the 4th day of June following, it was resolved that 
the State should be called Vermont. Jonas Fay, Thomas Chit- 
TENDEX, Hkman Allex, and Rkuben Jones were appointed a com- 
mittee to present to congress the above declaration, with the reasons 
which induced it. 

In pursuance of the advice of Mr. YouxG, the delegates who had 
been chosen for that purpose, met at Windsor, on the 2d day of July 
1777, and adopted a constitution, fixed a time for the choice and 
meeting of the legislature under it, and appointed a committee of 
safety to act in the meantime. The session of the convention was 
closed in haste, occasioned by the news of the invasion of the country 
by a formidable force under General Burqoyxe ; and by reason of 
that event and the movements which followed, notice for the election 
and meeting of the legislature was not seasonably given. The con- 
vention was therefore again called together, revised the constitution, 


and appoiatoJ ihc sgcoikI Thursday of March 1778, for the meeting 
of the As.sciribly. Mr. YoUN'(} had recommended the new consti- 
tution of Pcnnsylvaniii, providing for a single legislative body, -with 
some alteration of the powers of the governor's council. This rec- 
ommendation was adopted. But the people of Pennsylvania soon be- 
came dissatisfied with their constitution, and added a senate to the 
legislature. Ours remained with little alteration until the year 
1835, when it was also amended so as to provide for a senate. 

Against all these proceedings the Xew York government sent to 
Congress their remonstrances. On the other hand, the Green Moun- 
tain Boys, continued to urge their claims to be acknowledged as an 
independent State, and to be admitted into the Union. They 
claimed, that in declaring their independence, they only imitated 
the example of the Continental Congress ; that th(J colonics were 
oppressed by the British government, and they had been oppressed 
by the Xew York government ; that all the civil and political insti- 
tutions of the country, which had b3cn citablished under the author- 
ity of the crown of Great Britain, had been dissolved by their scp- 
aratioQ from that government, and so far as the government was 
concernetl, all were reduced to a state of nature, and were left to 
form such govenmient as they might choose ; and that, in this re- 
spect, the people of Vermont were in the same condition as the 
othei: territories, and had the same right to establish tlieir own gov- 
ernment. As early as the loth of May 1776, and before the dec- 
laration of American independence, the Continental Congress, re- 
cognizing the disorganized state of the country, and the propriety 
of a legal organization, before the adoption of such declaration, had 
*' resolved, that it be recommended to the respective assemblies and 
conventioriS of the United Colonies, where no government, sufficient 
to the exigencies of their affairs, has been hitherto established, to 
adopt such government as shall, in the opinion of the representatives 
of the people, best conduce to the happiness and the safety of their 
constituents in particular, and America in general." 

But Congress was placed in an embarrassing and delicate position, 
"between two fires." They saw the danger of irritating either 
party. Their proceedings were therefore vacillating in the extreme. 


What they did at one time wa3 undone at the next ; and no filial 
decision was ever adopted hj that body. 

In the modiitiinc the Vermonter3 continued to adopt measures to 
reduce the government to system and order, in its operations over 
all parts of the State. The hihabitants were also becoming, not 
only accustomed to, but satisfied with, its operation. The settle- 
ment of the State and its population were rapidly increasing and 
adding strength to the. government, and the claims of New York 
were tliercby becoming every year more hopeless, and the condi- 
tion of the friends of that government more uncomfortable. 

Ethan ALTii:y, wlio had been captured in Canada in 1775, and 
held by the British a priboner of war, being exchanged and re- 
leased in May, 1778, soon returned home and resumed his posi- 
tion as leader of all the active operations of the State. 

The government of Vermont did not hesitate to extend its juris- 
diction and authority over the adherents of New York, as well as 
others. There still remained in Brattleborough, Guilford, and other 
towns in Windham county, in the year 1779, many individuals of 
this class, who endeavored to oppose the proceedings of Vermont. 
These were taxed and drafted into service as others, and " a sum of 
money was assessed on those who were supposed to have done least 
in the war.'' Some ^^ acquiesced in it rather than contend.-' 
Among other acts, the Vermont party, in the spring of that year 
*' ordered Capt Jamfs Clay, Lieut Bknjamin Wilson" and 
another, who w^ere militia officera appointed by New York, "to 
provide a man to go into the service." But they failing to obey the 
order, two of their cows were seized, and ordered to be sold, to pay 
the man hired by the Vermontcrs. On the day appointed for the 
sale. Colonel Patterson, who commanded the regiment of militia 
under New York, with his " field oflScers and a considerable part 
of the regiment," assembled and rescued the cattle, and delivered 
them to the owners. Within a week or two^ EteaiJ Alleit, with 
an armed body of troops, appeared there and arrested and imprisoned 
Colonel Patterson, and nearly all the officers of the regiment 

The legislature of Vermont, at their session in February, 1781, 
passed " a general act of amnesty in favor of such persons," who 


liad opposed its authority. Upon which those persons submitted to 
the authority of the State, and took the oath of allegiance. After- 
wards, the legislature, for the defence of the frontiers, ordered ** a 
quota of men to be raised in the several towns throughout the State." 
And thereupon the same ** disaffected persons,*' *^ in the town and 
vicinage'of Guilfoixl, in the southern part of the County of Wind- 
ham" raised a formidable opposition *'to the raising and paying 
of them," and for the purpose. of aiding the opposition, the govern- 
ment of New York appointed several of the disaffected persons to 
'* civil and military offices," who undertook to use the laws of the 
State of New York over the citizens of this State. Upon which 
Ethan Allkn, at the head of a military lorco was sent by order 
of the governor '* to assist the sheriff of Windham County, in the 
execution of the laws." Timothy Phelps, sheriff, TiMotuy 
CnURCH, colonel, and more than one hundi-ed civil and military 
officers and privates, were arrested and brought before the courts, 
and five of them were sentenced to banishment, and confiscation of 
property, and others to fines and imprisonment. 

These proceedings were occasions for new appeals from Governor 
Cli^jton to Congress for their speedy and efficient interference. 
On occasion of the latter proceeding, Congress, on the 5th day of 
December, 1782, adopted resolutions, condemning, in severe terms, 
the action of Vermont, and among other things, requiring the peo- 
ple of that State, '' without delay to make full and ample restitu- 
tion to Timothy CnuRcn, Timotuy Phelps, Henry Evans, 
William Shattuck, and such others as have been condemned to 
banishment, or confiscation of estate, or have been otherwise de- 
prived of property," " and that they be not molested in their per- 
sons or properties, on their return to their habitations in the said 

These resolutions were answered in a very spirited letter from 
Governor ChittkndeVj denying the authority of Congress to in- 
terfere in the internal proceedings of Vermont, containing a very 
able argument in justification of their measures, and promptly re- 
fusing to obey the requirement of Congress. The General Assem- 



bly also adopted a letter to Congress, embracing more concisely the 
same sentiments. 

These are among the last acts of interference, in the aflfaira of 
Vermont, on the part of Congress, or the New York government. 
The legislature of that State, on the first day of March, 1786, 
thought proper to make the compensation, which Vermont had re- 
fused, to the last mentioned sufferers ; and granted them a township 
of land in the county of Chenango, eight miles square, named 
Clinton, now Bainbridge. 

In the meantime the people of Vermont, with quiet and undis- 
turbed prosperity, continued to press forward in their career of 
separate and independent existence, with increasing indifference to 
the hostility or favor of any exterior power. At length on the 15th 
day of July, 1789, the legislature of New York, tired of the 
fruitless controveray, giving up all hope of reducing the territory 
to her jurisdiction, and desirous, it is said, of increasing the north- 
ern influence in Congress, which Vermont might bring, passed 
an act appointing commissioners, with full power to acknowledge 
her independence, and settle all existing controveraies. On the 
22d of October following, the legislature of Vermont appointed 
commissioners on their part with similar powers. *= On the 7th of 
October, 1790, the commissioners agreed upon the boundaries and 
the terms of settlement ; that Vermont should be admitted into tho 
Union, and on such admission all claims to jurisdiction on the part 
of New York, should cease, and as a compensation to those, who 
claimed lands under New York, Vermont should pay thirty thou- 
sand dollars. On the 28th of the same month, the legislature of 
Vermont passed an act, accepting the boundaries and settlement, 
and agreeing to pay $30,000. On the 10th of January, 1791, a 
convention of delegates chosen for the purpose, passed and sub- 
scribed a resolution, '* approving, assenting to and ratifying " the 

• The commissioners appointed on the part of New. York "were Kobsbt Yatkb, 
JouN Lamsino, Jr., Guuen Verplaxk, Simeon De Witt, Egbert Bensun, and 
Melakcton Smith, and on the part of Vermont, Isaac Tichexoh, Stephen R. 
Bradley, Nathaniel CnirM\N, Elijah Pains, Ira Allen, Step.i en Jacob and 
Israel Smith. 


Constitution of the United States ; and on the 18th day of Februa- 
ry of that year. Congress passed an act, "that on the 4th day of 
March " following, " the State of Vermont shall be received and 
admitted into the Union, as a new and entire member of the United 
3tatc3 of America.'* 




The revolutionary war, which had been ended, some years before 
Vermont was admitted to the Union, furnished but few incidents, 
which can properly constitute a part of the history of Addison 
County. Very few permanent settlements had been made in tlio 
county before its commencement. It is said that James McIntosh, 
a Scotchman, commenced a settlement in territory now in the 
city of Vergenncs, in the year 1766 ; and other settlements were 
made on the creek above the falls in New Haven, now Walthara, as 
early as 1769. Col. John Chipman, in 1766 made a small clear- 
ing on his farm in Middlebury, but did not return to it, with his 
family, until 1773 ; and in the latter year several other families 
were settled in that town. And it is said that in the charter limits 
of Middlebury, there were thirteen families, and in that part of 
Cornwall, afterwards annexed to Middlebury, eight families, before 
the war. Col. Philip Stone commenced preparation for a settle- 
ment on the border of the lake in Bridport in 1768, and several 
other families were settled in that town before the war. JouN 
Cn artier also commenced some improvements, on the south end 
of Mount Independence in Orwell some years before the war, 
but no permanent settlements, we believe, were made in that town 
until after the war. As stated on a previous page, John Strong, 
Zadoo Everest, David Vallance, Benjamin Kellogg, and 
probably a few others, had made preparations for a settlement, 
on the borders of the lake in Addison, in 1765, and took posses- 
sion with their families in 1766. The late Squire Ferris, of 
Vergennes, in a statement made to Philip C. Tucker, Esq., to 
which we have referred elsewhere, says that his father, PkT£R 


Fbiris, came to and settled on the shore of the lake in Panton, in 
1765. Mr. Ferris, and his wife came through the woods from 
Bennington County, on horse back, he carrying his son Squire 
then two years old in his arms ; and that there were then no settle- 
ments on the lake, and that the nearest, and only neighbors were the 
British garrison at Crown Point. A few other families were settled 
there before the war. The first settlements, by families, in Whiting 
and Leicester, were in 17T8, in Cornwall and Monkton in 1774; 
in Weybridge, and in that pirt of New Haven, since annexed to 
Weybridge, in 1775. In no other towns in the County had perma- 
nent settlements been .made at that time ; and in the towns men- 
tioned, the number of families was small. 

After the retreat of the American troops from the disastrous ex- 
pedition into Canada, in 1776, and especially after General BuR- 
GoY.NE, in 1777, with his formidable army, came up the lake, 
sweeping away every resistance before him, a large proportion of 
the settlers deserted their farms, and removed to places of greater 
safety at the south. The lake and its foils being in possession of 
the British, the whole country lying opposite was exposcil to ma- 
rauding and foraging parties of British, Indians and tories, who 
plundered and carried off all such moveable property as was left 
behind and desired by them. And in 1777, while the British 
were in quiet possession of the forts, before the surrender of BuR- 
OOYNE in October of that year, several of the men were taken 
captive ; and such as remained in captivity until the occuiTcnce of 
that event were then released. The family of Col. Stone, living 
on the lake shore, in Bridport, was, among others in that region, 
frequently annoyed by bodies of Indians, who visited them for 
plunder. But as they did not generally, molest the women and 
children, except for plunder, he kept out of the way and remained 
safe for some time. But in October 1777, having been falsely 
charged by & tory, as being concerned in burning his house, a 
British vessel in the lake sent a boat on shore, captured him and 
carried him a prisoner to Ticonderoga, where he was confined about 
three weeks, and until the fort was evacuated after the surrender 



Samuel Blodoett, a son of Asa Blodgett, an early settler in 
Cornwall, now Middlebury, had built him a log house, just over the 
present line between Middlebury and Cornwall, where he resided 
many years afterwards. About the same time, ia 1777, a scouting 
party came upon him and took him prisoner, tied him to a tree, and 
threatened to bum him. But being a freemason, he made himself 
known to the British officer commanding the party, who was also a 
mason, and he was released and takeft to Ticonderoga, where he 
was set to work with a team. 

At tlie same time James Bentley senior, who had settled in 
Middlebury, and his daughter were at the bonae of Blodgett, and 
to escape from the Indians, he crawled into a hollow log, and the 
women threw brush over the entrance and so eifectually concealed 
him, that he escaped. 

The following account of the capture of Eldad Andrews, taken 
in 1777, at the same time as Samuel Blodgett. was furnished by 
Mr. RuFUS Mkad, who obtained it from those who received it di- 
rectly from Mr. Andrews : 

Eldad Andrews, one of the first three settlers in Cornwall, was 
taken by Indians, and carried across the lake. The savages came to 
his house, while he was in the field at work ; finding Mrs. A. en- 
gaged in making cheese they devoured the curd and everything eat- 
able in the house, without committing any personal violence. Leav* 
ing the house, they captured Mr. A. and took him to Ticonderoga. 
He was at length released and an Indian deputed to row him across 
the lake. Mr. A. had not gone far before he discovered the Indian 
on his trail, and the conclusion was that the Indian coveted his scalp. 
He made no sign however, but armed himself with a heavy club. 
As twilight came on, he passed a deep ravine, in going into which 
he passed over a large fallen tree, and laid down behind it concealed. 
His pursuer was soon standing over him on'the log. Andrews was 
a man of great physical strength, and did not give the savage along 
time to ascertain his whereabouts, when with a heavy blow with his 
club on the side of his head, he leveled the Indian, and marched 
home without further molestation, and without inquiring the &te 
of his pursuer. 


Joshua Gr.u^es and his son Jesse Graves, while hoeing corn 
on the bank of the creek in Salisbury, on the farm since owned by 
the late JoStPil Smith, on which they were among the earliest set- 
tlers in that town, were captured at the same time by about two 
hundred Indians. The widow of Josepu Smitu was a daughter of 
the younger, and grand-daughter of the elder, Graves; and the 
farm has ever remained in the family. The captives were 
the settlement of jEitEiiiAa Parker in Leicester, where he and his 
son, Jeremiah Parkeu, Jun. were also captured, and all the pris- 
oners were taken to Ticondcroga. The two elder captives were soon 
released ; but the two younger were detained prisoners, on board a 
vessel, for three weeks, until there was time to send to Canada and 
get a return. 

Asa Blodgktt, father of Samukl Blodgett, above mentioned, 
who had settled on the creek in the south part of Cornwall, and re- 
mained after the general retreat of the inhabitants, was taken pris- 
oner also by the Indians. His captors placed him on a stump, with 
a rope around his neck, the end of which was thrown over the limb 
of a tree. He remained in this position for some time, expecting 
instant death, with which the Indians threatened him ; but he was 
afterwards released. The facts we have stated relating to the cap- 
ture of Asa and Samuel Dlodgktt, and the escape of Bextley, 
were received from the late Abraham Williamson of Cornwall, 
and his wife, who was a daughter of Samuel Blodgett. 

But the most serious and extensive depredations, on tlie inhabit- 
ants of the County were committed in the fall of 1778. In the 
early part of November in that year, a large British force came up 
the lake in several vessels, and thoroughly scoured the country on 
both sides. Such of the men as had the temerity to remain on their 
farms until that time they took prisonei-s, plundered, burnt, and de- 
stroyed their property of every description, leaving the w;omen and 
children to take care of themselves as they could, in their houseless 
and destitute condition. Not a town in the County, where any set- 
tlements had been made, escaped their ravages. The only building 
in Middlebury, not wholly destroyed, except two or three in the 
southeast part of the town, which they seem not to have found, was 


a barn of Col. John Chipman, which had been lately built of grecit 
timbct, which they could not set on fire and which they tried in vain 
with their imperfect tools to cut down. Tho marks of their hatchets, 
on the timbers, are still to be seen. 

As there ui-e no public documents or history, within our know- 
ledge which give any general account of these proceedings, in other 
twvns, and all the persons concerned in the transactions are supposed 
to be dead, we have collected information from such sources as were 
in our power ; and instead of condensing it into a continuous naiTa- 
tive, we choose to give it as we have received it from the several 

The following statement was made by Philip C. Tucker, Esq., 
of Vergcnnes, principally from information obtained by him, at our 
request, from Nathan Griswold and Asaph Gkiswold, sons of 
Nathan GRrswoLD, one of the captives : 

*' In the month of November 1778, the following persons of tho 
north and west portions of Addison County were taken prisoners by 
the British forces, and transported on board British vessels to Can- 
ada : Nathan Griswold, taken in that part of New Haven which 
is now Vcrgennes, John Griswold and Adonijae Griswold, in 
that part of New Haven which is now Waltham, and David Gris- 
wold, of New Haven. These four men were brothera ; Eli Rob- 
erts and DuRAND Roberts, father and son, were taken at Ver- 
genncs; PtTLR Fkuris and Squire Ferhis, father and son, of 
Panton, were taken on the west side of Lake Champlain, while 
hunting ; Joseph Holcomb, Elijah Grandy and — : — Spalding 

at Panton, John Bishop at Monkton and Hopkins at New 

Haven. These were part of the captives taken during the fell of 
1778, consisting in all of two hundred and forty-four. They wero 
all taken to Quebec and imprisoned. Tradition says, that but forty- 
eight were brought back in June 1782, and exchanged as prisoners 
of war at Whitehall." 

*'0f the thirteen persons above named, all returned but one. 
John Griswold Jun. enlisted on board a British vessel at Quebec, 
upon a promise, that he should be restored to his liberty, on the ar- 
rival of the ves.^el in Ireland. He was never heard of afterward. 


All these men are believed to be now dead. The deaths of ihoso 
known are as follows : Nathan Guiswold, died at Waltham, 
July 17, 1811, aged 85 years; David GrasvroLD, at New Haven, 
August 11, 1820, in his 60th year; Adoxuah Griswold, at 
Green County, Illinois, in 1847, aged 88 years ; Eli Roberts, at 
Vergennes, in 1806, age unknown; Duhand Robeuts, at Ferris- 
burgh, in 1817, aged 57 years ; Peter Ferris, at Pant on; in 
1811, aged 92 years ; Squirk Fi:RRts, at Vergennes, Jfarch 12, 
1849, aged 87 years.'' 

The following information was communicated by MiLo Stow, 
Esq., of Weybridge, son of Clark Stow, one of the captives men- 
tioned below, and publish c<l in the Middlebury Register^ August 
30, 1854. A short memorandum, which we have seen in their 
family records, of their capture, imprisonment, and the death of 
D.wiD Stow, in the hand-writing of Clark Stow, authenticates 
the principal facts. 

"November 8, 1778, a marauding party of British, Indians 
and tories, invaded the quiet homes of four families in this vicinity, 
being the only inhabitants in Weybridge, burned their houses and 
eflfects, killed their cattle and hogs, and took Thomas Sanford, 
and his son Robert, David Stow^ and his son Clark, Clatdius 
Brittel and his son Claudius, and Justus Sturdevant, and car- 
ried them prisoners to Quebec. The four wives and their young 
children, for eight or ten days, occupied an out-door cellar of Mr. 
Sanford, at this place, till our troops from Pittsford came to their 
rescue. Dayid Stow died in prison, December 31st, 1778. 
Thomas Sanford, and two others from Vermont, Gifford and 
Smith, escaped from prison, and after wandering through Maine 
and New Hampshire, reached their families. The rest of the 
prisoners, after extreme suffering were discharged in 1782." * 

• A handsomo marble monument has i^ccently been erected on the site of the 
oat-door ceUar, in which the women and children found shelter, in memory of 
the captivity of these men. The pedestal, base, die and cap, make the height 
about eight feet. The above is the inscription on one side. 

Not liir from this monument, is a remarkable slide, on the bank of Otter Creek. 
It occurred in the fore part of July, 1819. Cuables Wales, with his family and ^ 
mether resided in % house on the ground, and in the course of the dny, the houa« 



The following, in addition to the above, we have received directly 
from Mr. Stow. The prisoners, on their aiTival at Quebec, were 
for a time kept on board a prison ship ; but were afterw-ards re- 
move to a prison on land. While there they dug through the 
walls of the prison and escaped, but were retaken and recommitted, 
except Thomas Sanford and one or two others from Vermont, who, 
after wandering a long time through the wilderness of New Hamp- 
shire arid Maine reached their families.* Those who were recom- 
mitted dug nearly through the wall a second time, and a large pro- 
portion of them, in the spring of 1 780, were sent ninety miles 
down the St. Lawrence, and were there set to work. But Clark 
Stow, being then young, was selected hy a French lady, and em- 
ployed by her as a house servant, until lie, with the rest, was ex- 
changed and released in 1782. After his release in October he 
went to Great Barrington, Mass., to which the family had removed, 
and in March, 1783, they returned to Weybridge. 

The following account of the capture of some of the inhabitants 
of Bridport, their imprisonment and escape, we have abridged from 
the account of Bridport, given by Mr. Thompson, in the first edi- 

Beemcd to tremble and crack, for which the inmates could not account. But in the 
evening they became alarmed, and letl the house, but Mr. Wales stood still on the 
ground. Between nine and ten o'clock in the evening, the land, to the extent of 
nearly two acres, suddenly sank about eighteen feet perpendicularly, the man 
going down with it was not hurt, but escaped to the bank. The house went down 
and was shattered to pieces, and the cellar and chimney were never found. The 
bank of the creek rested on a body of blue clay, which was crushed out by the 
incumbent soil and ejected into and across the river, forming a solid and impene- 
trable dam, which stayed the whole current of the creek, until nine or. ten o'clock 
the next morning. A similar slide of less extent took place since, near by, on the 
farm of Bknjamjn Wales, and near his house. 

• We have the following story from undoubted authority. When Mr. Sakfokd 
was captured he had two horses and a colt which were left behind without any 
one to take care of them, lie returned, as related above, after three years absence, 
expecting to find his horses dead. But he found them alive, except the colt, which 
the Indians shot They had lived on the Beaver Meadows, in the neighborhood, 
and were found some distance from where Sanford left them. They had become 
very wild; but Sanford had given each of them a name, and when he called 
them by their names they came to him and were easily taken, they recognizing 
tflthvr llint namor. or their master's voice. 


tion of Lis Gazetteer. The facta, it is presumed, yrcre obtained 
firom some of the party, as all but one were then alive. 

Nathan Smith, Marshall Smith and Jonx Ward, who had 
just been married, who had ventured to remain on their ferms, in 
Bridport, while most of the inhabitants had removed, being together 
on the 4th day of November, 1778, were taken by a party of 
British, under Major Carletox. He collected in that vicinity 
thirty -nine prisoners, men and boys. They were put on. board a 
vessel in the lake and carried prisoners to Canada. They reached 
Quebec December 6, and were kept in prison sixteen months and 
nineteen days. In the spring of 1780, after two dreary winters, 
in which several of the party died, the prisoners had liberty to 
remove thirty leagues down the River St. Lawrence, to work. 
About forty went,"among whom were the two Smitqs and Ward. 
They landed the first of May, on the south side, where the river 
was twenty-seven miles wide. In the night of the 13th, eight of 
the prisoners took a batteau and crossed the river and landed in a 
perfect wilderness. They here separated into two parties, Justus 
Sturdevant. of Weybridge joining the three Bridport men. They 
traveled by night, and when in the neighborhood of settlements, 
secreted themselves in the woods by day. They occasionally met 
Frenchmen, who appeared friendly ; but on the 20th, when nearly 
opposite Quebec, they called on two Frenchmen for aid in crossing 
a swollen river. One of them stated that he was an officer, and 
dared not let them pass. He seized his gun and declared them 
prisoners. The other took up an axe, and both stood against the 
door to prevent their escape. Nathan Smith said to his comrades, 
"we must go," and seized the man with the gun, and the other 
prisoners laid hold of the other Frenchman, and they thrust them 
aside, and all escaped except Sturdevant, who remained a prisoner 
until the close of the war. Some days after, four Indians, armed 
with guns and knives, came upon them, but they sprang into the 
woods and escaped, and traveled all night until noon the next day, 
when being not far from Three Rivers, they lay down and slept. 
But soon each was awakened by an Indian having fast hold of him. 
They were committed to prison at Three Rivers. Three sides of 


the prison were of stone, the other of wood. After being in 
prison three weeks, they began to cut into the wooden wall with a 
jack-knife, and in a week had cut through it sufficiently to escape into 
an adjoining room. Having drawn a week's provisions, they cut 
up their bed clothes, and let themselves down, so near the window 
of the room below, that tliey saw the officers there assembled, and 
were not more than a rod from tlie sentinel in his box. Thence 
they continued to travel by night, and lay by in the day time. 
To supply themselves with food, they took a lamb in one place and 
a turkey and other fowls in others. They kept off from the river 
to avoid the Indians, who they learned were in pursuit of them, 
and had been offered a bounty for their apprehension. They at 
length crossed the St. Lawrence and traveled to the River Sorel, 
and thence through the wilderness, with incredible hardships and 
Buffering, having killed an ox on the way for their sustenance, and 
at length arrived at the house of Asa IIemenway, in Bridport, 
which alone had survived the desolations of the war. The next 
day they reached the picket fort at Pittsford. From the time of 
their escape, ninety miles below Quebec, including their imprison- 
ment, they had not changed their clothes, and had few left to bo 

The following graphic account of the capture and imprisonment 
of Peter Ferris, and his son Squire Ferris, with some antece- 
dent and accompanying events, is an extract from an article pub- 
lished in the ** Vergennes Yernwnter^^ February 26, 1845, which 
was written by Philip C. Tucker, Esq. The facts contained in 
it were communicated to him by Squire Ferris in his lifetime. 

" In October, 1776, upon the retreat of General Arnold up 
the lake with the American fleet, after the battles fought near Val- 
cour Island, he run the remaining part of his vessels, four gun 
boats and the galley, *^ Congress,'^ which Arnold himself com- 
manded, into a small bay, which still bears the name of ** Arnold's 
Bay," and the shores of which were upon Mr. Ferris's farm. 
Some of the remains of those vessels are yet visible, though they 
were all partly blown to pieces and sunk when Aunold abandoned 
them. An incident of their destruction, not known to history, is 


related by Squ.R2 Ferris, a son of Mr. Ferris, then in his four- 
tosnth year. Lieutenant Goldsmith of Arxold^s galley had been 
levercly wounded in the thigh by a grape shot in the battle near 
Valcour Island, and lay wholly helpless on the deck, when the or- 
ders were given to blow up the vessels. Arnold had ordered him 
to be removed on shore, but by some oversight he was neglected, and 
was on the the deck of the galley when the gunner set fire to the 
match. He then begged to be thrown overboard, and the gunner, 
ort returning from the galley, told him he would be dead before she 
blew up. He remained on deck at the explosion, and his body was 
seen when blown into the air. His remains were taken up and 
buried on the shore of the lake. To the credit of Ar^^old, he showed 
the greatest feeling upon the subject, and threatened to run the gun- 
ner through on the spot. The British fleet arrived at the mouth of 
the bay before the explosion of Arnold's vessels, and fired upon 
his men on the shore, and upon the house of Mr. Ferris, which 
stood near the shore. Some grape shot and several cannon shot 
struck Mr. Ferkis's house. Mr. Ferris and his family returned 
with Arnold to Ticonderoga ; from whence they aficrwards went, 
for a short time for safety, to Schaghticooke in the State of New 
York. All Mr. Ferris'S moveable property at Panton was either 
taken or destroyed by the British. His cattle, horses and hogs 
were shot, and his other property carried oflF. His orchard trees 
were cut down, his fences burnt, and nothing left undestroycd, but 
his house and barn.'' 

" After some weeks had elapsed Mr. Ferkis returned to the re- 
mains of his property, and endeavored to repair his injuries, so 
fiir as possible. He had restored his fences to preserve a crop of 
winter grain sowed the previous autumn, and had got in his spring 
croi», when in the month of June following, the army of General 
BuRGOYNE came up the lake. A considerable portion of the army, 
commanded by General Fhaser, landed at Mr. Ficimis's farm, en- 
camped there for the night, and utterly destroyed them all. Two 
hundred horses were turned into his meadows and grain fields, and 
they were wholly ruined. Gen. Fraskr had the civility to promise 
indemnity, but that promise yet waits for its fulfilment. 


" In the autumn of 177G, Mr. Ferris and his son, Squire Ferris, 
assisted in the escape of Joseph Everest and Phineas Spalding from 
the British schooner Maria of sixteen guns, then lying at anchor off 
Arnold's Bay. These two men were Americans, who had been 
seized in Panton and Addison, and made prisoners for favoring tlie 
American cause. Both were taken from the schooner in a dark 
night and conveyed on shore in a small canoe. Squire Ferris, the 
son, was also of a small party in the winter of 1770-77, who seized 
upon two Englishmen, supposed to be spies, near the mouth of Otter 
Creek, and delivered them into the hands of Gen. St. Clair at Ti- 

*'In the year 1778, the British made a general capture of all the 
Americans they could reach on the shores of Lake Champlain, who 
were known to be friendly to the revolutionary cause. In Novem- 
ber of that year, Mr. Ferris and his son started upon a deer hunt, 
on the west side of the lake. When near the mouth of Putnam's 
Creek, about six miles south of Crown Point, they were seized by 
a body of British soldiers and tories, commanded by Colonel Carle- 
ton, and carried on board the schooner Maria, then lying at Crown 
Point, near the mouth of Bulwaggy Bay. They were the first 
prisoners taken in the gi-eat attempt of the British to sweep the 
shores of the lake of those inhabitants, who were friendly to the re- 
publican cause. On the same night, detachments from this vessel 
burnt nearly all the houses along the lake from Bridport to Ferris- 
burgh, making prisoners of the male inhabitants, and leaving the 
women and children to suffering and starvation. Mr. Ferris's house 
and all his other buildings were burnt. Forty persons were brought 
on board the next day ; and within a few days, the number reckoned 
two hundred and forty-four ; part of which were put on board the 
schooner Carleton of sixteen guns, which then lay at the mouth of 
Great Otter Creek. The forces, which came out in the Maria and 
Carleton, were originally destined for an attack upon Rutland, but 
their object having become known by the escape of an American 
prisoner, Lieut. Benjamin Everest, that project was abandoned, and 
they were employed in desolating the country, and stripping it of 
its inhabitants. The vessels proceeded with their prisoners to St. 


Johns ; from thence they were marched to Sorel, and it wa^the in- 
tention of the captors to have continued their march down the St. 
Lawrence to Quebec. At Sorel they crossed the St. Lawrence, and 
soon after a heavy snow storm came on, which making it impossible 
to continue the march, trains were seized in all directions, and on 
these they were driven to Quebec. Here they were confined in pris- 
on. Soon after some of them having contrived to escape, thoy were 
divided, and about one hundred of them were sent down the river 
one hundred miles and employed in getting out timber for building 
barracks. Mr. Ferris and his son were sent among this number in 
the month of January 1779. In the spring following nine of thep ris- 
oners, among whom were Mr. Ferris and his son, seized a batteau 
in the night, in which they crossed to the east side of the river, 
where it was fifteen miles wide. On landing they set the batteau 
adrift, separated into two parties, and made the best of their way 
up the river. They had brought provisions with them, and avoid- 
ing the settlements, and travelmg only in the night, the party, with 
which the two Ferrises remained, arrived opposite the Three Rivers 
on the fourth day. They crossed in the niglit, but were discovered 
and retaken. The remainder of the party did not get so far, hav- 
ing been retaken by a body of Indians in the neighborhood of Que- 
bec. The party of the Ferrises were put into jail at Three Rivers, 
where they remained eighteen months. During this time they made 
one attempt to escape, but were discovered and were then placed in 
a dungeon for seventy-two days. At this time the father and son 
were separated. 

" Squire Ferris, the son, describes the dungeon where he was 
confined, as an apartment eight feet by ten, and so low that he 
could not stand up in it. and that the one occupied by his father 
adjoined it, and was of the same character. The only light was 
admitted by a small hole about eight by ten inches in size, which 
was crossed by iron grates. The hole which admitted this light 
was level with the ground, and the water from the eaves of the jail 
poured through it into the dungeon, whenever it rained. The straw 
given them to sleep on was frequently wet in this way, and the 
confined air. dampness and filth, not to be avoided, made their suffer- 


ings oft the severest kind. While they were confined here, another 
place was prepared for them, to which they were transferred after 
the dungeon suffering of scvcnty-two days. This place was oppo- 
site the guard room, and upon being removed to it, they were told, 
* you daumed rebels, you can't get out of this.' Here the father 
and son were again put together in the same room. The place was 
not however so impregnable as was supposed, for in about six weeks 
the prisoners made an excavation under the wall, in the night, and 
made their escape. There were six prisoners in the room at this 
time. Upon escaping, the parties separated, Mr. Ferris and his 
son remaining together. They went up the river nearly opposite 
Sorel, where, two days afterwards, they crossed the St. Lawrenco 
in a canoe, and took to the woods. Their design was to reach 
New Hampshire, but having lost their way in the woods they 
struck Missisque River, down which they went a few miles, and 
were again retaken by a British guard, who were with a party 
getting out timber, and by them were carried again prisoners to 
St. Johns. They were taken twenty-one days after their escape, 
and had been nineteen days in the woods, during all which timo 
they had only a four pound loaf of wheat bread, one pound of salt 
beef and some tea for food. They made their tea in a tin quart 
cup, and produced fire by a flint and the blade of a jack-knife. 
For four days before they were retaken, they had nothing for food 
but tea, and were so weak they could hardly walk. The forces at 
St. Johns were tlien commanded by Col. St. Leger, a brutal drunk- 
ard, who ordered the prisoners to be ironed together, and put them 
in a dungeon for fourteen days. At the end of which time, and 
ironed hand in hand to each other, they were sent to Chamblee, 
and from there by the rivers Sorel and St. Lawrence to Quebec. 
At Quebec they were returned to their old prison, in which they 
remained until June 1782, when they were brought from thence to 
Whitehall and there exchanged for British prisoners. From their 
capture to their exchange was three y^ars and eight months. 

After the escape of the Ferrises from below Quebec, the prisoners, 
which remained in prison at Quebec were divided, and a*part placed 
on board a prison ship in the river. Soon afterward, camp fever, aa 


it was then called, broke out among tliem, and many of them died. 
Of the two hundred and forty-four prisoners taken in the neighbor- 
hood of Lake Champlain, in November 1778, and carried to 
Canada in the schooners ilaria and Carleton. only forty-eight were 
known to have returned. The elder Ferris died in the year 1811, 
at the age of ninety-two ; and of the other forty-seven, Squire 
Ferris, of Vergennes, his son and fellow prisoner, is supposed to bo 
the only survivor. * Several of these prisoners received pensions 
from the general Government, but Squire Ferris, their companion in 
sufferings, though poor and needy, and though an applicant for 
many years, has never received the bounty of his country." Besides 
those mentioned above, the following persons, of whose captivity wo 
have no definite information, were taken and carried to Quebec at 
the same time : Benjamin Kellogg and Joseph Everest, of Addison. 
Major Orin Field, of Cornwall, has furnished us with a detailed 
and interesting account of the capture and imprisonment of the 
late Benjamin Stevens, of that town, as he received it from Mr. 
Stevens, a relative, in whoso family he resided. lie was captured 
with three others, in a boat on Lake ( hamplain, near Split Rock, 
in Charlotte, in May, 1779. Being pui*sued by the tories and 
Indians from the shore, and one of the men, Jonathan IloAvley, 
being killed by a shot from the pursuers, they surrendered. Ste- 
vens was then seventeen years old and resided in Rutland County. 
He not then residing m this County, and therefore not strictly 
within our province, we give only an abstract of Major Field's 
narrative. The prisoners were taken to Cbamblee, "thrust into a 
small prison, ironed two together and fed for nine days on no other 
food than dry peas uncooked. From thence they were taken to 
Quebec, where Mr. Stevens spent three New Year's days in one 
room." Twice they made their escape, and after traveling a long 
time in a destitute and suffering condition, at one time in the dead of 
winter, and apart of the time living on roots and the bark of trees, 
until one of the party died, they were retaken and recommitted, 
and in June, 1782, were exchanged at Whitehall. Mr. Stevens 
settled in Cornwall in 1792, and died June IG, 1815, aged 53 years. 

* Squire Febbis died at Vergennes, March 17, 1810, nged 87 years. 





The tract of land west of the mountains, embracing the* valleys 
of Lake Champlain and Otter Creek, when first cleared up, was as 
celebrated for the production of wheat as Western New York has 
since been. It was the principal staple among the productions of 
the County. The following facts will give some idea of the value 
of this crop. At the close of the last war with Great Britain, the 
people of the County were almost hopelessly in debt. At the June 
tenn of the County Court in 1817, the number of civil causes en- 
tered at that term, amounted to more than five hundred, and nearly 
all for the collection of debts. This pressure of indebtedness was 
wholly relieved by the crops of wheat raised in the County. The 
very cold, dry and unproductive season of 1816, had rather in- 
creased than diminished the pressure. But the following season 
of 1817, brought to the relief of the farmers more luxuriant crops,- 
especially of wheat, than any other within our recollection. The 
excessive drouth of 1816 had prepared the stifiFest soils to be 
thoroughly pulverized by tilling. Large fields were sown ; the 
season, with its gentle and frequent showers and genial sunshine, 
was most favorable, and the crops singularly abundant. The 
winter following, the price of wheat in Troy, the principal market, 
was from two dollars to two dollars and twenty -five cents a bushel ; 
the sleighing was excellent, and was faithfully and industriously 
improved by tlic farmers, and the large returns brought great 
relief to them. The favorable crops which followed had, three years 
after, in June, 1820, reduced the whole number of new causes 
entered, to ninety-eight. 

But the insecty^ rust and frost have, in late ycai'S; greatly dimin- 


ished the crop and discouraged the farmers. Sut it is thought the 
fanners might without much trouble, rnisc sufficient for the bread 
of the County, if they did not choose to direct theur attention to 
more profitable husbandry. Good crops of com and potatoes, and 
large crops of beets, carrots and other roots for stock are produced, 
and the latter are becoming common among the farmers. Except on 
the hills and rising grounds, the soil is generally too stifiF to bo 
advantageously cultivated for these crops. But most farmers have 
patches of land suitable for raising them in sufficient quantities for 
tlieir own use. Oats are produced on almost any of the lands, 
which the farmers have courage to till sufficiently. Rye, barley 
and buckwheat are also raised to some extent. 

But the soil of the County is best adapted to the production of 
grass and the raising of stock. And no County perhaps, in this or 
any other State can exhibit a finer or more abundant display of 
horses, cattle or sheep. It is the common opinion of farmers, that 
grass, grown on the clay or marl lands of the County, is much 
more nutricious, than that which is grown on lighter soils. The 
editor of the Albany Cultivator^ in the number for July, 1845, 
after visiting Addison County, says : ** Judging from appearances, 
it is our opinion, that we have never seen any other land, which is 
capable of sustaining as much stock to the acre." ** Stock of all 
kinds will and do actually fatten on this hay. It is a fact that oxen 
bought in the fall, in only store condition, if properly sheltered and 
fed on this hay, become in the spring fit for slaughter, and are sent to 
Brighton market without any other feeding." For this reason, and 
because of the failure of the wheat crop, the farmers have, for the 
last twenty or thirty years, directed their attention to the raising of 
stock, and especially of sheep. One evil has resulted from this 
change in the agriculture of the County. The business of grazing 
requires large farms to satisfy the ambition of the enterprising ; and 
the large profits have enabled the more wealthy to crowd out the 
smaller land owners and send them to the west. The result has 
been, that, in several of the principal agricultui-al towns, the 
number of the farmers, and of course of the population has con- 
siderably diminished. 

90 nisTonY or* addison county. 

Instcjul of going into a detailed history of the transition from 
the former to the present branch of agi»iculture ; or the cause of 
the change, we take the liberty to quote several passages from an 
excellent '* address delivered at the annual fair of the Addison 
County Agricultural Society, October 1st, 1844," by Hon. Silas 
H. Jenison, late governor of the Stale, tlien a resident of Shore- 
ham, but since deceased. He was a practical fanner and well 
acquainted with the subject. 

Refemng to the earliest history of agriculture in the County he 
says : '* Among other products of the soil, it was found as favora- 
ble to the production of wheat as any other section of the country 
then open to the agriculturist. "Wheat consequently early became the 
staple product of the county.'' *' Addison County became noted 
for the quantity and quality of the whea,t. The whole force of the 
farm was directed to the increase of .this crop.'' "During the 
third period of ten years, extending to 1820, the high price of 
wheat continued to influence the business of the farmer. Many 
fields had been by successive cropping, exhausted of their native 
fertility. Wheat, when sowed to the extent it had been raised 
for years before, became a less profitable crop. Farmers were 
awaking to the importance of manuring their old fields." And 
this conviction. Governor Jenison represents, was a reason that 
the farmers gave more attention to the raising of cattle for the 
purpose of providing manure for their wheat crops, and he adds : 

" The number and quality of our cattle was increased and im- 
proved. With many farmers, the raising of cattle for market 
became the leading business. The cattle from the County began to 
be prized in market, and Addison became as noted for the excel- 
lence of its cattle, as for its wheat. The excellent grazing qualities 
of the soil were known and appreciated. Indeed, I have heard it 
remarked, that the butchers of Brighton could distinguish, by the 
appearance and feel, the fat cattle from this part of Vermont, 
from those in market from other places ; and that cattle from this 
part of the State, of the same apparent flesh, had the preference 
with them, opening better, having a greater quantity of tallow and 
beef of superior quality and flavor."' 


" A circumstance, referable to this period, has had great influence 
on the subsequent pursuits and prosperity of the farming interest 
of the County. Several individuals, awakened to the wants and 
capabilities of the country, by privations and embarrassments expe- 
rienced during the interruption of our commerce with foreign 
countries before and during the war with Great Britain, did, at 
great expense, and incurring the penalty of all innovators — being 
laughed at by their neighbors — introduced into the County the 
Merino sheep. xYmong the foremost in this beneficent work, were 
Refine Weeks, Daniel Chipman, George Cleveland, and Horatio 

"During the next period of ten years, bringing us to 1830, the 
agriculture of the County appears to have been in a transition 
state.'' *^ While some of the farmers had, as a main business of 
the farm, embarked in rearing cattle, and others in increasing their 
sheep, many had not abandoned the idea, that wheat might still 
be a staple product of the County for exportation. They still per- 
sisted in the business, notwithstanding the increasing failures of tlie 
crop, caused by the exhaustion of the soil, ravages of the Hessian 
fly, spring killing, blight or rust. But in 1827 or 1828, an ene- 
my to the wheat crops appeared, which baffled all the efibrts of the 
farmer to evade. The insect commonly, but improperly, called the 
weevil — that name belonging to an insect that preys on the wheat 
after it is fully ripened and harvested. The insect alluded to is a 
small, orange-colored maggot, and commits its depredations on the 
berry, while in the milky state, leaving the head and almost disap- 
pearing from the grain, when ripe. By a late writer in the Cul" 
iivator, it is called the wheat midge. As early as 1829, its rav- 
ages had increased so that, in some towns, in the County, scarcely a 
field escaped.'' 

" When the wheat crop failed, those engaged in the business had 
to resort to some other branch of farming. The tenacious quality 
of much of the soil of the County, forbid the cultivation of hoed 
enqpB, and the raising of pork, as a substitute. I have before 
remarked, that the Merino sheep had been spread through the 
County vith wonderful rapidity. Indeed, so rapidly was the char- 


acter of the flocks changed, that as early as 1824; in many towns, 
a considerable flock of native sheep could not be found." 

Of the raising of horses, as a department of agriculture, Gov. 
Jenison has not particularly treated. In what we have further to 
say, we propose to speak, separately of sheep, horses and cattle. 
And first of 


In the address from which we have so largely quoted, Governor 
Jenison says, '* The increased prices obtained for wool, and the 
avidity with which it was sought in market, after the passage of 
the tariff act of 1828, pointed to that business as more lucrative 
than any other. A majority of the farmers eagerly engaged in 
increasing their flocks of sheep. The lesult has been, that Addi- 
son County had in 1840, in proportion either to territory or popula- 
tion, a greater number of sheep, and produced more wool than 
any other county in the United States. To show the truth of 
this remark, I refer to facts drawn from the statistical tables ac- 
companying the census returns of 1840, and from other sources. 
There arc nine States which had more than one sheep to each in- 
habitant, to-wit : Pennsylvania, Virginia, Maine, Kentucky, Con- 
necticut and Ohio, with a portion more than one ; New Hampshire 
and New York had about two and one-fourth, and Vermont had 
five and three-fourths to each inhabitant. Should territory be 
regarded, Vermont will be found to have 185, New York 112, 
and New Hampshire 65 to the square mile." 

** Addison County, when compared with the other counties in 
the State, will be found to have eleven and six-hundredths, Rut- 
land eight and eighty-five hundredths. Grand Isle seven and four 
hundredths, and Bennington six and nineteen hundredths to each 
inhabitant. If territory be regarded, Addison has three hundred 
and seventy-three, Grand Isle three hundred and thirty-four, 
Rutland two hundred and eighty -three, Windsor two hundred and 
sixty-one. Orange two hundred and forty and Chittenden two hun- 
dred and twenty -one to a square mile.'' ** This array of figures is 
no idle speculation. They represent facts, which show the immense 


Stake the fanners of Addifjon County possess in this branch of 

If we had the time and the resolution, we should like to draw a 
similar comparison from the census of 1850. But we have neither. 
In order, however, to give as good an idea as we are able, of what 
has been and is the amount of transactions in this department, we 
have collected from a few of the principal farmers, who are engaged 
in this business, some facts relating to their operations. The design 
of them all has been to improve their flocks, as well by breeding as 
purchasing, that they may be able to supply the market with the 
best wool and best sheep. 

Rollin J. Jones, Esq., of Cornwall, having decided in 1844, to 
engage in sheep husbandry, proceeded to make careful selections 
from several of the best pure blood Spanish Merino flocks in New 
England, in every instance paying for a first clioice. In his first 
purchase, he expended about two thousand dollars. From these 
have been bred his present flock, and those he has sold of that breed. 
And his experience in breeding this class of sheep, has more and 
more confirmed him as to their value. Sales have been made of 
these in most of the New England, Middle and Western States. 
In many places, where they have been introduced, they have ob- 
tained premiums at State and County fairs over numerous compet- 
itors. In 1849, S. B. Rockwell, Esq., of tlie same place, now re- 
siding in Middlebury, became associated with him as a partner. 

Messrs. Jones and Rockwell, since their connection, have been em- 
inently successful. In 1852, owing to repeated applications for 
French Sheep, which had been introduced into the country about 
six years before, they invested in the purchase of these sheep 
$2,200 ; a part of which included a first choice from the flock of 
Merrill Bingham. These sheep, they say, were the most perfect of 
the kind they had ever seen. In 1853, they purchased of Soloman 
W. Jewett, of Weybridge, one entire shipment of French Sheep, 
imported by him in April of that year. These purchases, with 
some subsequently made, cost $18,000. For several years previous 
to the spring of 1855, when this information was communicated, 
their annual sales varied from eight to twelve thousand dollars. For 


the cijlitccn raonths next preceding, they amounted to iJfoG. 000. 
They hiive been in the practice, as many of the principal dealers 
bavo hoen, of taking their sheep for sale to the Western States, es- 
pecially to Ohio. Their flock on hand, at the date above mentioned, 
numbered six hundred, one half imported French Merinos, and their 
descendants. They have a high opinion of the French as well as 
Spanish Merinos, and th'.nk a cross between these breeds would be 

William 11. Sanford, Esq., of Orwell, and Messrs. William S. 
and Edwin Hammond of Middlebury, hjive, for several years, been 
extensively engaged in breeding and dealing in sheep. For our 
convenience we treat of the operations of these parties together, as 
they have been, to some extent, connected, and much of our infor- 
mation relating to both, has been obtained! from Edwin Hammand. 
Escj. They both breed the pure Spanish Merinos, descendants of 
the flock, which Col. Humphreys, who was at the time American 
Minister to Spain, imported into Connecticut in 1802, or of the 
flocks, which William Jar vis, Esq., then American Consul in Spain, 
imported in 1809, ISIO and 1811. These they greatly prefer to 
any more recently imported, or to any other breed. The usual flock 
of Mr. Sanford numbers from 250 to 600. Messrs. Hammond's 
flock, at this time, (1855) numbers 400, including lambs. The 
sales of both have been uniformly made at home. 

In a communication from Mr. b'anford, published in the Albany 
CifltlvcUorj for September 1844, he says : *' In 1829, I purchased 
of Messrs. Grant and Jenison of Walpole, N. II., twenty old full 
blood Itf erino ewes, v*iiich were purchased by them, when lambs, of 
Hon. Mr. Jarvis, and warranted full blood. These I have kept dis- 
tinct and pure, and from them have reared a flock. The ewes yield 
an average of four pounds and over to the fleece of clean, hand- 
some wool. Messi-s. Grant and Jenison, bought these sheep from 
Mr. Jarvis before the Saxony sheep were introduced into the coun- 
try, and were of course pure ; and since I have had them, I have 
taken a good deal of pains and trouble to keep them so. I have 
purchased three superior bucks from Mr. Jarvis, and by using them 
and my own rearing have kept them pure.'' Since the above, Mr. 


SoJiford has made several purcliaaia, to a largo amount, of desocmd- 
ants of Col. Humphreys' flock. At the National Exhibition of 
cattle and horses, at Boston, m October 1855, Mr. Sanford obtained 
the second premium on Spanish Merino bucks, two years old and 
over ; the first premium on bucks under two years old, and on ewes 
the two first premiums; and at the Vermont State Fair at Rutland, 
in September of that year, the first premium on Spanish Merino 
buck lambs and ewe lambs. 

In 1844, Messrs. Ilaramond, wishing to improve their flock and 
extend their operations, examined the moit important flocks in 
several New England St*ites, and among others, that belonging to 
Stephen Atwood, of Watcrtown, Conn., and selected and purchased 
from his flock, thirty, and in the next four years several more. 
These Mr. Atwood had from Col. Humphreys' flock, under such 
circumstances, that he had satisfactory assurance that they were 
pure and free from Saxony and otlicr breeds. From these their 
present flock has been bred. 

Mr. Sanford and the Messrs. Hammond, having for several years 
increased and improved their flocks by breeding '' in and in," were 
desirous of finding other sheep, at least as good as theirs, to cross 
with them, and Mr. Sanford, in bahalf of both parties, went to 
Europe for the purpose of examining the best flocks in the diflerent 
countrieSj and of purchasing the best he could find. He examined 
the most distinguished in Spain and France. In the former country 
he found none which he was willing to import ; in the latter ho 
purchased twenty French Merinos. He went then into Germany, 
and, with the advice and aid of the American Consul, at Stuttgard, 
who had made himself thoroughly informed on the subject, and who 
accompanied him for a fortnight, he examined the most celebrated 
flocks in the diflerent States of Germany, and extended his examina- 
tion as far as Prussia, and there purchased twenty Silesian sheep. 
These and the French sheep he imported. The French are much 
larger than the Spanish Merinos, or their descendants, with fleeces 
in proportion. But Mr. Hammond states, that the wool is not so 
even, varying in different parts of the body. The Silesian sheep 

are smaller than the Spanish, but the wool is fine. They did not 


regard either of these as an improvement of their flocks and imme- 
diately sold them. 

Mr. Edwin Hammond thinks the Spanish sheep have improved 
greatly since their importation into this country, and especially in 
this County; and that there are better sheep in the County of Addi- 
son than in any other part of the tcorld. This opinion is founded 
on his own personal examination of many of the best flocks in this 
country, and the examination by Mr. Sanford and others of the 
most celebrated flocks in Europe. He offered, he said, to Mr. 
Sanford, on his going to Europe, one thousand dollais for a pair of 
imported sheep, cw good as his, with a view of crossing them with 
his present flock ; but Mr. Sanford found none such during his tour. 

The price of Mr. Hammond's sheep has increased every year. 
In 1853 their sales amounted to ^7,000 ; in 1854 they sold two 
ewes for $1200, and six others for $;1200. Their bucks that year 
were sold from $500 down to $10 — the latter being culls. The 
whole averaged $29, each. They have this year (1855,) shearetl 
from two two year old bucks, 22 and 23 pounds ; in 1854, from 
one yearling ewe 12, and from one two year old ewe 13 pounds. 
The wool was not washed on the sheep, but was clean. 

Solomon W. Jcwett, Esc{., of Weybridge. had for many years 
been an extensive dealer in grade sheep. In 1843 he began to 
interest himself in pure blooil sheep. He purchased of the de- 
scendants of the Merinos imported by Col. Humphreys, Mr. Jarvis 
and othera. Among others he purchased the celebrated buck 
*' Fortune," a descendant of Mr. Jarvis' s importation. Mr. Jewett 
raised from that buck about 200 lambs annually, which he sold 
fi'om ten to twenty-five dollare. and some as high as $50 each. 
He sold several sheep sired by this buck, to Henry S. Randall, Esq., 
of Cortland Village, N. Y., on which he received the first and 
second premiums at the State Fair at Poughkeepsie in 1844, and 
with which, together with Jlr. Jewett's buck, he published, a 
challenge for competition, to the whole country. 

In 1845, Mr. Jewett imported from England ten Spanish Meri- 
nos from the flock of Lord Weston, of Essex, w ho was the most 
mi'M hreodcr. and lind the l)est Hock of Spnni^h sheep in^ England. 


Six hundred of theie slicep, he states, having been presented, in 
1803, to George III. That king gave Lord Weston the privilege 
of selecting from the flock, when first landed at Plymouth. These 
Mr. JcTvett thinks were much inferior to the best flocks in this 
country. From the above, and some oflicr additions, he kept for 
several years a flock of from 500 to GOO blooded sheep. 

In 1851, Mr. Jewett went to Europe, for the purpose of examin- 
ing and purchasing sheep, and has been twice since for the same 
purpose. In France he purchased, at fifteen or twenty shipments, 
seven hundred French Jlerinos, which he selected from the three best 
flocks in that country, owned by Jlcssrs. Gilbert, Cugnot and 
Guerin, and a few from the government flock at Rambouillet. These 
sheep, including XJxpenses cost about $55,000. He has sold most 
of these at an average of about $100, each, the sales amounting to 
from 15 to 20,000 dollars annually. lie sold one pair, a buck and 
ewe at $600. He also imported from Spain in 1854, ten sheep, 
through Mr. Haddock, the American Minister to Portugal ; but not 
bemg such as he wished to keep, he butchered them. 

As to the relative value of the difiercnt breeds of sheep, Mr. 
Jewett' s opinion is, that, if the farmer's object is to raise mutton, 
as well as wool, the French Merinos of the first quality are the best ; 
but for wool only, the Spanish. Ho has had an opportunity, not 
only for a personal examination of the best flocks in this country 
and in Europe, but has examined the published accounts of the 
weight of the fleeces of Spanish sheep in both countries, and his 
opinion is that they have greatly improved in this country since 
their importation. Referring particularly to the flock of the Messrs. 
Hammond of Middlebury, he expressed the opinion, that the fleeces 
of their sheep exceed, by one third or more, the fleeces of the native 
Spanish sheep. Indeed he expresses the decided opinion, that their 
flock is the best flock in the world. 

Alonzo L. Bingham and Merrill Bingham, brothers of Cornwall, 
have been as loftg and as extensively engaged in the sheep business as 
any other farmers in the County. They have been not only largo 
breeders but large purchasers ; and have sold large numbers for 
many years in the Western, Middle and Southern States. From 

104 nrsTaiiY oy addi^ox col'-N'tt. 

Merrill Biiigbam personally, wo have had no information. From 
Alonzo L. Bingham, we learn that he has been engaged in the 
breeding, purchasing and selling sheep for twenty years. He, for 
many years and until 1846, devoted his attention exclusively to 
Spanish Merinos, purchased from different importers. 

In 181C, ho commenced breeding French Merin(», and has im- 
ported large numbers through John A. Tainter, Esq., of Hartford, 
Conn. He now prefers the French slicep, and gives his whole at- 
tention to thcra. When his attention was given to the Spanish, ho 
had a flock of twelve hundreil. — aitliougli not always so many — 
and raised annually from four to five hundred, bince he com- 
menced with French sheep, his flock has been less ; but he has 
raised from them annually more than he has ewesj — many of them 
having twins. At the State fair in the fall of 1855, he received 
not less than nine premiums on different classes of French sheep. 

In the Vermont Reghter of May 31st, 1854, we find an article 
containing a statement of his sales from September 1st 1853, to 
May 1st, 1854, from which we collect the following summary. 
The sheep were French Merinos, and the amount of sales, during 
the above mentioned eight months, was- ^43,302,50. All but the 
amount of ^'7,033, which were sold by an agent at the west, were 
sold by himself on his farm in Cornwall, to persons living in each 
of the States of Virginia, Ohio, Michigan, Pennsylvania, Hlinois, 
New York, Missouri, Connecticut and Vermont. He states also, 
that his sales of sheep for the last year,* have amounted to 
between thirty and forty thousand dollars ; and that the average 
price for which his French sheep have been bold, is ^175. Mr. 
Bingham thinks, that both the Spanish and French sheep are 
greatly improved by being raised in this County. He says it is 
admitted, all over the west, that the sheep of Addison County are 
superior to any others; and that Mr. Tainter, who has been a large 
importer, says, that he found no such Spanish shec^p in Europe, as 
in this County, and that French sheep are also greatly improved here. 

* Wo wish the reader to bear in mind, that the materials for these chapters wero 
obtained in 1855 and the chapters written at that time, 


As a specimen oF the weight of Mr. Bingham's fleeces, at his 
sheep-shearing in 1852, (we have no Liter information) we give the 
following extract from an editorial article in the Middlebury Reg- 
ister of May 26th of that year. *• We select the following particu- 
lar instances from those sheared on the first day. 


No. 16 107 pounds. 21 pouncb. 

'' 23 91} '' 20 

'* 25 134i '' 23i '' 

'' 26 89i '' 19i '' 

*• 33 llli '' 18 '' 

There were thirty- three sheared on that day, ** nearly or quite all 
yearling ewes." 

The agriculturists named, are probably the most extensive deal- 
ers in the County. But there are many others, who are largely 
engaged in breeding and in the improvement of their fbcks, in every 
part of the County; some of whom arc more or les3 also employed in 
the trafic. But we are not able to detail their operations. The 
raising of wool takes precedence of all other branches of farming in 
almost every town. We should be glad to avail ourselves of any 
means in our power to give a definite statement of the number of 
sheep, and the annual amount of the crop of wool in the County. 
We have spoken of the extensive trafic as an historical fact. But 
it is the breeding and improvement of the flocks, which is the more 
appropriate business of the agriculturist. The success which has 
attended this department has induced the trafic, to which we have re- 
ferred. The speculations and the extravagant prices and profits, 
which have arisen from this source may to some extent die away, 
when the country is more generally supplied with the best breeds ; 
but while the County sustams the reputation of raising the best 
sheep, there will be a market for them for recruiting and improving 
the flocks in less fAVored regions of the country. 




Tilii: standing of Vermont is generally strikingly shown by tLc 
reports of the Boston cattle market ; in which the number from this 
State appears, from week to week, to be nearly double those of any 
other New England State. Of these, Addison County, we believe, 
furnishes its full share ; and it is represented, that the exhibitions, 
at the annual County fairs, are not inferior to those of any other 
County. Buf the farmers have made fewer efforts in that depart- 
ment, than in those of sheep and horses. Wo regret that, with all 
our diligence, wc have not been able to ascertain, fix)m those who 
best know, what efforts have been made and the success which has 
attended them. At an early day, Thomas Byrd, Esq., of Vergen- 
nes, and soon after General Amos W. Barnum, of the same place, 
introduced into that neighborhood a considerable number of import- 
ed English breeds , and the full blood and cross breed of Ayer- 
shires, Ilerefords and Durhams, are quite common in the north part 
of the County, and, to some extent, prevail in other parts. Wight- 
man Chapman, Esq., then of Weybridge, kept on his farm, for 
eight or ten years, a very celebrated Ayershirc bull, presented to 
him by John P. Cushing, Esq., of Massachusetts, which was es- 
teemed by n^any the bes\ bull in the country. The, editor of the 
Albany Cultivator^ who had examined him, in the number for 
August 1845, says : " He is a good bull, has a small clean head, 
clean limbs, a well shaped body and mellow skin. With the excep- 
tion of Mr. Archibald's bull, sent to the Poughkeepsio Show from 
Montreal, he is decidedly the best bull we have ever seen.'' The 
blood of this animal has been extensively diflfused through the 
cattle in the central parts of the County. Governor Jenison, in the 


address, from "which we have so largely quoted, in referring to the 
" effects and general results of the introduction " of foreign breeds, 
says : *' I venture the assertion, that where a favorite individual is 
found, could the pedigree be traced in most instances, you would 
not go many removes back before you ^Y0uld inin against some 
one of the imported improved breeds of stock.'' But the num- 
ber of full bloods of any of these breeds is quite limited. Cyrus 
Smithy Esq., of Vergeimes, has a celebrated Durham bull, which 
took the fii'st premium at the State fair in Rutland, and at the Ad- 
dison County fair at Middlebury this year, (1855) Alonzo L. Bing- 
ham of Cornwall, obtained S3vcral premiums, at the State fair, on 
Darham, ILurcforl and Dovon cattle. Jloratio Plumley of New 
Haven, has a full blood Durham cow, from which he haa raised 
several excellent calves, and obtained, at the County fair, the sec- 
ond premium on a bull, which was one of them. W. R. Sanford, 
Esq., of Orwell, two or three years since, imported two cows and 
one calf of the Devonshire breed, has bought a few since, and now 
lias eight full bloods, besides two, which he lately sold to the Messrs. 
Hammond of Middle»>ury, who from them have raised two calves. 
Mr. Sanford says, that the beef of this breed sells higher in Eng- 
land than any other. At the National Exhibition in Boston, and 
at the Vermont State fair, he received several premiums on Devon 
cattle. At the State fair Messrs. Hammond obtained the first pre- 
mium on bull calves of this breed. 

We are glad to learn that a movement is in contemplation for the 
improvement of cattle in the County. 


The reputation of the County, and the enthusiasm in the breed- 
ing of horses, among the farmers, do not suffer much in comparison 
with those in regard to sheep. Vermont horses have a reputation 
through the whole country. The priginal stock consisted of such 
as were common in the States from which the emigmnts came. 
In some of these States, and especially Connecticut, considerable 
efforts had been previously made to improve the stock. In the 
year 1810, Ep. Jones, Esq., introduced and kept in Middlebury. 
for three or four years, a very beautiful, full -blood Arabian horse, 


called the ** Young Dey of Algiers." His descendents fonncd a 
very excellent breed. But the farmers had not then come to ap- 
preciate sufficiently the improvement in horses to patronize the high 
priccrii, which his services required, and ho was removed. Since 
that, at various times, different stallions have been kept in the 
County, and among them the " Old Messenger,'' an imported En- 
glisli horse, and his descendants ; from which the stock has been 
from time to time improved. 

The present prevailing stock consists of the different branches of 
the Morgan horse. These originated from the horse generally 
known by the name of the ** Justin Morgan." This horse was 
l)rought, when two years old, by Justin ]\Iorgan, from Springfield, 
Mass , from which place he removed to Randolph, Vennont, in 
the year 1705, and was kept by him there until March, 1798, 
when Mr. Morgan died. lie was then sold to William Rice, of 
Woodstock. It does not appear that he was much thought of, or 
that much care was taken of him, until the excellence of his stock 
was revealed by his colts. His sire was the *• True Britain, or 
Beautiful Bay," which was raised by Gen. Delancey, commander 
of the refugee forces on Long Island, and was afterwards kept one 
season by Justin Morgan. The True Britain was sired by the 
Traveller, an imported horse also owned by Gen. Delancey. The 
dam of the Justin Morgan was said to be a descendant of Wild Air, 
imported also by Gen. Delancey. Mr. Joshua Scott, of Vcrgennes^ 
who has been acquainted with the Morgan horses from the first of 
that breed, has a record which traces back the pedigree of the sire 
and dam of the first Morgan to the Arabian Horse Godolphin, in 
England, which we do not think of importance enough to insert 
here. Mr. Scott states that four of the colts of Justin Mortran 
were kept as stallions, and from them were derived the several 
branches of that breed ; to- wit : *^ AVoodbury," owned and kept by 
Mr. Woodbury, at Rochester, Vermont, until twelve years old, and 
afterwards owned successively by Mr. Walker, of Chelsea, and Peter 
Burbank, of Newbury; ^^ Sherman," owned by Mr. Sherman, of 
Barre, and afterwards kept by John Bellows, Esq., of Bellows 
Falls; *' Bulrush," raised in Williamstown, and " Revenge," kept 


for a while in this State, and afterwards removed. The dams of 
the Woodbury and Sherman were of English descent. Mr. Scott 
thinks that three-fourths of the horses now generally known as 
Morgan, are of the Woodbury branch. Among the colts of the 
Woodbury was the Gifford. This was the sire of the Green Moun- 
tain Morgan, whose dam was also of that breed. This horse is or 
was owned by Silas Hale, of Barre, Mass., and, we believe, is the 
most noted of those known as Morgan horses. He was kept two 
seasons, a few years since, in Middlebury, in this County. The Gif- 
ford was also kept by Mr. bcott, in 1831, in the same place. The 
llacket Horse, owned and kept by Col. Hacket, in Middlebury, for 
several years, was sired by t}ie GifT^jrd, from a Woodury dam. The 
Flying Morgan, sired by the Hacket horse, and owned by Riley 
Adams, of Burlington, and distinguished for his speed in trotting, was 
for some time kept in this County. Woodbury 2d, raised by Mr. 
Scott, and now eight years old, is still kept by him in Vergennes, 
and is the only real Woodbury horse kept for mares in the County. 

Mr. Weissinger, one of the editors of the Louisville, Ky., Jour- 
nal^ who, some ten years ago, made a tour through Vermont, and other 
eastern States, and took pains to examine the best horses of the 
general Morgan breed, as quoted by the Cultivator^ says, "There 
is no doubt whatever of this, that the breed of the Morgan horse 
was and is now, in the few instances where it can be found, far tho 
best breed of horses for general service^ that was ever in the United 
States, probably the best in the world; and it is remarkable, 
that this breed was and is now known by many striking peculiari- 
ties, common to nearly every individual.'' 

The old Woodbury Morgan, at twenty years old, was sold for 
$1300. Mr. Hale says, '' several stallions, begotten by Green 
Mountain Morgan," of which he was the owner, *'havesoldas 
high as $1500 ; many have brought prices ranging from ,<j800 to 
$1200 ; geldings and mares from $300 to $800 : few less than 
$200. The Woodbury and other breeds generally designated as 
Morgans, are less generally found in this County than in the eastern 
part of the State ; and in New Hampshire and Massachusetts, 
having 1)een generally sold and removed. 


The Black Haiyk and his descendants are more generally found 
here. This horse was sired by the Sherman Morgan, then owned 
by John Bellows, Esq., of Bellows Falls, and his dam was a largo 
black mare and fast trotter, and is said to have been a hali-blood 
English, raised in New Brunswick. IJe was raised by Mr. Twom- 
bly, of Greenland, N. H.. and when four years old, was purchased 
by Benjamin Thurston of Lowell, Mass. In the year 1844, 
David Hill, Esq., of Bridport in this County purchased him of 
Mr. Thurston, and has kept him in that place ever since. Mr. 
Weissinger, from whom we have before quoted, says of him, *' I 
think he deserves all the praise that has been bestowed on him. 
He is the finest stallion I ever saw. His legs are flat and broad, 
shoulders well set back, loin and back bone very strong, length of 
hip beyond anything I ever saw, as quick in breaking as the bullet 
from the rifle, head and neck faultless ; in motion, mouth open, 
crest sublime, legs carried finely under him, square and even, and 
fore legs bending beautifully." Wo might quote other printed 
descriptions and recommendations of him, but it does not comport 
with our design. 

Nearly all his colts more or less exhibit his traits. In this 
County they have become very common. Almost every farmer 
is anxious to obtain a Black Hawk colt. Ue has also a high repu- 
tation in almost every State. Probably the stock of no hors^, ever 
kept in this country, has been so extensively known and so highly 
appreciated. Mr. Hill says, — *^ It is claimed by many of our best 
judges, that this is a new and permanent variety or breed. By 
this is meant that they possess peculiar points so uniform and dis- 
tinct from the immediate ancestors of Black Hawk, that he is justly 
entitled to be considered the parent or head of a distinct class." 
He says also, ** Black Hawk has sired, I think, fully one hundred 
colts a year, since I owned him. His colts are now distributed 
throughout nearly all, if not all, the States of the Union, and 
several are in Canada. I know of some owned in every State 
except" five southern and south-western States. He says, **thi8 
breed of horses have great beauty and symmetry, are- high-spirited, 
yet docile and tractable : arc more generally adapted for light and 


Tapid driving ; have great courage and endurance ; many are adapted 
for the former's '* all work " horses, and few or none for the slow 
and heavy coach." 

Mr. Hill has furnished us the following information of the pricfes 
at which some of Black Hawk's colts have been sold. Fifty 
colts, including a few geldings, and mares, sold in Bridport, have 
averaged over $600 each. Eight, sold by himself, consisting of 
four fillies, one gelding, two three year old and one four year old 
Btallions have averaged over $700 each. *^The following," he 
says, "area few of the most noted of this horse's stock, with prices 
paid or offered for them. Ethan Allen, $10,000, Red Leg, a geld- 
ing, SI, 750, Black Hawk Maid, a mare, $1,600. The above 
were all from the same daifi, and raised by Joel W. Holcomb, of 
Ticonderoga, N. Y.. Belle of Saratoga, a mare raised by David 
Hill, $4,200 ; Know Nothing, a gelding, ^5^500 ; David Hill, now 
in California, $10,000; Ticonderoga, $5,000; Hammitt colt, 
$5,000 ; Sherman Black Hawk, $5,000 : Plato, three years old, 
$3,000; Flying Cloud, of Ohio, $3,000; Rip Van Winkle, two 
years old, $2,000." 

Black Hawk * is now (1855) twenty-one years old, and there is 
80 great demand for his services, that the price charged for each 
mare the present season is one hundred dollars. 

The Rutland and Burlington Rail Road, from Burlington to 
Bellows Falls, and passing through the whole length of this County, 
which was first opened about the first of January. 1850, has ad- 
vanced the prosperity of agriculture beyond any other influence. 
It has opened a direct and rapid communication with Boston and 
New York, which are adequate markets for all the agricultural 
productions of the County at high prices. The result has been to 
raise the price of all agricultural products. The price of lands in 
the vicinity, by the same means, has also been raised from 25 to 50 
per cent, and in some cases doubled. And if those who have con- 
tributed so liberally for the construction of the road, have lost their 
whole investment, the farmers have gained* as much. One obvious 

* Black Hawk has died since the above was written. 


benefit, resulting from this influence, has been to raise the amount 
and quality of the productions of the dairy. There is now no 
danger of getting any but good butter from any fanner. * 

* See Appendix No. 2, for agricultural and other products in the County. 




An agricultural society, at an early day, \7as formed in this 
County, and continued an annual fair for several years ; but soon 
declined for want of legislative encouragement. 

The legislature in 1843, passed an act to give encouragement for 
forming agricultural associations. This act authorizes the formation 
of agricultural societies in each County, wliich, when organized, 
become legal corporations with the usual powers necessary to accom- 
plish their design, and the object of them is declared to be *' to en- 
courage and promote agriculture, domestic manufactures and the 
mechanic arts.'' The treasurer of the State is authorized to pay 
annually to each society a share of two thousand dollars, appropri- 
ated for the whole State, in proportion to the population of the 
County, in which it is established, provided that as largo a sum 
shall have been otherwise raised. 

Under this act, a society was formed by a convention held at Mid- 
dlebury, on the 22d of January 1844, by the name of *^ The Addi- 
son County Agricultural Society." By the constitution adopted on 
that occasion, its object is declared to be *' the improvement of agri- 
cultural productions, useful domestic animals, domestic manufac- 
tures and the mechanic arts, so far as they concern the interest of 
agriculture.'* The payment of one dollar is made the condition of 
annual membership, and the payment of fifteen dollars, the condi- 
tion of life membership. The oflScers of the society, are to be 
a president, two vice presidents, secretary and treasurer. A board 
of managers is constituted, consisting of the above officers, and one 
member from each town, where ten members reside ; who are author- 
ized " to have a general supervision of the afliiirs of the society, 


fix upon such productions, experiments, disco verioa or attainment » 
in agriculture and horticulture, and upon such articles of manufac- 
ture, as shall come in competition for premiums at the agricultural 
fidrs, also upon the number and amount of premiums, and the time 
and place of holding fairs." The officers are to be chosen at an 
annual meeting, to be held at Middlebury, on the first Wednesday 
of January, which was afterwards altered to the fourth Wednesday 
of that month. The firat meeting was held on the same day the 
society was organized, and Hon. Silas H. Jcnison was elected presi- 
dent, and Harvey Bell, Esq., secretary. 

The first fair was held at the court house and adjoining grounds 
in Middlebury, October Ist 1844, and an address was delivered by 
Hon. Silas H. Jenison, which was printed, and from which we have 
already largely quoted. The fairs in 1845 and 1847, were held at 
Vergennes ; at the former of which an eloquent and interesting ad- 
dress was made by Rev. Dr. Wheeler, President of the University 
of Vermont. Addresses have also been made at other fairs ; of 
which we have not now sufficient information to give a correct state- 
ment. The fair in 1849 was held in Shoreham. All the others have 
been held in Middlebury. At the annual meeting in January 1852, 
the constitution was so altered as to authorize the managers to fix 
on a permanent location for the annual exhibitions ; and they, at a 
meeting in June of that year, fixed on Middlebury for that purpose, 
provided the citizens should provide suitable grounds and fixtures, 
and pay one hundred dollars annually toward the expenses. Since 
that time the fairs have been held on grounds leased from Gen. 
Nash, in the north part of the village, where temporary fixtures 
were erected. These grounds have now been sold and appropriated 
to another use. 

Several gentlemen in the County have recently purchased a tract 
of twenty-two acres, south of the court house, which formerly 
belonged to Jonathan Wainwright, including the bams and exten- 
sive sheds, erected for keeping and preparing for market his horses, 
when he was largely engaged in that trafic. Here they design to 
erect permanent fixtures upon a large scale for the accommodation 
of the annual exhibitions. Arrangements are in progress to raise 


the requisite funds to transfer the title to the corporation ; but, until 
this is accomplished the society will pay rent to the proprietors. 

Hitherto the fairs have fully tnet the expectations of the mast 
sanguine. Many of thom have been interesting and extensive, and, 
we think, have produced a favorable effect in stimulating eflforts for 
improvement, and securing advancement in all the departments 
within the province of the society. There have been exhibited an 
extensive variety of the products of agriculture, horticulture, and 
of domestic and other manufactures ; and very often of numerous 
and fine specimens of painting, drawing and various kinds of orna- 
mental work by native artists. After what we have said of the stock 
depai'tmcnt of agriculture, none will be disappointed when we say, 
that the exhibitions have been large and splendid in cattle, horses 
and sheep. 'Whatever others may say, the citizens of Addison 
County will not shrink from a comparison with the exhibitions of stock 
of any other County in thd State, or perhaps of any other State. 

The following have been the presidents and secretaries of tho 


1844 Silas 11. Jenison, 1848. 1844 Harvey Bell, 1847. 

1848 Elias Bottum, 1850. 1847 E. W. Blaisdell, Jr. 1850. 

1850 Charles L. Smith, 1852. 1850 Joseph II. Barrett, 1857. 

1852 Harvey Munsill, 1754. 1857 Justus Cobb, still in oflSce. 

1854 Edwin Hammond, 1857. 

1857 William R. Sanford, still in office. 


The legislature, at their session in 1813, passed an act author- 
izing several physicians in each county by name, to form themselves 
into County Medical Societies, by the name of the Medical Society 
of the County in which they should be formed. And the societies 
were severally to be corporations with the usual powers, necessary 
for the purposes, for which they were designed ; and were author- 
ized to adopt and alter a corporate seal. They were to have power 
to assess taxes on the members, *^ for the purpose of procuring a 
library nn<l suitable apparatus, and for other uses.-' provided the 


tax shall not exceed three dollars. The officers authorized by the 
law are a president, Vice president, secretary, treasurer, librarian 
and three or more liold their offices for one year, or until 
others are chosen. The several societies were required to *' hold 
semi-annual meetings in the shire town in each county, at the time 
of the sitting of tlie County Court, for the purpose of establishing 
and regulating the libraries of said society, receiving and communi- 
cating medical information, examining students,'' and any other 
proper business. The act requires that students examined and ap- 
proved by the censoi-s '^ possess a good moral character," and *• have 
pursued the studies of physic or surgery at least three years ;'' and, 
being approved, shall receive a diploma from the president, which 
shall entitle him to all the privileges of a member of the society. 
Thq same act authorizes the formation of a State Society, to consist 
of three delegates from each County Society. 

The physicians named in the act for this County are William 
Bass^ Edward Tudor, Ebenezer Huntington, Asher Nichols, John 
Wilson, Nicanor Needham, Frederic Ford Jr., John Lyman, 
Frederic Ford, William Guile, John 'Willard, Luther E. Hall, 
James Day, Dan Stone, Levi Warner, David McCoUister, Martin 
Gay, Zenas Shaw, Josiah W. Hale. 

In ])ursuance of this act the physicians named met at Middle- 
bury on the 15th of December, 1813, and organized the Addison 
County Medical Society, and elected the following officers ; Ebene- 
zer Huntington, of Vergennes, President, William Bass, of Mid- 
dlebury. Vice President, Luther E. Hall, Vergennes, Secretary, 
Frederic Ford, Cornwall, Treasurer, William Bass, Librarian, Dan 
Stone, Edward Tudor, Frederic Ford, Jr., John Lyman and David 
McCollister, Censors. Luther E. Hall and Dan Stone were ap- 
pointed a Committee to report a code of by-laws. It was further 
voted, that future meetings shall be held at Dr. W^illiam Bass's, in 
Middlebury, and that the President deliver an inaugural address, 
before the society, at their next meeting. This meetmg was ad- 
journed to the 19th of January, 1814. At this meeting the Presi- 
dent delivered his inaugural address, and a code of by»-law8, reported 
by the committee, was adopted. William Bass and Luther E. 


Hall and Dan Stone were also appointed a committee, to ^' present 
to the Society a device for a seal and form of diploma." At the 
first meeting a tax of one dollar was assessed, which at the next 
was increased to one dollar and fifty cents ; and at both these meet- 
ings, candidates were examined and licensed. 

The society thus organized continued in full life and vigor until 
about the year 1824. Dissertations and addresses on medical sub- 
jects, under appointment for that purpose, were read ; difficult and 
uncommon cases of disease and their treatment reported by the 
members ; new mcm1)ors admitted, candidates exan-iined and ap- 
proved by the censors received diplomas, taxes were assessed, 
a library collected and delegates regularly elected to the State 
Society. In 1822, the State Society commenced a series of resolu- 
tions proposing measures for the regulation of the County Societies. 
One rec|uiring the County Societies to make an annual report of 
the ** diseases prevalent in the County during the year,'' *' under 
a penalty of five dollars fine on failure ; " one prescribing new 
qualifications for tlie admission of candidates for license; and 
another affixing a penalty of five dollars for a neglect of the County 
Society to ^'scnd their proceedings to the State Society, annually, 
as required by law ; " also a regulation respectiug the dismission 
or withdrawing of members from the County Societies. 

These proceedings were fiot received with much favor by this 
County Society; and at the annual meeting in December, 1824, 
a committee was appointed to take into consideration the proceed- 
ings of the State Society, and ^'report some plan of management for 
our Library.'"' At an adjourned meeting the committee reported, 
recommending a dissolution of their connection with the State 
Society ; and another committee was appointed to confer with the 
other County Societies on the subject. At a meeting in June, 
1825, a resolution was passed instructing the delegates to request 
the State Society to " petition the Legislature so to alter the act of 
incorporation as to render the County Societies independent of the 
State Society." 

The result of the proceedings, so far as appears of record, was 
that, at a meeting in May. 1826, a resolution was adopted to '^put 


up our library at auction to the members of this Society ;*' and thef 
sale took place in June following. In the meantime, several mem- 
bers had withdrawn with the consent of the Society, few attended 
the meetings, and the measure above mentioned was adopted, we 
suppose, to close the existence of the Society. The last meeting of 
which there is any record, was in October 1826 ; when the whole 
business related to closing the financial affairs of the Society. 
The organization of subsequent societies seem to have been regarded 
as a revival of this society, formed under the act of 1813, although 
at each of th^o organizations, new constitutions were adopted. 

Dr. Ebenezer Huntington, the first president, was continued in 
that oflSce until 1823, when Dr. Luther E. Hall was appointed, 
and continued president until 1826, when Dr. William Bass was 
appointed the last president. Dr. Luther E. Hall was secretary 
from 1813 to 1820, when Dr. Thomas P. Matthews was appointed 
and continued to the close. 

On the 24th of December, 1835, a County Medical Society was 
organized and adopted a Constitution, and on the same day held its 
first meeting. Dr. Jonathan A. Allen was chosen President, Dan C. 
Stone and E. D. "VVamer, Vice Presidents, Ralph Gowdey, Secretary, 
and Atherton Hall, Treasurer. About six months after, in June, 
1836, another meeting was held, and this closes its written history. 

'*The Addison County Medical Society'' was re-organized by a 
convention held at Vergennes on the 80th day of June 1842, 
adjourned from a preliminary meeting held at Middlebury two 
weeks before. A new Constitution was then form'ed, by which the 
object of the organization is declared to be, '* to promote a knowledge 
of medical and surgical science, and a friendly intercourse among 
the members of the faculty.'' The oflScers of the Society are *'a 
President, Vice President, Secretary, Treasurer, Librarian, and 
three Censors, together with the President and Vice President, who 
sLall be ex-officio Censors," and they are elected annually. **Any 
regular pi*acticioncr of medicine, a graduate of any legally author- 
ized medical institution, who resides within the State, and shall 
sign the constitution and by-laws, and conform to the objects de- 
signed, may be a member of the society ; and any person, who sus- 


tains a good moral character may become a member, who . shall 
have studied the science of medicine and surgery three years under 
the direction of a regular practicioner, and attended at least one 
course of medical lectures, in some legally established institution, 
and has passed an examination by the censors, and by them recom- 
mended. '' Any person having passed such satisfactory examination 
*• may become a member by signing the constitution and by- 
laws, and receive, if he wish, a diploma by paying five dollars." 
According to the by-laws, meetings are to be held " at Middlebury 
semi-annually, on Thursday of the first week of the County Court." 
The first meeting was held on the day on which the Constitution 
was adopted, and Dr. J. A. Allen of MiddleUury, was chosen 
President, Dr. Dan C. Stone of Vergennes, Vice President, and 
Dr.* David C. Groodale of Addison, Secretary. 

Since the last organization in 1842, the society has been in 
efficient and successful operation. The meetings have generally 
been regularly held and attended ; and we judge many of them 
most interesting and profitable. A member at one meeting was often 
appointed to make an address or read an essay on some important 
subject at the next, and at all the meetings it was made the duty 
of each member to report such interesting and difficult cases of 
disease as had occurred in his practice, and each case was discussed 
by the other members of the socit ty. It was one of the. rules of 
the society that each person appointe^l president should make an 
address at the close of the term for which he was elected. At the 
annual meeting in June, 1847, Dr. Jonathan A. Allen, having 
officiated as President the previous year, read an address which 
was published. From this we make a quotation, principally to 
show how he regarded the influence of the organization. He says, 
"It is now five years since the Addison County Society was 
organized in its present form. During this period twenty meetings 
have been held, generally well sustained by the attendance of the 
members. Many facts, highly interesting to the profession, and 
consequently useful to the public, have been presented. Much 
valuable information has been elicited by our discussions, and wo 
have every reason to believe that not a member has failed of adding 


to hi3 general stock of practical knowledge. In addition to these 
advantages, valuable acquaintances have been formed, generous, 
elevated and kind professional feeling promoted. Many of these 
endearments will reciprocally remain among our membei's until the 
closing period of their existence. Jealousy, suspicion and want of 
confidence have been almost entirely removed from our I'anks. 
Our members meet as friends. Consultations now, in lieu of being 
objects of bickering, arc generally desired, and usually, by the 
mutual and kind expression of opinion, result beneficially to the 
sick." The whole community would feel safer if such an influence 
should prevail generally among the doctors. 

At a subsequent meeting in February, J848. the death of Dr. 
Allen was announced by Dr. Russel, who stated that " the princi- 
pal olyect of the meeting was to adopt measures suitable to * the 
occasion" of his dgath. **The President, Dr. Bradford of Ver- 
gennes, read a short but expressive paper concerning his life and 
death;" and appropriate and commendatory resolutions were adopted. 
The Society also appointed Dr. S. P. Lathrop, of Middlebury, to 
prepare a biographical sketch, which was afterwards ordered to be 
published in the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal. 

The following have been the Presidents and Secretaries of the 


181^2 Jona'n A. AUen, Middlebury ,1844. 1842 David Goodalo, Addison, 1844. 

1 844 Jo€l Rice, Bridport, 1815. 1844 S. Pearl Lathrop, Middlebury ,184G. 

1845 Dan C. Stone, VcrgenncB, 1846. 184G W. P. Russel, " 1847. 
184G Jonathan A. Allen, 1847. 1847 Charles L. Allen, still in office. 
1847 A. Bradford , Vergcnnes, 1848. Dr, Allen is also Treasurer and Librarian. 
1818 E. D. Warner, Now Haven, 1850. 

1850 Earl Cusliman, Orwell, 185G. 

185G E. D. Warner, still in office. 




The population of AJdision County does not materially differ 
from that of the other Counties in this State, and other New Eng- 
land States. The whole exhibits the influence of the spirit of emi- 
gration and colonization, which has prevailed and increased since 
the fii*st settlement of the country. The character of the wljole 
population of the country has been modified and, in many respects, 
wc think, improved by this disposition, especially in its spirit of en- 
terprise and individuality. An individual, who has courage to leave 
the place of his birth, and remove three hundred or a thousand miles 
to the outskirts of civilization to better his condition, learns that there 
are other places and people besides those he hiis left behind, and per- 
haps equal or superior to them. His views are enlarged, and his inqui- 
ries are no longer confined to the limited sphere of his early home, 
and he begins to think there may be still other regions beyond and 
elsewhere. If he has energy to remove once, he has still more to 
remove again, when profit or pleasure tempt him. He learns also 
that there are other countries beyond the oceans, which encircle 
him^ and he looks to them as fields for indulging his thirst for spec- 
ulation or his curiosity. "Wherever he locates himself, he finds 
other men and other customs and manners and ideas which are 
new to him, and which he studies, and thus improves his own, and 
shakes off his provincial habits and prejudices. 

Added to this cause, which to some extent is common to all the 
States, the early settlers of Vermont experienced a long course of 
discipline in the hardships and self-denial and energy required for 
their hard contested controversy, in defending themselves axid their 
property against the oppressive claims of exterior powers, and 
especially in the contest for their separate independence. 


Although we cannot boast of large numbers of learned men, like 
some other States, more favorably situated, we do not shrink from 
a comparison of the mass of our population, for general intelligence 
and practical energy, with any other. Not a few intelligent men, 
who have long resided in othei New England States and elsewhere, 
have expressed to the writer of this sketch the conviction, that in 
no State is the population of the same classes, and especially the 
farmers, superior, if equal, to that of Vermont. No State, we 
believe, has sent out more efficient, practical and useful emigrants to 
people the '*new countries." Vermont is an inland State, and 
agriculture is the pursuit of the great body of its inhabitants ; and 
she has no foreign commerce to build up large cities, where great 
wealth is accumulated, and learned men congregate. 

Among the most important influences, which operate in modifyiDg 
the character of our population, are our liberal institutions, placing, 
as they do, every man in the dignity and responsibility of a man. 
And paramount to all others perhaps is that of town corporations, 
which are common and almost peculiar to New England. They are 
not only pure democracies, but they are schools, in which the prin- 
ciples of democracy are taught ; where all meet on a common plat- 
form, with equal rights and powers, not only as voters, but as can- 
didates for office. So numerous and extensive are the legislative 
and administrative powers within their limits, that all have an 
opportunity to become acquainted with our laws and institutions, 
acquire habits of public business and qualify themselves for higher 
political trusts. 

Our common schools and seminaries of learning for the instruction 
of all classes, and our churches of various denominations, where all 
may meet for public worship and for instruction in their religions, 
social and civil duties, are means of spreading general intelligence 
and virtue through the community. Besides these every family is 
more or less supplied with books and periodicals, which keep them 
informed of the passing events, and remind them of their duties to 
their country and the world. The writer of this sketch has been as 
long and as advantageously situated as any one to ascertain the 
ability of all classes of men in this County to write, and he has no 


tecollection of more than one or two native Americans, residing in 
the County, who could not write his own signature ; and these were 
brought up in regions remote from schools. The twenty-five native 
Americans, who are reported in the census of 1850, in this County, 
as being unable to read or write, were probably similarly situated 
in the early settlement of the country. 

If the population of Addison County is distinguished from that 
of any other County, it is occasioned by the influence of Middlebury 
College situated among them. This influence is not confined exclu- 
sively to this County ; but no person, who has been long acquainted 
T?ith the history of that institution, has failed to observe* its influ- 
ence upon the intelligence of the community in its neighborhood, 
and in raising tlie standard of education in the subordinate institu- 
tions. Few towns, if any, in the country, have afibrded a larger 
number of young men for a collegiate education, in proportion to 
their population, than many of the towns in Addison County. 

It may be mentioned as an evidence of the peaceable and orderly 
character, as well as prosperity of the inhabitants, that courts of 
justice have less business in this County, in proportion to its popu- 
lation, than in any other County. No person has ever been 
convicted of a caj)ital oflence in the County. Four have been 
tried for murder, one in 1815 and one in 1825 ; but both were con- 
victed of only manslaughter. Another was since tried twice, but the 
jury failed in both cases to agree on a verdict, and he was dis- 
charged ; and the other was acquitted on account of insanity. 

From the foregoing sketches, it will be seen, that the County of 
Addison has sufficient resources for wealth and material prosperity, 
and that its citizens have suflicient intelligence and enterprise, in 
due time to dcvelope thorn. It will be seen also, that they have 
the means of intellectual, moral and religious improvement. And 
we may well congratulate ourselves that we live in an agricultural 
district, where there is a general social equality ; where there are 
few so rich as to excite the envy and ill-will of their neighbors, or 
to be free from the necessity of some active occupation^ or so poor as 
to need charity. We have no large cities with their accumulated 
masses of wealth, poverty and crime. We have no such wealth to 


foster extravagance, luxury and a factitious aristocracy, uitli its 
arbiti-ary conventional ceremonies, as in large cities sets at naught 
tlio ecjuality, simple manners and sober verities of the country. 
AVe arc not like them, beset on every hand by temptations to dissi- 
pation and debauchery, and we have no such masses of corruption 
to spread a moral pestilence through the atmosphere. We have no 
such large collections of the refuse population of Europe — its 
paupers and crimmals — broke loose from the restraints of govern- 
ment and law at home, that they may riot here in their imaginary 
freedom from all restraints ; who nightly disturb the peace of the 
community with riots and quarrels and murders ; and who are 
ready at the call of designing politicians, to control our elections. 
The institution of the family, so important in the country, for its 
restraints and the cultivation of the social affections, is to a great 
extent obliterated in some of the largo towns. There hiindreds of 
children have no home but in the streets, and no associates but their 
fellows in the same condition. The crowded population everywhere, 
and the artificial conventionalisms of the more wealthy households 
forbid the salutary restraints and separate and undisturbed inter- 
course of the family circle. And thus the young grow up with 
the feeling that they belong rather to the great public than to the 
family in which they were born. These evils are not to be 
charged to the inhabitants generally of larger towns, but are inci- 
dent to, and inseparable from, their position. No more moral, 
pious and philanthropic men are anywhere to be found. And yet 
the evils exist. 

Wo ought to bear in mind, that there is danger frorn this source 
to the whole country, and that a serious responsibility rests upon 
the people in the rural and agricultural districts, like the County of 
Addison, in relation to them. The influence of large commercial 
towns is gradually extending itself over the country for evil, as 
well as for good. The evil influence may, and should be counter- 
acted by an influence from the country. A large proportion of tho 
teachers and influential professional and business men, and of the 
aimual increase of the population, in the large towns, are educated 
in, and are emigrants from the country. There is besides a constant 


intercourse and mutual influence going on between the city and 
country. From the distinguished advantages enjoyed by the rural 
districts, it is, we think, their province to save the rest of the 
country. Our free institutions, as every one understands, will 
depend on the intelligence and virtue of the people. It is therefore 
the first duty of all patriotic citizens of Addison County, as well 
for their own safety as for that of the country, to encourage and 
support all needed educational and religious institutions in efficient 


No. 1. — Chisp Judges op the County Couet until the nkw oBaANizATiox of 


Names, Residence. Appointed. Left, Y*^^^^ ^^^^ OJfice 

John Strong ; ^ . . . . Addison, 1785 1801 16 

Joel Linsley, Cornwall, 1801 1807 6 

Henry Olin, Leicester, 1807 1 308 1 

Joel Linsley Corn^.aU, 1808 1810 2 

Henry Olin Leicester, 1810 1824 14 

Dorasttts Wooster Middlebury, 1824 1825 1 

Assistant Judges op County CouaT. 

Gamaliel Painter, Middlebury, 1 785 1 7^6 1 

Ira Allen, Colchester, 1785 1786 1 

William Brush, Vcrgennes, 1 786 1 787 1 

Abel Thompson Panton, 1786 1787 1 

Hiland Hall, Cornwall, 1786 1789 3 

Samuel Lane, " 1786 1787 1 

Gamaliel Painter, Middlebury, 1787 1795 8 

Abel Thompson Panton, 1789 1801 12 

Joel Linsley, Cornwall, 1795 1801 6 

Abraham Dibble, Vergennes, 1801 1805 4 

Henry Olin Leicester, 1801 1807 6 

Samuel Strong Vergennes, 1805 1808 3 

Charles Rich Shoreham, 1807 1818 6 

Henry Olin Leicester, 1808 1810 2 

Mathew Phelps, Jun., New Haven, 1810 1812 2 

Samuel Shepard, Panton, 1812 1818 1 

Samuel Strong, Vergennes, 1818 1815 2 

ExraHoyt, New Haven, 1813 1818 5 

Charles Rich, Shoreham, 1815 1816 1 

William Slade, Jr Middlebury, 1816 1322 6 

Stephen Haight, Jr Monkton, 1818 1823 5 

Elisha Bascom, Shoreham, 1822 1824 2 

Ezra Hoyt, New Haven. 1828 1824 1 

John 8. Larabee, Shoreham, 1824 1825 1 


Sam2S. Residence, Appointed. 

Daniel ColUns , Monkton, 1824 

Dorastus Woostcr, M iddlebury, 1 825 

EbenW. Judd, " 1825 

Silas H. Jcnison , Shoreham. 1829 

William Myrick Bridport, 1831 

Samuel H. Hollcy Bristol , 1838 

Calvin Solace, Bridport, 1835 

Davis Rich, Shoreham , J 838 

Calvin Solace, Bridport, 1812 

Fordyce Huntington, Vergenncs, 1842 

Dorastua Woostcr, Middlebury, 1844 

♦Jesse Grandcy, Panton, 1814 

♦Ville Laurence, Vergenncs, 1845 

George Chipman, Ripton, 1846 

Ellas Bottura, New Haven, 1847 

Calvin G. Tildcn, Cornwall, 1849 

Nathan L. Keese, Ferrisburgh, 1849 

Joseph Haywood, Panton, 1851 

Roswell Bottum. Jr.. Orwell, 1851 

tDorastus Wooster, Middlebury, 1 854 

Erastus S .Hinman, New Haven, 1854 

t Samuel Swift Middlebury, 1855 

John W. Strong, Addison, 1856 

M. W. C. Wright Shoreham, 1857 

Harison 0. Smith, Monkton, 1858 

Coo NTT Clereb. 

Samuel C hipman , Jr . , . . . . Vergenncs, 1 785 

Roswell Hopkins, «' 1786 

Darius Matthews, Middlebury, 1808 

Martin Post, •* 1808 

John S. Larabee, '* 1810 

Samuel Swift, «' 1814 

George S. Swift, ** 1846 

John W. Stewart, ** 1855 

Dugald Stewart, " 1855 

State's Attobnets. 

SethStorrs, Addison, 1787 

Daniel Chipman, Middlebury, 1797 



Ye%r:in Office 
























6 mo. 
















2 mo. 
























6 mo 





* Judge Qrandt died before June Ist, 1845; Villk Law^^bxcb was appointed 
by the Governor in his place. 
t Died January 1853 . 
X Appointed in place of D. Wooster 


Names. He Itlence. Appointetl. 

Loyal Case, Middlebury, 1804 

David Edmond, Vcrgennes. 1 808 

Horatio Seymour, Middlebury, 1810 

Dayid Edmond Vcrgennes, 1813 

Horatio Seymour, Middlebury, 1815 

*DaTidpSdmond , Vergenties, 1819 

fNoahHawley, " 1824 

Enoch D.Woodbridge,.... " 1824 

George Chipman, Middlebury, 1827 

WilliamSlade *• 1830 

Ebeneaer N. Briggs, Salisbury, 1 821 

Osias Seymour Middlebury, 1839 

Oeorge W. Grandey, Vergennes, 1846 

John Front, Salisbury, 1 848 

John W. Stewart, Middlebury, 1851 

Frederic E. Woodbridge, . .Vergennes, 1854 


Noah Chittenden, Jericho, 1 785 

Gamaliel Painter, Middlebury, 1 786 

Samuel Strong, Vergennes, 1787 

John Chipman, ^Cddlebury , 1789 

William Sladc, Cornwall, 1801 

Jonathan Hoy t, Jun., New Hiven, 1 81 1 

John Willard Middlebury, 1812 

Samuel Mattocks, " 1813 * 

Jonathan Hoyt, Jun., New Haven, 1815 

Abel Tomlnison, Vergennes, 1819 

Stephen Hught, Monkton. 1824 

Seymour Sellick, Middlebury, 1828 

Marshall 8. Doty, Addison, 1831 

AiariahRood, Middlebury, 1833 

WiUiam B. Martin '* 1835 

AzariahEood, " 1836 

EthanSmith, Monkton, 1887 

William B. Martin, Middlebury, 1639 

Adnah Smith, " 1840 

Gaiua A. Collamer Bristol , 1842 

David S. Church, Middlebury, 1844 

:(William Joslin, Vergennes, Jan. 1859 


Year sin OJice 














5 mo 

























































Jan. 1859 


♦ Died in spring of 1824. 

t Appointed by Court in place of D. Edmond. 

X Appointed by the Governor on the death of D. S. Church. 


High BAiUFra. 

Names. Residence, AppoinUd, Left. YcarsinQfice 

Samuel Mattocks, Middlebury, 1798 1806 8 

John Warren, " 1806 1808 2 

Artemaa Nixon, *• 1808 1810 2 * 

MosesLeonard, «• 1810 J812 2 

James Jewett, " 1812 1813 1 

Benjamin Clark, Weybridge, 1813 1814 1 

Eliakim Weeks, Salisbury, 1814 1816 2 

Wightman Chapman, Weybridge, 1816 1826 10 

Nathaniel Foster, Middlebury, 1826 1829 3 

John Howden, Bristol, 1829 1880 1 

Marshall S. Doty, Addison , 1830 1931 1 

Myron Bushnell, Starksboro, 1831 1833 2 

Milo W inslow, M iddlebary, 1833 1835 2^ 

Gains A. CoUamer, Bristol, 1835 1837 2 

Wightman Chapman Weybridge, 1887 1 839 2 

Harry Goodrich, Middlebury, 1830 1840 1 

Asa Chapman, " 1940 1840 9 

George C. Chapman, *' 1849 1850 1 

William Joslin, Vergennoe, 1850 1853 3 

G A. Collamer , Brislol, 1853 

JuDQEs or Probate — District of Addison. 

John Strong Addison, 1887 1801 14 

Darius Mathews Cornwall, 1801 1819 18 

Simuel Swift Middlebury, 1819 1841 22 

Silas H. Jenison Shoreham, 1842 1847 6 

Horatio Seymour Middlebury, 1847 1855 8 

Calvin G. Tilden Cornwall, 1855 

District or Nsw Eayek, 

EzraHoyt, New Haven, 1824 1829 5 

Noah Hawley, Vergennes, 1829 1831 2 

Jesse Grandey...... Pantdn, 1831 1833 2 

AdinHall, New Haven, 1833 1835 2 

Harvey Munsil, Bristol, 1835 


NO. 2. 

The following statement of ** Agriculture, Farms and Implements, Stock, 
products,*' &c., is taken from the census of 1850. 

Addison County. Acres of improTod land 243,312, unimproTcd 115,287. Cash 
Talue of fkrms ^7,799,267. ' Value of farming implements $250,270. Horses 
6,921. Asses and Mules 1. Milch Cows 10,691. Working Oxen 2,815. Other 
Cattle 18,248. Sheep 188,<54. Swine 5,822. Value of Live Stock $1,289,608. 
Value of animals slaughtered $176,856. Wheat, bushels of 103,44. Bushels of 
Rje 20,096. Bushels X)f Indian Com 175,478. Bushels of Oats 211.385. Pounds 
of Wool 622,694. Peas and Beans 26,856. Bushels of Irish Potatoes 818 421. 
Of Barley, 149. Of Buckwheat 16,659. Value of Orchard products $41,696. 
Gallons of Wine 114. Pounds of Butter, 876,771. Cheese 817,149. Tons of 
Hay 88,793. Bushels of Clover Seed 6. Other Grass Seed 1,580. Pounds of 
Hops 6,962. Of Flax 1 ,282. Busheis of Flax Seed 51. Pounds of Silk Coccoons 
76. ' Of Maple Sugar 205,263. Gallons of Molasses 659. Beeswax and Honey 
pounds of 40,654. Value of Home Manufictures $9,648. 


NO. 8. 

Tbe following table shows the population of the several towns in the County of 

Addison, at each Umtod States Oonsus, since Vermont was admitted into the Union. 

1791 1800 1810 1820 1830 1810 1850 

Addison, 401 731 1100 1210 1306 1229 1279 

Av2ry'8 Gore, 13 29 78 

Bridport, 449 1124 1520 1511 1774 1480 1898 

Bristol, 211 665 1179 1051 1274 1288 1344 

Cornwall, 826 1163 1279 1120 I26i 1163 J 156 

Forriaburgh, 481 956 1647 1581 1822 1755 20^6 

Goshen. 4 86 290 555 621 486 

Qranville, lOl 185 324 328 403 545 603 

IlancocJk,.- 56 149 311 442 472 455 480 

Leicestsr, 813 522 609 548 63? 602 696 

Lincoln, 97 255 273 689 770 1057 

^ddlebury 805 1263 2103 2535 3168 3102 8517 

Monkton, 450 880 1248 1152 1384 1310 1246 

Now Haven, 723* 1135 1G88 15C6 1834 1503 1668 

Orwell, 778 1386 1819 1730 1598 1504 1470 

Panton, 220 303 520 516 605 670 659 

Bipton, 15 42 278 357 667 

SaUsbury, 44G 614 709 721 907 942 1027 

Shoreham, 721 1417 2033 1881 2137 1075 1601 

Starksboro 40 369 726 914 1312 1263 1400 

Vergennes, 201 516 835 817 999 10J7 1878 

Waltham, 217 214 264 301 288 270 

Weybridge, 175 502 750 714 850 797 804 

Whiting. 250 404 565 609 653 660 029 

7,207 11,715 21,6i:J 21,870 20,503 25,071 26,519 


CENSUS OF 1860. 

Whitd. Free Coloeed. 

Males. Fcmtk'es, Total, Males, Females, Total Ag^gate. 

Addison, 659 620 1279 1279 

Bridport, 735 658 1393 1393 

Briitol, 668 6U 1^12 16 16 82 1344 

Cornwall, 576 677 1153 2 2 1155 

Ferriflbupgli, 1046 1023 2069 2 4 6 207 5 

Goshen 261 225 486 486 

Grmnyllle, 314 280 603 603 

Hancock 236 194 430 430 

Iieicester 290 805 595 1 1 696 

Lincoln, 664 488 1052 8 2 5 1057 

Middlebury 1730 1769 3499 8 10 18 8517 

Monkton, 600 646 1246 1240 

New Haven, 825 832 1657 6.1 6 1663 

Orwell, 727 742 1469 1 1 1470 

Panton, 287 267 664 8 * 2 5 669 

Ripton, 808 204 667 667 

Salisbury 626 601 1027 1027 

8boreham..: 822 779 1601 1601 

Btarksboro, 726 675- 1400 1400 

Vergennes 658 694 1347 18 18 81 1878 

Waltliam, •••• 141 129 ::: 270 270 

Weybridge, 399 405 804 804 

Whiting, 811 317 628 1 1 ;629 

13,898 13,048 26,441 54 54 108 26,640 

. -N = - I 

V.\\ (i; 

'■■>',: , 1 

(\)!j:\) . ■'•■' A'.-iiiS-' 

1 i 1. \ 











A. ii. COrELANI>". 

Kntered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1859, by 


In the Clerk's office of the District Court of Ihe United Statfes for the District of 



When I was persuaded, against my conviction and inclination, to collect materials 
ftnd compile a history of Middlebury firom its first settlement, I adopted the plan to 
make it ns minute and complete, as the accessible materials would allow, — from an 
apprehension, that facts, which can now be collected, would be beyond the reach of 
any future historian. I designed to state, as far as I could, the division of the ter- 
ritory into lots among the proprietors, who were the original settlers, and when and 
where, — that is, on what lots, — they become such. The best sources of informap- 
tion had already disappcarefl, in the deaths of the first settlers; and their descen- 
dants and successors wore rapidly passing away. As one of their successors, I be- 
come a resident here so early, that I was personally acquainted with nearly all the 
first settleis, and knew where they settled. Although I had no disposition to col- 
lect the ncccss-ary facts for a history, my personal knowledge may have aided me 
more in the work, than llic recollection of those, whose acquaintance had began 
later. In pursuin;]; my plan, I have perhaps given a more comphic history of the 
early settlement, than any other town history contains, although I have somewhat 
abridged both my plan and materials. But it has led me into a minute and forbid- 
ding detail, which I did not anticipate, and which, I fear, few persons will have 
courage to work through. I have perhaps stated no fact, which will not interest 
some one, and some land owners may become better acquainted with the history of 
their possessions, than they now are. But I am aware, that the persons will be 
few, who will feel an interest in any part of the work, limited as they must be, to 
those who have been, are, or may be residents of the town; and that the number, 
who will be interested in the whole, will be fewer still. The facts have been gath- 
ered in scraps, and many of them since the work was written, and were crowded 
in, as they could be, and, of course, are loosely strung together. But I could not, 
to my own satisfaction, find a stopping place, and have therefore retjuned thefiicts, 
and, to help the reader through as soon as possible, I have compressed the details 
into as few words as practicable, instead of adopting a more diffuse and untram- 
mele^l style. I advise any one, who cares much for his style, not to enlist in any 
such composition. And the reader, whose patience is not likely to hold out, I ad- 
vise to skip the chapters, which contain the most tiresome details. 

This history is not designed to contain,— and could not properly — a biographical 


or other notice of all» who have been* or are> inhabitAnts of the town; and many 
most respectable citisens and fkmilies are not mentioned at all, because they do not 
lUl directly into the carrent of the story. But, so &r as I have the materials, or 
thej are ftimished by others, I have wished to males the readers somewhat ac- 
quainted with the character of some of the first settlers and prominent citizens. 
These notices occupy considerable space, and are not printed separately by 
themselTee, as is sometimes the practice; but to affi>Td relief to the reader, they 
are inserted in the body of the history, where they belong, as a part of it 

It was my wish to embrace a seientific account of the different branches of the 
natural history of the town; but I have neither the requisite information on the 
sol^Ject, or sufficient time or strength to obtain it. Several explorations haye been 
made by scientific gentlemen, but I hare found no account, which is complete or 

Ber. Thomas A. Merrill D. D., as early as 1807, when nearly all the early set- 
tlers were liTing, began to collect fiicta relating to the settlement of the town, 
which he incorporated in a sermon, deliyered on Thanksgiving day in December 
1840. This was printed in a pamphlet, with a large appendix. In a f^w instances, 
I may have relied on his statement for a date, or an unimportant fiKst, without feel- 
ing the importance of giving him credit, although I .am not aware of any case, 
where I had not other evidence fh>m records or otherwise. I have designed to ob- 
tain fiMts fh>m original sources, as far as accessible; and, if necessary, in any case, 
to rely on secondary evidence, to give the proper credit. 

Nearly all this work, was written two or three years ago. Numerous 
deaths and other events have occurred, and some information has been received 
since, which I have crowded into the text or placed in the notes. 

I have occasion to be very grateful, as the reader will be, to the friends, who 
haye gratuitously contributed all the illustrations of the work. These will add a 
▼alue to it, if there is none elsewhere, — ^without expense to the subscriber. 

In the biographical notice of Judge Phelps, an errer occurred, in making Roger 
8. Sherman, instead of Roger S. Baldwin, his classmate. The former b^g a fa- 
miliar name, and both distinguished men in Connecticut, I thoughUessly com- 
mitted the error. 

An error, from a similar cause, occurred in the biographical notice of Judge 
Boolittle, in naming the Episcopal Church in Middlebury, St. Peter's, instead of 
8t Stephen's. And probably the reader will find many more such errors. 



Late Bottlement of Vermont— Charter and explanations— Proprietors* records 141 


Results of the rotes of the Proprietors— Partition— Town Plat— Second or first 
hundred acre division — ^Third or second hundred acre diviuon — John Chip- 
man's, and other surreys — Change of territorial limits 168 


Settlement before the war in charter limits — Benjamin Smalley — Gamaliel 
Painter — John Chipman and others — ^In territory annexed from Cornwall — 
Surveys and pitches— Asa Blodgett — Theophilus Allen — ^The Bentleys, and • 
others — Settlement after the war in this territory 166 


Retreat of the settlers — Employment in their absence — Other events daring 
the war — Miss Torrance's story — Judge Painter — Col. Chipman 180 


Return of settlers — Smalley — Thayer — Jona. Chipman — ^Torrance— Col. 
Chipman — Foot family , IW 


New settlers— Stephen Goodrich- Robert Huston— Johnson— Buttolph—Kirby 
Sumner— Preston and Mungers— Selliok — Deacon Sumner— Olmsted— 
Vanduxer—Bamet— Hammond— Craft— Loomis. 202 


James Crane and brother— Gideon Abbey— Nathan Case— Darius Tapper— 
Dea. Boyce— East Middlebury Village— Incidents of the early scttiemcnt— 
Famine 228 




Face of the country — Soil— Agriculture— Mineral Spring 231 


Settlement of the Tillage — Abisha Washburn— Painter's mills — Foot's mills 
Hop Johnson — Col. Storrs— Painter, in the village — First store— Samuel 
Miller — S. Dudley — B. Gorton— John Doming— 8. Foot— B. Seymour — M. 
Post. 235 


Darius Matthews— Curtis and Campbell — Dr. "Willard— H. Seymour— D Chip- 
man— J. Rogers— A. Rhodes — L. and J. McDonald — S. Mattocks — W. 
Young— F. Hill— P. Starr— Dr. Clark— N. and I. Stewart— J. Simmons- 
Seminary Street— Slade & Co 248 


O.Brewster— Asa Francis— J. Fuller — H. Bell— L. Case— P. Davis- J. Hen- 
Bhaw— L. Hooker — W. Slade— E. Hawley— Capt. Young— D. Dickinson— D. 
Page— G. Painter 271 


Further settlements west of the creek — Stillman Foot — Appleton Foot — Har- 
Tey Bell— John Warren— Capt. Markliam— S. Sargeant— J. McDonald— J. 
Doolittle— T. Hagar— Judge Phelps— J. Jewctt— J. Blin— C. Porter 28G 


Condition of the village at an early day — Growth and improvement of the vil- 
lage — Incorporation 29G 

Organization— Corporate proceedings 805 


ffighways and Bridges — Early surveys— Mode of repairing — Bridge at the 
Falls— Three Mile Bridge — Centre Turnpike — Waltham — Roads about village 311 

Support of the Poor. 317 

Health-Diseases -MortaHty 820 




Banks— State Bank— Bank of ^nddlebury— Savings Bank 826 


Manufiictures— Forge and Gun Factory— Cotton Factory —Grist Mill— Warren's 
Factory— Mid. Man. Company— Marble Mills— Fires— D. Nichols.. 830 


Printing— Newspapers and other periodicals— Books— Post Office and moils, . . 340 


Professional men— Lawyers— Physicians— Merchants— Manu&ctarers— Me- 
chanics 346 

Educational— Common Schools -Addison County Grammar School 867 

iliddlcbury College, 376 


Female Seminary— Miss Strong— Mrs. Willard— Incorporated— Misses Mahcw K 
—Mrs. Cook-Miss Swift- Mr. TUden— Dr. Lathrop-S. Hitchcock— W. F. 
Bascom— Miss Gordon 891 


Ecclesiastical— Early laws for supporting the Gospel— Congregational Society 
-Proceedings of the town— Episcopal Society— Methodist Society— Baptist 
Society— Catholic Society 402 

Incidents of the War of 1812 432 



proprietors' RECORDS. 

The settlement, by the English, of the territory now constituting 
the State of Vermont was long delayed, becauso it was remote from 
the seaboard and their earlier settlements. A still greater hin- 
drance to the settlement was the fact that the French, who possessed 
Canada, had also the possession of Lake Champlain ; and in 1731 
had established a fort at Crown Point, and in 1756 another at 
Ticonderoga. They continued their possession and control of the 
western part of that territory, until they were driven from their 
forts and the lake by a British force under Gen. Amherst in 1759, 
which was followed by the final conquest of Canada in 1760. 
Until this time English settlements in this territory would have 
been exposed to the constant depredations of the French and 
Canadian Indians ; it being the thoroughfiire of their war parties 
to the south and east. 

In the meantime Benning Wentworth had been appointed, in 
1741, by the King of England, Governor of the Provmce of New 
Hampshire, with authority to issue patents for lands in unoccupied 
territories, to such persons as applied for them. Assuming that the 
Province of New Hampshire extended as far west as the Provinces 
of Massachusetts and Connecticut, he claimed the right, under his 
authority, to grant charters over this whole territory. His first 
grant was a charter of the town of Bennington in 1749, extending 


to within twenty miles of Hudson River ; and in January 1760, 
he chartered the town of Pownal, south of the former town. About 
a dozen towns had also been chartered east of the Green Mountains. 
But excepting the towns of Bennington and Pownal, which were 
remote from the scene of danger, no grants were made in Western 
Vermont, until 1761, the year after the conquest of Canada. In 
that year there was a general rally for lands in what has since been 
called the ''New Hampshire Grants," and no less than sixty 
charters were granted on both sides of the mountain. Among 
these was the charter of Middlebury, and eight other towns in the 
County of Addison. 

It was the design of Governor Wcntworth, as well as of the 
grantees, where there was room, and convenient boundaries would 
permit, to make each town six miles square. This was thought, 
especially in agricultural regions, a convenient size for towns 
established under the New England system of town corporations. 
Larger territories had been granted in the older States of New 
England ; but being found inconvenient for the purposes for which 
they were designed, they have been divided into two or more towns, 
or new towns have been formed from parts of several towns. Their 
experience had taught them the propriety of giving them a more 
convenient form. This size was thought to be sufficiently conve- 
nient for all the freemen to meet in or near the center, for town 
and freemen's meetings, and large enough to sustain, without too 
great a burthen, the requisite institutions, and accomplish the 
objects and discharge the trusts committed to them. And experience 
has shown that much smaller towns arc often heavily burthened 
and embarrassed in accomplishing these purposes. 

Among the applicants for lands were a large number of gentle- 
men residing principally in Salisbury, Litchfield County, Conn. 
They agreed to unite in procuring a survey of the lands, and in their 
application to Governor Wcntworth for charters. For this purpose 
they appointed John Everts, Esq., of that place, as their agent. 
Having procured the requisite aid, he penetrated into the wilderness 
a hundred miles beyond any settlements, before he found sufficient 
space, not previously surveyed; or in process of surveying, so far 


as to preclude his claim. It i3 understood, that it was the intention 
of the applicants to obtain charters for only two towns. But the 
agent finding that there was suflScient and convenient space for the 
location of three towns, on the east side of Otter Creek, between 
the *^ Great Falls '' at Vergennes on the north, and Leicester on 
the south, he proceeded to survey the whole tract. Beginning at 
the head of the falls he surveyed the excellent township of New 
Haven, and proceeding south ho surveyed the other two towns. 
The head of the falls at Vergennes was fixed on as ar permanent 
boundary and starting point, from which the whole tract was sur- 
veyed and measured. This also is a boundary and starting point 
from which the important town of Ferrisburgh was laid out. This 
point was therefore regarded as so important, that, in order to make 
the location more definite, a cannon was placed perpendicularly in 
the rock, in a hole excavated for that purpose. This monument is 
still standing. 

In order to make arrangement for a sufficient number of grantees 
for each of the three towns, some of the original applicants agreed 
to take shares in two and others in all the three ; and a few more 
were admitted as proprietors. On the application of the agent the 
Governor of New Hampshire issued charters for these three towns, 
accoVding to the surveys presented. The southern was named 
Salisbury, from the town in which the grantees resided; the 
northern, from another distinguished town in Connecticut, was 
named New Haven ; and the other was named Middlebury, because 
it was located between the others. The charters of New Haven 
and Middlebury are dated November 2, 1761, that of Salisbury on 
the third day of the same month. By the charters all the towns 
are bounded west on Otter Creek, and extend, where there is not 
room below, up the westsern slope of the Green Mountain for their 
eastern boundary. 

The charter of Middlebury is made in a printed blank, of the 
same description as those of the other towns, and we omit the more 
formal parts, together with the provisions for fairs and markets and 
give only an abstract. 

Boiining Vumtworth, Governor of New Hampshire, in the name 


of George tbe Third, King of England, grants '' unto our loving 
subjects of our said Province of New Hampshire and our other 
Governments/' '' whose names are entered on this grant, to be 
divided to and amongst them into sixty-eight equal shares," a tract 
'^containing by admeasurement 25,040 acres, which tract is to 
contain something more than six miles square." The boundaries 
are as follows : '* Beginning at the southerly corner of a township 
granted this day by the name of New Haven, at a tree marked, 
standing on the bank of the easterly or northeasterly side of Otter 
Creek, so called, from thence running east seven miles, thence 
turning off and running south ten degrees west six miles and 
sixty-four rods, then turning oflF and running west to Otter Creek 
aforesaid ; then down said creek, as that runs to the bound first 
mentioned," and it *^ is incorporated into a township by the name 
of Middlebury," It also provides, '^ that the first meeting for 
the choice of town officers shall be held on the first Tuesday in 
January next, which said meeting shall be notified by Capt. Samuel 
Moore, who is hereby also appointed moderator of the said first 
meeting," and that *' the annual meeting forever hereafter for the 
choice of such officers for the said town shall be on the second 
Tuesday of March annually." The following conditions are 
annexed to the charter. First, every grantee, his heirs or assigns, 
shall plant and cultivate five acres of land, within the time of five 
years, for every fifty acres contained in his share," '* on penalty of 
the forfeiture of his grant or share in said township." Second, 
" that all white and other pine trees, fit for masting our Royal 
Navy be carefully preserved for that purpose," ** upon penalty of 
the forfeiture of the right of such grantee," " as well as being 
subject to the penalty," of acts of Parliament. Third, " that 
before any division among the grantees, a tract of land, as near 
the centre of said township, as the land will admit of, shall bo 
reserved and marked out for town lots, one of which shall be 
allotted to each grantee, of the contents of one acre." Fourth, 
" the grantees to pay annually, for ten years, the rent of one ear of 
Indian Corn only, if lawfully demanded." Fifth, every proprietor, 
settler or inhabitant, "to pay annually after ten years" "one 



shilling proclamation money for every hundred acres," he so owns 
••in lieu of all other rents, and services whatsoever." 

The following are the endorsements on the back of the charter. 


John Evarts, 
Elijah Skinner, 
Elkanah Paris, 
Benjamin Paris, 
John Baker, 
Gideon Ilurlbut, 
Ebenr. Hanchit, 
Deliva. Spalding, 
Noah Chittenden, 
Mattw. Bostwick, 
Thomas Chittenden, 
John Abbit, 
Moses Read, 
Saml. Keep, 
Elisha Painter 
Kuluff White, 

Nathl. Evarts, 3d, 
John Turner, Jun., 
Ebenr. Field, 3d, 
Saml. Turner, 
Zecheriah Foss, 
Ebenr. Field, 
Nathl. Flint, 
Benjn. Everist, 
Jeremiah How, 
John Read, 
James Claghorn, 
Lt. Mathias Kelsey, 
Daniel Morris, 
Rufus Marsh, 
Elias Read, 

AmOs Hanchit, 
Saml. Towsley, 
John Strong, 
John How, 
Oliver Evarts, 
Russell Hunt, 
Capt. Josiah Stoddar, 
Bethel Sellick, 
Saml. Skinner, 
Capt. Saml. Moore, 
Hezekiah Camp, Jun., 
John McQuivey, 
Benjamin Smalley, 
Lt. John Seymour, 
Datis Ensign, 
Lt. Janna Meigs, 
David Owen. 
Charles Brewster, 

Noah Waddams, 
Elisha Sheldon, Jun.,John Evarts. Jun., 
Moses Read, Jun., Jona. Moore Jun., 
Matthw. Baldin, Nathl. Skinner, Jun.,Theo. Atkinson, Esq., 

Lt. Jonathan Moore, David Hide, Jun., M.H.Wentworth,Esq. 
John Benton, Thomas Chipman, 

His Excellency Benning Wentworth, Esq., a tract of land con- 
taining five hundred acres, aa marked B. W. in the plan, which is 
to be accounted two of the within shares, one whole share for the Licor- 
porated Society for the Propogation of the Gospel in foreign parts, 
one share for a glebe for the Church of England, as by law estab- 
lished, one share for the first settled minister of the gospel, and one 
share for the benefit of a school in said town. 

Province of New BLampshire, Nov. 2d, 1761. 

Beoorded in Book of charters, page 278. 

Theodore Atkinson, Secy." 



[Plan of Middlebury.] 




'^ilea 04 


I . 
i S 



To the sixty shares of the sixty applicants, is added one share 
each for Theodore Atkinson, the governor's secretary, Michael H. 
Wentworth, his nephew, the Society for the Propogation of the 
Grospel, a glebe for the Church of England, and for a school, m^ak- 
ing, with two shares for the governor, sixty-eight, as mentioned in 
the charter. 

The boundaries probably contain ''something more than six miles 
square," but not so much as the plan on the back represents. It 
was probably supposed that Otter Creek, which is the western 
boundary, runs east of north about the same as the description 
places the eastern boundary, 10 degrees ; but its course is some- 
what west of north ; by which the north line does not extend so far 


east as was supposed, and of course the south Imc returning to the 
creek is shorter than was intended. 

The *' rent of one ear of Indian com," for the first ten years, 
in the fourth condition of the charter, is only a nominal rent, while 
the grantees should be clearing up their farms, intended as an 
acknowledgment, that they hold, according to the Feudal system, 
as tenants under the king, and have not an absolute independent 
title, such as we call/ee simple. The rent of *^ one shilling proc- 
lamation money," was designed as a permanent rent, to be paid 
annually to the king, after ten years. The governor of New York 
required a higher rent in all his grants ; and it was a ground of 
opposition by the Green Mountain Boys to the claims of that State, 
that besides the exorbitant fees of the governor, and other officers 
concerned in completing the grants, he demanded a rent of '* two 
and six pence " for each hundred acres. Our thanks are due to the 
revolutionary patriots, that we are wholly free from any such ser- 
vile burthens. The "proclamtion money" in which the rent was 
to be paid, or '* prock money," as it is called in some of the records 
of the proprietors, means simply the lawful money of New Eng- 
land, six shillings to the dollar, established by proclamation, instead 
of sterling money. 

According to the directions of the charter, '^ Capt. Samuel Moore," 
who was by that instrument appointed moderator, gave notice of 
the first meeting of the proprietors, and presided in it, and the 
following is a copy of the record of the proceedings. 

** At a meeting of the proprietors of the town of Middlebury, in the Province of 
New Hampshire, said meeting being regularly and legally warned, and held at the 
dwelling house of Mr. John Evarts,in Salisbury, this 5th day of January, A. D.1762. 

1. Voted and chose Samuel Keep clerk for said proprietors. 

2. Voted and chose Matthias Kelsey, Ebenezer Hanchit and James Nichols 
selectmen for said town of Middlebury. 

3. Toted and chose Jonathan Chipman coUector for said proprietors. 

4. Voted to allow lOs to Matthias Kelsey for his cost and extraordinary trouble 
in the proprietors service. 

5. Voted to raise 9s on each right, 6s in silver and 3s prock money, except 
those which have paid a Os rate, which was granted when the proprs. of New 
Haven, Middlebury, Salisbury and Cornwall were jointly in company, — such to 
be exempted. 


6. Voted to give Mr. Atkinson for his kindness and manj good services, done 
for the proprietors, 300 acres in said township adjoining Qovornor Weutworth*ii 
right of 500 acres, allowing a highway or highways through said land for the benefit 
of ye proprietors, in the most convenient place or places. 

7, Voted and adjourned this meeting to the 2d Tuesday in March next, at 10 
o'clock before noon at Capt h'amucl Moore's in Salisbury. 

Test Saml. Keep, Proprietors Clerk." 

** At an adjourned meeting of the proprietors of the township of Middlebury, 
held at the house of Capt. Samuel Moore in Salisbury, on the 9th day of March, 
A. D, 1702. 

1. Voted and chose Samuel Keep Clerk. 

2. Voted and cliosc Matthias Kelaey, Ebenezer Hanchit, and Charles Brewster, 
selectmen for said town. 

3. Voted and chose Jonathan Chipman, Collector. 

4. Voted and chose John Evarts, Treasurer. 

5. Voted to send Matthias Kelsey, to lay out 50 acres to each right in sold 

6. Voted to raise a rate of 9s on each right. 

7. Voted to give 6s per day to committee men. 

8. Voted to lay out one acre to each grantee, as near the centre of said town as 

0. Voted and adjourned this meeting till ye 2nd Tuesday of October, at one of 
ye clock afternoon, at the house of Capt Samuel Moore, in Salisbury. 

Teste Saml. Kkkp, Clerk." 

It will be observed, that this meeting was held on the day ap- 
pointed by the charter for •'* the annual meeting forever hereafter/' 
to be held ** for the choice of officers for said town.'' It was for 
this reason that the officers were re-chosen, although they had been 
chosen but two months before. An adjourned meeting was held at 
the time and place appointed, and again adjourned to the 2d Tues- 
day of February next at the same place ; and a meeting at the 
time appointed by the last adjournment ^* was opened and then voted 
and dissolved said meeting." 

The following are the records of three meetings, all of which 
seemed to have been designed to constitute the annual March meet- 
ing for 1763. For some reason, the second, which was held as an 
adjourned meeting, and perhaps the first, were not considered legal, 
or a majority were not satisfied with the proceedings, as at the third, 
which was held on the same day as the adjournment of the first, 
the whole business was performed anew with some alterations, and 
for this probably a new notice was given. 


•* At a meeting of the proprielors of the township of Middlebury held at the 
iouse of John Evarts in Salisbury, this 2d Tuesday of March, A. D. 17G3. 

1. Voted and chose Mr. John Evai'td, moderator. 

2. Voted and chose Saml. Keep Clerk. 

3. Voted and adjourned said meeting till ye 4 th Tuesday of instant March at 
10 o'clock before noon, at the house of Capt t>amucl Moore, in Salisbury. 

Teste Saml. Keep, Proprietors Clerk." 
** At a meeting of tho proprietors of the township of Middlebury, held by adjourn- 
ment at the house of Capt. Saml. Moore in Salisbury, this 22d day of March 1763. 

1. Voted and chose Matthias Kelscy, Ebenezcr Uanchit and Saml. Tousley 
selectmen for said town of Middlebury. 

2. Voted the next annual meeting, viz. ye 2nd Tuesday in March next, shall 
be holden at the house of Capt. baml. Moore in Salisbury. 

3. Voted and dissolved sd meeting. Test Saml. Keep Clerk.** 

" At a meeting of the proprietors of the township of Middlebury in the Prov- 
ince of New Hanipsliirc, being legally warned and held, at tho house of Capt 
Siml. Moore in Salisbury, this 4th Tuesday of March, A. D. 17G3. 

1 . \'oted and cho^e C:ipt. Saml. Moore Moderator. 

2. Voted and chose Saml. Keep, Clerk. 

". Voted and chose John Evai-ts, Capt. Saml. Moore and Mattliias Kelsey as- 

4 . Voted to lay out one acre to each right or share, as near the centre of tho 
township, as conveniently may, with allowance for highway or ways, if needful* 
ea< h highway to be 4 rods wide, 

G. \ otod to raise a rate of 20s on each right to defray tho charge of laying out 
tho first and 2nd divisions, (public rights only not to pay.) 

C. Voted to give the whole of the above said 20s rate to the committee, that 
bhall lay out the first and second divisions in said township, and produce a mathe- 
matical plan thereof by the first day of October next. Said committee to lay out 
ali the public rights in said township. Said committee to collect said 208 rate. 
James Nichols and Benjamin Smalley appointed committee to lay out sd first and 
iJnd divisions. 

7. "S'oted to raise a rate of 9s on each right to pay the back charge except 
such as have paid ye 9s rate, which was granted ye 5th of January, A. D. 1762. 

8. Voted and chose Benjamin Smalley, Collector. 

9. Voted and chose Mr. John Evarts, Treasurer. 

10. Voted that the treasurer pay to Mr. Benjn. Smalley the sum of 4s which is 
due to him for money ho paid for said proprietors. 

11. Voted and adjourned this meeting to the 2nd day of October next at 12 
o'clock, at the house of Capt. Saml. Moore in Salisbury'. 

Test Saml. Keep, Proprietors Clerk.'* 
•' At a meeting of the proprietors of (he township of Middlebury, held at the 
house of Capt. Saml. Moore in Salisbury, this 20th day of December, A. P. 1763, 
1. A'otwl and chos3 Capt. Saml. Moore, Moderator. 
•J. Vot^^i and chose Saml. Keep Proprietors Clork. 



3. Voted and accepted the plan presented by Benjamin Smalley, as a mftthe- 
matical plan of sd township. 

4. Voted that John Uutshinson and Samuel Moore, Jr., draw the lottery for 
the rights aforesaid. 

Voted and adjourned sd meeting till the annual tovrn meeting in March next at 
the house of Capt. Sam'l Moore, in Salisbury. 

Test, Sam'l Keep, Proprietors Clerk. 

There is no record of the annual j\Iarch Meeting in 1764. 

**At a meeting of the proprietors of tlie township of Middlcbury, legally 
warned and opened at the house of Doctr. Joshua Porter in Salisbury, this second 
Tuesday of March, 1765. 

1. Voted and choses Mr. James Nichols Moderator for said meeting. 

2. Voted and adjourned sd mectinjj to the house of Mr. John Evarts, forthwith. 
8. Opened sd meeting at said Evarts, and voted and chose Ebenezer Uanchet, 

John Evarts, and Sam'l Keep, Ck)mmittcc for said proprietors. 

4. Voted that, if any man or men, by the first day of May next shall appear 
and give sufficient bond to the proprietor's Committee to build a good saw-iiiillj 
within fifteen montlis from this day in the township of Middlebury, he shall have 
any mill-place, which he or they shall choose insaid township, viz : in the undivided 
part thereof, and also fifty acres of land adjoining said mill-place, he or they to be 
at the cost of laying out said fifty acres, and build said mill so as to leave room 
for fifty acres, to be laid out to accommodate a grist mill, and proper place to set 
a grist mill, if the proprietors !seo fit to improve it. 

5. Voted to lay out a tliird division, 100 acres to each grantee, as soon as may 
be conveniently done the ensuing summer. 

G, Voted aud chose James Nichols,T;mothy Harris and Sam'l Keep, a committee 
to lay out saia 3d division, and also^ employ all needful help to assist in laying 
out the same. 

7. Voted to give 6s. per day to each committee-man, so long as they shall be 
faithfully in the service of laying out said Gd division. 

8. Voted to raise a rate of lOs. lawfull money on each right to defray the 
charge of laying out said 3d division, to be paid by ye first day of September next. 

9. Voted aud chose Ebenezer Uanchet, Collector. 

10. Voted and chose Enoch Strong, Jonathan Hall and Sam'l Tously assessors. 

11. Voted to raise 2s. on each right and give the same to any man or men, 
who shall, the ensuing summer, clear a cart road from the road last fall cut from 
Arlington to Crown Point, viz: from about ten or twelve miles beyond where No. 
4 road crosses Otter Creek ; said road to be cleared on the east side of said Creek, 
through the townships of Salisbury, MiJdlcbury and New Haven. 

12. Voted and atljourned half an hour. 

lo. Opened. Voted and chose Ebenezer Uanchet, Treasurer. 
1 f. A'otod to yny O3. to Samuel Keep, for hi$ pnying the «amc sum to the 
priiilcr lor ndverdbini; this mtcting. 


15 Voted and adjourned this meeting to the first Tuesday of December next 
at 2 o'clock afternoon at the house of Mr John Evarts, in Salisbury. 

Teat, Sam*l Keep, Proprietor's Clerk. 

There is no record of a meeting held at the time of the above 
adjournment, or of the annual meeting in March 17G6. 

"At a mcctin;; of the proprietors of the township of Middlebury, legally 
warnel, opened and held at the dwelling house of Mr. John Evarts in Salisbury, 
in Litchfield County, and Colony of Connecticut, the 7ih day of 'April, 17G6, 

1. Voted and chose Mr. James Nichols Moderator for said meeting. 

2. Voted that each proprietor that shall, the ensuing summer, repair to 
Middlebury, and do tae duty agreeable to the directions of the charter for said 
township, so as to hold said right, that such proprietor or proprietors shall have 
thirty-five acres to each right or share in said township over and above his or 
their equal proportion with the rest of the proprietors in said township ; provided 
he or they will be at the trouble and cost of laying out said thirty-five acres in 
good form in any of the undivided part of said township, reserving every conve- 
nient place or stream for mills, to be disposed of hereafter, as shall be thought 
proper, and also highways, if needed through each thirty-five acres. 

3. Voted and adjourned this meeting to the 2ud Tuesday of January next, at 
2 o'clock afternoon at this place. Test, Sam'l Keep, Clerk." 

At the time of the adjournment above mentioned, a meeting was 
held, and was farther adjourned to the *^ third Tuesday of April 
next," at the same place. And the meeting held at that time was 
again adjourned to the third Tuesday of May following. 

•* Salisbury the ?>d Tuesday of May, A. D. 1767. 
Then the proprietors of the township of Middlebury met at the dwelling house 
of Mr. John Evarts in Salisbury, according to adjournment. Opened the meeting 
and adjoumecl to the 2nd Tuesday of October next, at 2 o'clock afternoon, at the 
dwelling house of Doct Joshua Porter, Esq., in said Salisbury. 

Test, Sam'l Keep, Proprietor's Clerk." 

"We have copied thus extensively the records of the proceedings 
of the original proprietors for the first five or six years, that our 
readers may be able to know, as far as we are able to tell them, 
what our predecessors did for the settlement of the town — how they 
did it and who were the agents employed. We have inserted 
verbatim the whole of their proceedings during this term, except 
the adjournment of a few meetings, when nothing else was done, 
and of these we have given an abstract. We have done this 
because no other records of these proceedings to this time are to be 


found, and. these are in a perishable paper book, which majr be 
gone with the others before the next generation will have opportu- 
nity to see them. * 

From the indisposition of the proprietors to remove so far into 
the wilderness, it is probable that few proceedings were had, and 
few efforts were made towai'ds the settlement of the town from 
1767 to 1773.* It is probable also, that the decision of King 
George the Third, on the 20th day of July, 1764, placing the 
territory under the jurisdiction of New York, and the severe con- 
test with that State, which followed, also interrupted the settlement. 
The Revolutionary war, from 1775 to 1783, was also a total inter- 
ruption. But from a laborious examination of the records of 
deeds and surveys, we have been able to ascertain some further 
proceedings of the proprietors, and some additional facts connected 
with the history which will appear in the sequel. 

• The records were kept in Salisbury, Connectici^t, where the proprietors lived 
until the spring of 17S3, when the owners of the lands, after the c!ose of the 
Bevolationary war, began to take possession of them. All the records which 
remain, in addition to the above, are a dozen loose half sheets of paper, which 
once constituted a part of a book. On one page of these is a list of the numbers 
drawn to the several original rights in the second division, called the '* first hundred 
acre division,*' or *' home lots." These we have inserted in our diagram of that 
division. The remainder of the pages contain records of deeds and surveys of 
pitches, commencing September 1773, and ending February 1776, Some of the 
deeds recorded in this time were dated as early as 1768, but principally in 1778, 
about the time the proprietors first began to bestir themselves to take possession of 
the lands. During this time Oliver Evarts was proprietor's clerk. The only book 
of records to be found, which was kept after the business was removed to Middle- 
bury, is a book containing surveys of pitches made by the proprietors, and recorded 
firom May 1783 to Juno 1798, by John Chipman, proprietor's clerk. In the same 
book are contained also surveys of highways laid out in April and July 1786, by 
committees of the proprietors. There was also recorded in the same book, Decem- 
ber 22, 1785, surveys of the several lots of the first hundred acre division, made 
by order of the proprietors in the summer of 1768^ eighteen years before. The 
original surveys are not to bo found. Some years after this George Chipman, Esq, 
was chosen clo k of the proprietors. But no records are to be found of proceed, 
ings under his administration ; and probably little was done, as the town had 
then been many years organized. The records which remain are now in the town 
clerk's office. 




AVb now proceed to state so far as we are able, the results of the 
proceedings of the proprietors, at their meetings. In the proceed- 
ings of the first meeting, reference is made to the time when '^ New 
Haven, Middlebury, Salisbury and Cornwall were jointly in com- 
pany." This co-operation undoubtedly had reference to the meas- 
ures adopted in procuring the charters. Most of the proprietors 
resided in the same neighborhood, and the towns chartered joined 
each other. Elias Reed, the agent for procuring the charter of 
Cornwall, resided also in Salisbury. The charters of all the towns 
are dated on two consecutive days ; those of Salisbury and Middle- 
bury on the second of November, and those of New Haven and 
Cornwall on the third of the same month. The applicants for all 
the towns undoubtedly met together to consult respecting the meas- 
ures to be adopted, and assessed all the proprietors of each right to 
defray the joint expenses. The agents also went together to the 
governor of New Hampshire. Such a co-operation would of coarse 
reduce the expenses of each. The tax assessed at this meeting was 
intended to apply only to the delinquents. Besides, the first meet- 
ing of the proprietors of each town was appointed to be held about 
the same time, and probably in the same place. 

Independent of the vote passed at this meeting, Mr. Atkinson had 
& claim to one right, but the charter did not locate it '* adjoining 
Grovernor Wentworth'a 500 acres. -^ 


No movement seems to have been made to carry into effect the 
votes passed at the annual meetmg in 1762, ** to send Matthias 
Kelsey to lay out 50 acres to each right/' and ** to lay out one acre 
to each grantee." At the meeting held on the fourth Tuesday of 
March 1763, the vote *' to lay out one acre to each right " vras 
renewed, and a vote was passed *' to raise a rate to defray the charge 
of laying out the fii'st and second divisions," but no vote is recorded 
as being passed then or at any other time, to make a second divi- 
sion of 100 acres, or a ^* first 100 acre division." Whether such a 
vote failed to be passed through forgetfulness, or failed to be recor- 
ded through the neglect of the clerk, does not appear. But it seems 
to have been understood, that such a division was to be made ; and 
when made by the committee, appointed for that purpose, it was 
accepted by the meeting to which the report was made. 

It appears, that no person accepted the proposition of the pro- 
prietors, made at their meeting in March 1765, to ^* give a sufficient 
bond to build a good saw mill within fifteen months," and in con- 
sideration thereof ''to have any mill place he may choose," and 
" also fifty acres of land," and no such mill was built for the next 
nme years. 

As little was accomplished, in pursuance of the vote, at the same 
meeting offering the proceeds of a tax of '^ 2s on each right to any 
man or men, who shall, the ensuing summer, clear a cart road on 
the east side of the creek." It does not appear that at any time the 
contemplated road was opened by any general concert of the towns, 
or inhabitants ; but the roads, through the several towns, were prob- 
ably built, as the necessities of the scttlei^s requii-ed to open a com- 
munication to their lands. At what time roads were opened into 
Middlebury from the south is uncertain. The road from Arlington 
to Crown Point, at this time, it seems, was opened '^10 or 12 
miles beyond where No. 4 (Charlestown) road crosses Otter Creek ;'' 
which was probably as far as the foot of Sutherland's Falls. It is 
known that the road was built thus far some time before it was 
extended further. Obviously no road was opened further, when the 
first settlers came to Middlebury. From this point the creek was 
used in summer by rafts and canoes, and in the winter on the ice, and 


cattle were driven through the woods on the borders of the creek. 
The same course of travel, was preferred, to some extent, for some 
years after the trees were cut down for a road. 

The proposition made at the meeting on the 7th of April 1766, 
granting *' thirty-five acres" to *^cach proprietor, that shall 
repair to iliddlebury and do duty agreeable to the directions of the 
charter/' was also disregarded, unless the case of Col. John Chip- 
man hereafter mentioned is an exception. However that may be, 
he never obtained his tliirty-five acres. 

The second, or first hundred acre division was laid out in two 
tiers, the first or eastern at the foot of the mountain. It com- 
menced at what was then supposed to be the south line of New 
Haven. By a correction afterwards this line was removed about 
forty rods farther north, forming a strip of that width between it 
and the north line of the *' home lots," two miles long; which was 
called the *' long lot," and was afterwards pitched with other un- 
divided lands. In the eastern tier was laid out thirty-nine lots, 
extending not quite to the north line of Salisbury ; numbered from 
No. 1, at the north regularly to the south. The second or west 
tier, adjoining the first, commenced with No. 40. at the north, and 
extended south to No, GO, which made the whole number of rights 
granted, except the governor's reservation. This tier of coui-se did 
not extend so far south as the fii'st, having only seventeen lots. 
Each lot contains one hundred acres, with allowance for highways. 
The length east and west is called a mile, but by the survey is 
330 rods, and the width is fifty rods. The course of the east and 
west lines is from the north ten degrees west of south, and parallel 
with the east line of the town. The north and south lines run east 
and west, parallel with the north line of the town. Between Nob. 
53 and 54, in the west tier, was reserved a space of the width of two 
lots, or one hundred rods, in which was laid out the first or one 
acre division ; the west line corresponding with the west line of the 
one hundred acre division, and extending east one hundred and 
twenty-four rods. This division is called the town plot, and has 
never l)cen divided among the proprictoi'S into one acre lots. 



The following diagi»am exhibits a plan of these divisions, with 
the numbers and original proprietors of the lots. 

40 Matthew Baldwin. 

1 i KuluflF White 

41 S.imucl iurner. 

1 2 school Kight. 

42 i^iKscll Hunt.- 

1 3 Jonathan Moore. 

43 Oliver Evarts. 

1 4 David Hide, Jr. 

44 T. Atkinson. 

I 6 Ebcnczer Field, Jr. 

45 Moses Heed. 

1 6 Elijah Skinner. 

46 Dcthcl . ellick. 

1 7 Kufud Msu-jih. 

47 Thomas « hitteuden. 
48' JohlTAbbot t 

I 8 Llkanab P.iria. 

y Eliivs heed 

i 40 Glebe Ui;;ht. 

I 10 Propagation i light. 

oO Hczekiah tamp, .jr. 
51 Jeremiah Howe. 

il .iohn Sevmour. 

I 12 John Lontun. 

52 Benjamin Paris. 

13 JSoah W addams. 

53 Mu«5S Reed, Jr. 

I 14 Jonathan AJoorc, Jr. 

I ] 5 Nathaniel Evarts. 

Glebe ^ 

2d lOOa.d iv. | 16 Eli sha Paiutcrr 

54 Mini.ster*s Kight 

17 Gideon Ilurlbut. 

65 Ei.enezer Field. 

18 John Evarts 

56 Samuel Skinner. 

57 Elislia ^heldon. 

58 Noah Chittenden. 
^1 59 Ebenezer Hanchet 

] ly Jehn Howe. 

20 /.icherjah Foss. 

~2rNathaniel Flint r 

I 22 M. n. Wcutworth 

60 Samuel Towsley. 


r*"| 61 Charles Brews: er. 

23 Deliverance S])alding, 

24 JohiTKced; 

62 Samuel Moore 

1 25 Thomas Chipman 

63 J anna Meigs 

64 Datus Ensign. 

65 Jonah Stoddar. 

66 .Tanvea Claghorn 

1 26 Amos hanchet 

1 27 John Baker. 

1 28 Benjamin tmalley. 

1 2'.) David Owen. 

1 30 Beiij innn Everest. 

1 31 John McQuivcj. 

1 32 John Strong 

1 33 Jolm Turner, fr 

1 34 Matthias Kelsey. 

1 35 Nathaniel Skinner Jr. 

1 36 Daniel Morris 

j 37 t^amuel Keep. 

1 38 John Evarts, Jr. 

1 39 Matthew Bostwick. 


The following boundaries may explain the position of this 
division in its present relation to other lands. Munger street passes 
through No. 40, the first lot in the west tier, about one-third of a 
mile from the east and two-thirds of a mile from the west end. 
This road, inclining to the east passes across the northeast comer 
of No. 52, to the line between the tiers, and thence on that line to 
Darius Severance's. The saw-mill on Muddy Branch, owned by 
Nichols and Wheeler, is on the west end of No. 47, and the road 
formerly leading from this mill southwardly to the dwelling house 
of the late Philip Foot is on the west line of the west tier. The 
same road still running varies little from the same line imtil it 
reaches the Centre Turnpike. The road leading from the late 
dwelling house of Abner Evarts to the line of Salisbury is on the 
west line of the east tier, and the east line of the same tier passes 
through the village of East Middlebury ; the building lots of 
David Olmstead and Knecland Olmstcad being on the east end of 
lot No. 36. 

It seems, that at the time this division was made, the Middle- 
bury lands were not in very high estimation. Benjamin Smalley, 
who had been appointed collector of the '' rate," assessed to " defray 
the charge of laying out the first and second divisions," sold in the 
summer following no less than twenty- four whole rights, on which 
the tax had not been paid, at from £2, Is. to £1, 10s. each, and 
in his report stated, '' that one hundred acres of each of the rights 
that hath been sold in the whole of this vendue, was put up first to 
be sold, as the law of the Province of New Hampshire directs, but 
none appearing to buy, the whole rights were sold at the prices set 
against each right." 

The tliird, or " second hundred acre " division, authorized at 
the meeting held in March 1765, was never located by the com- 
mittee appointed for that purpose, or by any other committee or 
agents of the proprietors ; but each owner was authorized to locate 
his own lot by '^ pitching." Each proprietor accordingly surveyed 
his land in such manner and at such place as he chose. This 
practice made great confusion, and the absence of the records, con- 
taining the principal surveys of this division has jnade it difficult 


to ascertain correctly the location of many of these lots. Many 
of the surveys commence at trees or other monuments, which have 
disappeared, and without any reference to permanent boundaries. 
Some of the lots are known by their numbers, and, for that reason 
have been supposed to be regularly laid out in the south part of the 
town. But the numbers do not seem to have any reference to the 
location of the lots, and, with few exceptions, are scattered irregu- 
larly over the town. The numbers were probably derived from the 
order of time in which the lots were surveyed. Only the earlier 
surveys are numbered, and none of the surveys, which we have 
discovered, contain the numbers, altliough some of them refer to 
the numbers of other lots, previously surveyed. We have, in our 
possession, belonging to Allen Foot, a plan of Daniel Foot's lands, 
made out, under his direction, by Col. Bott, of Bridport. By this 
it appears, that the earliest numbers of this division were attached 
to land belonging to Daniel Foot and his family, or adjoining such 
lands, and probably owned by him, and all in the neighborhood 
of the location he had fixed on for the centre of the town. Several 
of the lots lie west of and adjoining home lots owned by him, and 
all were probably laid out and numbered under his direction. 

It seems, that the proprietors in 1772, probably by a general 
vote, authorized the owners of the rights to pitch two hundred 
acres together. There are numerous examples of this, as will be 
seen hereafter. The conditions, on which this authority was given 
we have not been able to ascertain; nor are wo able to satisfy 
ourselves fully, whether these pitches were intended to embrace the 
second and third hundred acre divisions, or whether the vote of the 
proprietors authorized the owners to surrender their home lots, and 
pitch the first and second hundred acres together. It appears also 
by surveys on record, that John Chipman and Daniel Foot, and 
perhaps others, were authorized to surrender their home lots and 
pitch anew ** in exchange for that was laid by the committee.'' 

It has been our wish, as far as possible, to show who were the 
first settlers, and the lots on which they settled. For this purpose, 
and to supply the deficiency of the records of the proprietors' 
meetings, we have made an extensive and laborious search of their 


records of surveys and deeds, so far as we have found them, as well 
as the town records ; and for this purpose we copy below some of 
the more prominent surveys, and give abstracts of others. The 
numbers mentioned in the surveys are the numbers of the home lots 
belonging to the same rights. 


** Laid out to John Chipman, two hundred acres of land lying in the southwest 
part of Middlebury, and on Middlebuiy River, beginning at a walnut tree, south 
side of a black ash swamp, the northeast comer of his lot, then east thirty-seYen 
degrees south one hundred and sixty rods to a white-pine tree, then south thirty- 
BOTen degrees west two hundred rods to a white hazel staddle, then west thirty- 
scYon degrees north one hundred and sixty rods to a walnut tree, then to the first 
mentioned bounds — being the original proprietor of the right of Elisha Painter, 
number 16. September 20th, 1773. 

Surveyed by me, Phineas Brown, Surveyor." 

a. painter's survey. 

" Laid out to Gamaliel Painter, two hundred acres of land in^Middlebury, 
Deliverance Spalding being the original proprietor of the lot No. 23. It buts 
and bounds as follows : beginning on his north line^ about fifteen rods north of 
his house, at a large heap of stones on the ledge by the river, thence east thirty- 
seven degrees south fifty-six rods to a stake, then south thirty-seven degrees west 
one hundred and sixty rods to a red ash tree, thence west thirty-seven degrees 
north two hundred rods to a large maple, then north thirty-seven degrees east one 
hundred and sixty rods to a hard maple, then to the first mentioned bounds. 
September 23d, 1778. 

Surveyed by me, Phinkas Brown, Surveyor." 


•* Laid out to Benjamin Smalley, two hundred acres of land, lying in the south 
west part of Middlebury, and on the mouth of Middlebury River, where it empties 
into the creek. Begins at a stake at the northwest comer of his lot on the creek ' 
then east twenty degrees south two hundred and seventeen rods to a walnut tree, 
John Chipman*s northwest comer, then south thirty-seven degrees west two 
hundred and three rods to a walnut tree, the southwest comer of John Chipman's 
lot, then west thirty- seven degrees north one hundred and twenty-seven rods to 
the creek, thence on the creek to the first mentioned bounds. Russel Hunt being 
the original proprietor, lot No. 42. September 23, 1773. 

Surveyed by me, Phinsas Brown, Surveyor." 

At the time of these surveys, the owners were living on the lands, 
and Painter's survey refers to ^* his house " and his *' north line," 


Chipmau's to the ** northwest corner of his lot," and Smalley's has 
the same reference. Probably they had previously run out lines 
for themselves to show the extent of their claims, or they might at 
first have pitched only one division, and afterwards had their lots 
re-surveyed to contain the two. 

John Chipman also pitched a lot, on the 15th of August 1774, 
containing one hundred acres, lying south of the two hundred acres 
pitches of John Chipman and Benjamin Smalley, extending from 
Painter's 200 acre pitch on the east to the creek on the west, " laid 
in the third (second hundred acre) division, on the original right 
of Janna Meigs. This lot was afterwards purchased by his brother 
Thomas Chipman, and occupied by him as his home farm. 

During the period, in which Phineas Brown was surveying the 
above mentioned two hundred acre lots, he surveyed also the two 
following in the same neighborhood. On the 22d of September 
1773, *' laid out to Thomas Skcel two hundred acres, lying in Mid- 
dlebury and on Middlebury Kiver, beginning at the southwest cor- 
ner of his lot, at a maple staddle, then east 19^ south 160 rods to 
a stake, then north 19^ east 200 rods to a stake by the river, then 
west 19® north 160 rods to a stake, thence to the first bounds." 

fc'eptember 23d, 1773, '' laid out to Eleazar Slasson 200 acres of 
land in the township of Middlebury, Nathaniel Flint being the 
original proprietor of lot No. 21. It huts and bounds as follows, 
beginning at a stake, the northwest corner of Thomas Skeel's lot, 
then east 19*^ south 100 rods to a stake, the southeast corner of said 
Slasson' s, and the northeast corner of said Skeel's, then north 19® 
east 90 rods to the home lots, then north 11® east on the home lots 
107 rods to a witchhazle staddle, then west 19® north 150 rods to a 
large beech tree, then south 19® west 200 rods, then east 19® south 
four rods to the first mentioned bounds." 

It will be perceived that the east lino of the Skecl's lot from the 
south runs eight or nine degrees more to the cast than the west line 
of the home lots, and thus approaches it, but does not reach it. The 
east line of the Slasson lot, lying north of it, running in the same 
direction S'^cn reaches it, leaving a naiTow wedge between these two 
pitches and the home lots. Nathaniel Evart3 in October 1774, 


located a hundred acre pitch on his original right, which embraces 
this strip. Joshua Hyde having purchased the Skeers lot purchased 
also this wedge to bring his land to the home lots and the highway. 

Joshua Hyde in 1774, pitched one hundi*ed acres lying east of 
home lots 3i) and 37, and on both sides of Middlebury River, on 
which the east part of the village of East Middlebury is situated. 
It embraces the principal water power and is called Hyde's Mill lot. 

The following two hundred acre lots in the neighborhood of Mid- 
dlebury Falls, were surveyed by Phineas Brown, near the same 
time as those in the south part of the town. 

September 28th, 1773. " Laid out to Joshua Hyde two hundred 
acres of land in the northwest part of Middlebury, Moses Reed being 
the original proprietor of the right, beginning at the southwest 
corner at a stake near a red ash tree marked, then east one hundred 
and sixty rods to a stake, then north two hundred rods to a stake 
near a beech tree marked, then west one hundred and sixty rods to 
a hemlock tree marked, then south two hundred rods to the first 
mentioned bounds." 

October 22, 1773. *' Surveyed for Oliver Evarts, in the north- 
westerly part of Middlebury, two hundred acres of land, being the 
third division of said Evarts' original right (first 100 acre lot No. 
43) beginning at a stake, which is the southeast comer of Joshua 
Hyde's lot, from thence running east 20 degrees south one hundred 
and sixty rods to a large hard maple tree, marked 0. E. from thence 
running north 20 degrees east 200 rods to a witchhazle sapling, 
marked 0. E. from thence running west 20 degrees north one hun- 
dred and sixty rods to a large white oak tree marked ; from thence 
south 20 degrees west 200 rods to the first mentioned bounds." 

The location of the former of these lots was very important to 
our pui*pose, because the latter has one of its coniers for a boun- 
dary, and the surveys of several other lots refer to it. The survey 
contains no permanent boundaries, and gives no intimation of its 
locality, except that it was *^ in the northwest part of Middlebury." 
No record remains of a conveyance from Hyde to any other person; 
aU who Tfere alive at the time have gone to their graves ; and in 
the coarse of eighty years it has been so often divided and subdi- 


vided, that tho present owners have no knowledge of the source from 
which their title is derived. But a very laborious examination of 
records has solved the mystdry. Hyde's two hundred acre pitch 
lies directly north of the village, and includes the north part of it 
as far south as the house of Alanson Dustin, and the highway lead- 
ing from the Methodist chapel to Dr. Bass's. The southwest cor- 
ner was about twenty-three rods east of the creek, and it extends east 
over the highest part of the south point of Chipman's Hill. The 
south part of it was for many years the home farm of Freeman Foot. 

The Evarts survey lies east of Hyde's, the southwest comer of 
the former being tho southeast comer of the latter. It embraced 
the fiirms on which Stephen Goodrich and Robert Huston settled. 

In the year 1784 the Surveyor General re-surveyed the lines of 
the town, by which the south line of New Haven was moved 
about forty rods north of what had been recognized as the north 
line of Middlebury. At tho same time the north line of Salisbury 
was moved north on to territory which had been supposed to be 
included in tho limits of Middlebury, some of which had been laid 
out as such. Among tho lands cut oflf by this change of the line, 
was 170 acres of the two hundred acre pitch of Judge Painter, 
including his house. In April, 1785, the proprietors granted him 
"the privilege of re-pitching land in lieu of what was cut oft by 
said line." In pursuance of this authority, the following pitch was 
made in May 1786 : "Beginning at a cherry tree, which stands 
forty links from the bank of Otter Creek, thence east 6 chains and 
fifty links to a stake near a red ash tree marked, which is the south- 
west comer of a two hundred acre pitch laid out to Joshua Hyde, 
on the original right of Moses Reed, thence east on the south line 
of said pitch 26 chains and 50 links to a maple staddle, thence 
south 34 chains and 30 links to a hemlock tree, thence west 12 
chains and 75 links to an elm staddle standing on the bank of Otter 
Creek, thence following down the creek, as that runs to the bounds 
begun at." This embraced the whole of the east side of the &ll8 
and was called the " Mill lot." 

In the same month Painter surveyed for Abisha Washburn fifly 
acres, of which he received a deed from Washburn soon after. 


bounded as follows : bcginniDg at an elm tree standing on the bank of 
Otter Creek, the southwest comer of a fifty acre lot (the mill lot) 
'Hhat was laid out to the said Gamaliel Painter, which contains the 
&lls on Otter Creek, thence east 12 chains and 50 links to the south- 
east comer of the above mentioned lot, thence north 35 chains to the 
south line of a 200 acre pitch laid out to Joshua Hyde, thence cast 
13 chains and 50 links to the southeast comer of said pitch, and 
the southwest corner of a pitch surveyed to Oliver Evarts, thence 
south 37 chains to the southwest corner of a 50 acre lot, that Joseph 
Parker is in possession of, thence west 23 chains to a large hem- 
lock tree on the bank of Otter Creek, thence down the creek, as 
that runs to the bounds begun at." This adds a tract on the south 
side of the mill lot, extending to and embracing the present house 
lot of Horace Crane and the lot now occupied by the family of the 
late Gideon Carpender, who died November 22, 1858, and embraces 
a strip on the east of fifty-four rods wide. These two, making 100 
acres, constituted tbe home farm of Judge Painter at the fiills, and 
embrace the whole tract now covered by the village, on the east side of 
the creek, except what is included in the Hyde pitch above mentioned, 
and the Risley pitch, on the paper mill road, mentioned below. 

In June 1785, Benjamin Risley surveyed, among other lands, a 
lot of fifty-eight acres, embracing a strip of land between Hyde's 
200 acre pitch on the east and the creek, and extending north 
from Painter's mill lot to Abisha Washburn's pitch, along the paper 
mill street. In addition to the lots north of the village, already 
mentioned, a two hundred acre lot was laid out to Samuel Bentley, 
Jun., next north of Hyde's pitch. Next north of this Joel Evarts 
pitched a second hundred acre lot. Between the Bentley and Evarts 
lots on the east, Abisha Washburn had a fifty acre pitch, and 
north of these and south of the governor's lot, Risley had a hun- 
dred acre pitch, extending to the creek. North of all these is the 
governor's 500 acres, in the northwest comer of the town, the east 
line of which is about the same as the east line of the highway 
from Harry Goodrich's to New Haven line. The southeast comer 
of the lot is the triangular piece, cut off from the main body by the 
roads, on which John A. Hammond resides. 


About the year 1783, the proprietors voted to grant a right to 
Col. Seth Warner of Bennington. This right, in July of that 
year, he deeded to his son, **for the love and good will I have to 
my son Israel Warner, of said Bennington," as he expresses the 
consideration ; and he describes the land as being voted to him by 
the proprietoi*s *' for services done by me in defence of their lands." 
The selection had been delayed until all the lands below the moun- 
tain had been tiikcn up. and ( ol. Warner's son pitched his land on 
that part of the mountain, which has since been annexed to Ripton, 
and it is doubtful, whether much, if anything has been received 

from it, for the benefit of himself or family. The only survey 
was made in 1790, and is as follows : 

•* Purveyed for Israel Warner, biic liundrcJ and seventy-seven acres of land, on 
the adventurer's right of Seth W^arner, in the town of Middlebury, as follows : 
Beginning at a beech tree marked, and the southwest corner of a lot laid out to 
Applcton Foot, thence west ten degrees south 177 rods to a stake, thenco nortli ten 
degrees west 100 rods to a stake, thence east ten degrees north 177 rods to a birch 
tree, the northwest corner of Appleton Foot's lot, thence to the first bounds, con- 
taining one hundred and seventy-seven acres *' 

We shall have occasion to refer to other lots as we proceed with 
the settlement of the town. 


The following act was passed by the Legislature on the 25th day 
of October 1796, in pursuance of the vote of the town. 

*^ An act annexing part of the town of Cornwall to Middlebury: 
It is hereby enacted by the General Assembly of the b'tatc of 
Vermont, that the northeasterly part of the town of Cornwall, in 
the County of Addison, hereinafter described, be, and the same is 
hereby annexed to the town of Middlebury, in said County, 
bounded as follows, viz : beginning at the southwest comer of said 
Middlebury, then running west so far that a north line will strike 
the west end of the long causeway, so-called, then on a straight 
line to the southeast corner of Ethan Andrus's farm, on which he 
now lives, thence on the east line of said farm to the northeast 
corner thereof, thence on a straight line to- a large white-pine 
stump, from which was cut the shingle tree, so-called, thence north 
to the north line of said Cornwall, thence east on the north line of 


Said Cornwall to the westwardly side line of Middlebury, thenoe 
southerly on the westerly line of Middlebury to the first bounds ; 
and the inhabitants, who do or may hereafter inhabit the above 
described tract of land, shall, in common with all the other inhab- 
itants of said Middlebury, be entitled to all the privileges and 

immunities of said Middlebury." 

We would in this connection suggest to the wealthy towns of 
Middlebury and Cornwall, that it might not be improper to 
substitute more permanent monuments, for the changing and 
decaying boundaries referred to in this act. Not many years hence 
the " long causeway '' may be converted into a civilized earth road, 
80 that the *^ west end " shall disappear. " The southeast comer " 
and the **east line of Ethan Andrus's farm, on which he now lives" 
may soon be lost to all living men, through the Yankee propensity to 
change often the titles and boundaries of their farms ; and even the 
stump of the " shingle tree," obstinate as pine roots are, has been 
already principally, if not wholly removed, through the decay which 
time has wrought, as well as the necessities of the poor for wood. 

The Legislature, on the 11th day of November 1814, also enacted 
'* That a tract of land on the east side of the mountain in Middle- 
bury, in the County of Addison, described as follows, to-wit : begin- 
ning at the southeast comer of said Middlebury, thence west on the 
south line of said town one mile, thence northerly to a stake in the 
north line of said Middlebury, one mile and a half from the north- 
east corner of said Middlebury ; thence on said north line of said 
Middlebury, to the northeast comer thereof, thence to the first 
bounds, be and the same is hereby annexed to the town of Ripton, 
in said County, and the inhabitants that now do or hereafter may 
reside on said tract, shall be entitled to all the privileges and 
immunities with the other inhabitants of said Ripton." 

By another act passed on the 29th day of October 1829, the 
farm of Zebina Cushman, lying in Middlebury, and adjoining the west 
line of Ripton as established by the preceding act was annexed to 
the latter town. — In these changes Middlebury has lost something 
in the extent of its territory, but has gained much in value, by 
exchanging the mountain land on the east for the fertile territory 
and the valuable water-power added from Cornwall on the west. 




The first settlements, designed to be permanent, were commenced 
in the spring of 1773. At that time the settlers in the State, under 
the New Hampshire title, had become so numerous, as to inspire 
them with confidence hi their strength effectually to resist the claim- 
aijts under the 2s'ow York grants. Most of the towns south of this 
County had already been settled, or immigrants were fast passing 
into them. A few settlements had already been made on the French 
clearing on the lake shore in Addison, and in New Haven on the 
creek above the falls, and one or more families had taken possession 
of lands, on the borders of the lake in Panton and Bridport. Gen. 
"VVooster's claim to a tract of land in the north part of Addison, on 
the lake shore, had been effectually resisted, in the fall of the pre- 
vious year, by the claimants under the New Hampshire titles. The 
Scotch tenants of Colonel Reed, who had a grant, as a reduced or 
half pay ofl5cer, including the falls at Vcrgcnnes, had, early in that 
season, been expelled by Ethan Allen and his company of Green 
Mountain Boys ; and all the active New York parti zans were in a 
course of being subdued or ro<jted out, by the same force. No 
grants had been made by the governor of New York of lands within 
the limits of Mid-lleburv, and there were no claimants under that 


title. * Thus the way was opened for the proprietors of Middle- 
bury to enter upon the possession of their lands. 

Benjamin Smalley from Salisbury^ Conn., and brother of the 
late Rev. Dr. Smalley of Berlin, in that StatC; was the first immi- 
grant, who brought his family into town. In the spring of 1778^ 
he took possession and built the first log house in town, on his two 
hundred acre pitch, lying at the mouth of Middlebury River. John 
Chipman and Gamaliel Painter had been here to look out a place 
for settlement and make some preparation, and soon after returned 
with their families. Judge Painter's wife, being a sister of CoL 
Chipman, they joined forces in making preparations for living in 
their new abodes. They first built Painter's house, and perhaps 
had done so before their families came, and there they lived together 
until Chipman' s house was completed. The firet houses here, as in 
other new countries, were log cabins. There was no saw mill ia 
this, or any of the neighboring towns ; and if they had had the 
means, they would not have wasted in building more expensive 
houses, the time needed for clearing their land for the crops, which 
were needed for their subsistence. Smallcy's house was on the 
site of the frame house, which he afterwards built and occupied to 
the time of his death. Chipman's house was also near the place 
where he afterwards built his brick house ; and Painter's was north 
of and near the river, and east of the centre road leading south, and 
was thrown into Salisbury, by the re-survey of the town line. 

John Chipman had, before this, in 17G6, cleared on his lot seven 
or eight acres, which was the first clearing in Middlebury. In the 

♦ Although no persotis were here claiming lands under the New York title, seT- 
eral of the owners, under the New Hampshire charters seem to have been inclined 
to recognize the jurisdiction of New York. Daniel Foot, Benjamin Smalley, Thomas 
Skeels and perhaps others, in deeds given soon af:er the first settlement, describe 
their residence as in ••' Middlebury, in the County of Charlotte, and Province of 
New York." This seems to have been universal in Cornwall Some deeds given 
about the same date say, •* no^/ the jurisdiction claimed by New York,*! or "re- 
puted to be in the Province of New York.*' But it is known on the other hand, that 
there were in the town, many strenuous and active opposers of that jurisdiction. 
Many of the first settlers were the neighbors and acquaintances of Ethan Allen, in 
Salisbury, Connecticut 


spring of that year, he started, with fifteen other jonng men, for 
the purpose of looking up, and making preparation for, a settlement 
in the wilderness. Some of them were destined for that part of 
New Haven now included in Waltham, bordering on the creek 
above the falls at Vergennes ; some for the lake shore in Panton, 
and some for the French clearing in Addison. Amcmg the latter 
was David Yallance, who afterwards settled Jn that place on the 
farm recently owned by David Yallance Chambers, his grandson. 
Chipman and Vallance jointly hired a colored man, with the under- 
standing that he should work half the time for Yallance in Addison, 
and the other half for Chipman, in Middlebury. This company 
started from Salisbury, Conn., with a cart and oxen, which con- 
veyed their farming tools and other freight. According to Chip- 
man's account, as related by Dr. Merrill, they found no house 
north of Manchester. They made their way as they could, 
through the wilderness, cutting out their path, where there was not 
room between the trees for their team. They followed up the 
Battenkill to the headwaters of Otter Creek, which they followed 
down to the foot of Sutherland's Falls in Pittsford. Here they 
stopped long enough to make a canoe out of a large tree. They 
then fastened their cart to the stem of it, loaded their tools and 
provisions into it, with men enough to row it, while the rest with 
their oxen traveled through the woods on the bank. At Middle- 
bury they loaded their canoe into the cart, which was drawn by 
the oxen around the bend of the creek on the east bank, until they 
arrived at the foot of the lower falls in Weybridge. Here they 
transferred their canoe to the water and followed the creek to 

At this time Chipman had no title to the land, on which he made 
his clearing, or probably any other in Middlebury. The deed by 
which he received his title to the land is dated January 14, 1773, 
only a short time before he commenced his settlement. It is 
probable that when he reached the mouth of Middlebury River he 
followed up that stream to a place which promised well for a settle- 
ment, and there pitched his tent. 

These were the only families, which had located, themselves in 


town the first year. Eleazar Slasson, the same year commenced a 
clearing on his two hundred acre pitch, before mentioned, directly 
west of home lot No. 36, and built a cabin there. The same year 
James Owen commenced on a part of the same pitch, being a fifty 
acre lot, which he had before purchased of Slasson. Dr. Merrill 
says, ** James Owen made a beginning but sold to Joshua Hyde." 
Hyde's deed fix^m Owen is dated 26th June 1781, while both were 
in Salisbury during the war. Besides, Hyde on his return in 1774, 
did not settle on any land, which Owei had owned, nor did he until 
after the war. Samuel Bentley made a beginning and put up a 
bam on his two hundred acre pitch, north of Hyde's pitch, and 
near the place where Eleazar Conant aft;erward8 lived ^n the west 
side of Chipman's Hill. Jonathan Chipman the same year, com- 
menced a clearing on the second hundred acre lot on the right of 
his brother Thomas Chipman. This lot lies northeast of Col. Chip- 
man's pitch, and is the same afterwards owned and occupied by 
Freedom Loomis. Thomas Chipman, the original proprietor, soon 
after the date of the charter, and before the first meeting of the 
proprietors, deeded his whole right to his younger brother Jona- 
than, who attended the meetings and acted as proprietor. 

In the year 1774, Robert Torrance moved his family into town, 
and commenced a settlement on the west end of home lot No. 83, in 
the place where he afterwards built a brick house, in which he re- 
sided until the time of his death. He owned also Nos. 31 and 32, 
lying next north. 

The same year Bill Thayer settled on fifty acres of Slasson's 200 
acre pitch, which he had before purchased, lying west of and adjoin^ 
ing home lot No. 34. 

Joshua Hyde, one of the earliest settlers, was bom in Lebanon, 
Conn., where his family resided ; but when fourteen years of age, 
he went to live with his uncle. Dr. Joshua Porter in Salisbury, an 
original proprietor, and remained there until his manhood. In the 
year 1773, owning a lot of land in that part of New Haven, 
which has since been formed into the town of Waltham, on Otter 
Creek, near the falls in Vergennes, he worked on it and put in 
crops that season. A considerable tract of land in that neighbor- 


hood had been granted by the governor of New York to Col. Reed, a 
reduced or half pay oflScer of a Scotch regiment, for his services in 
the French war. Reed had before driven ofiF the claimants under 
the New Hampshire title, and had put his own tenants in possession. 
These in their turn were driven oflf by a company of Green Moun- 
tain Boys under Ira Allen. In the summer of 1773, Col. Reed 
appeared again with a company of recent immigrants from Scotland. 
The result of the meeting was, that Reed's men went into posses- 
sion, and the New Hampshire claimants went out. Reed's story 
was that he paid the men for their crops, and they voluntarily 
quitted. However that may be, the Scotchmen were not long left in 
quiet possession, before Ethan Allen appeared with a more formid- 
able force, and effectually and finally banished them fix)m the 
country. Reference is made to this subject more in detail in the 
history of Addison County. Mr. Hyde, for some reason, thought 
it not best to return there, and, after remaining a while in Middle- 
bury, went to Salisbury and spent the winter. Hyde, on his way 
south, met Ethan Allen and his company, on their way to the fiills, 
to drive off Reed's men, and returned with them. 

In the spring of 1774, he returned to Middlebury and commenced 
a settlement here. He was before the owner of some land in Mid- 
dlebury, and about the time of his settlement here, he purchased 
two whole rights, embracing home lots No. 86, which he afterwards 
cultivated as a part of his home farm, and No. 33, which he sold to 
Robert Torrance. He also purchased SkeePs 200 acre pitch. This 
lot lies west of and not far from the home lots. It was undoubtedly 
on this lot, that he first settled. The place described by Dr. Mer- 
rill is on this lot, and the remains of his house are still to be seen 

William Hopkins this year commenced a clearing and built a 
cabin on the south part of Oliver Evarts' 200 acre pitch, east of the 
village, near the place, on which Dr. William Bass, in his life time 

Daniel Foot from Dalton, adjoining Pittsfield, Mass., which, in 
some of his deeds, he calls *^ Ashuelot Equivalent," owned at least 
four or five home lots and as many second hundred acre lots, in the 


ftime neighborhood. Among others he owned No. 5, on the right o f 
Nathaniel Skinner, and No. 6, on the right of Samuel Skinner, 
both lying west of and adjoining the home lots. In 1774, he com- 
menced a settlement, and built a house on No. 5, southwest from 
where he finally settled. The remains of the foundation of this 
house are still to bo seen. 

Simeon Chandler from Arlington, in the year 1775, began a 
settlement on the west end of homo lots Nos. 37 and 38. 

Daniel Foot had deeded to Enoch Dewey of Pittsfield, who had 
married his daughter, lot No. 2, in the second hundred acre 
division, which lies directly west of home lot No. 63, which Mr. 
Dewey also owned. On the lot which his father-in-law deeded to 
him he commenced a clearing near where his son Stillman Dewey 
lived and died, lie did not remove his family before the war, and 
died of the small pox in February, 1778, in the thirty-third year 
of his age, leaving two children, Stillman and Patty. 

Joseph Plumley, from Salisbury, Conn., in the year 1775, began 
a settlement on a second hundred acre division on the right of 
Ebenezer Field. The lot was afterwards owned and for several 
years occupied by Billy Manning, then by John Simmons, Esq., 
and now by Reuben Wright. Plumley died soon after and left a 
widow and one daughter, to whom we shall refer in our account 
of the settlement after the war. 

John Ilinman, from Wallingford, the same year settled on a 
second hundred acre lot, east of lot No. 14 of the same division, 
in the place where William Carr, Jr., now resides. 

In this year Samuel Bentley settled on his two hundred acre 
pitch, on which he had built a barn in 1773. About the same 
time James Bentley, his father, settled on the north part of the same 
pitch, where he was living in 1775. 

Philip Foot, the eldest son of Daniel Foot, in 1775, came to 
Middlebury, a young man, and commenced a clearing on lot No. 7 
in the second hundred acre division, lying west of and adjoining 
home lot No. 56, and north of No. 6, owned by his father. Ho 
also owned No. 8, next north of the other. 

Eber Evarts, also a young man, and son of Nathaniel Evarts, 


an original proprietor, began a clearing this year, on a second 
hundred acre pitch on the right of his father, which is now owned 
and occupied by Col. Joel Boardman. 

These, so far as we are able to learn, were the only persons who 
attempted a settlement in the charter limits of Middlebury before 
the war. And these had scarcely nestled in their new homes in the 
wilderness, and were anxiously looking forward to brighter scenes, 
wider fields and more abundant crops and comforts, when the 
desolations of war disturbed their repose, drove them from their 
cabins and terminated their anticipations. 

In December 1776, and before the family were driven off by the 
war, Zerah Smalley, a son of Benjamin Smalley, died at the age 
of eighteen, and in February following, his daughter Anah, of the 
age of twenty years, having become insane, wandered into the 
woods, where she remained through the night, exposed to the* 
severe cold of the winter, and perished before she ws^ found in the 


The territory annexed from Cornwall being separate in its early 
settlement, we here place together the history of the agricultural 
part of that territory, as well after as before the war. 

The partition of lands in Cornwall is in greater confusion than 
that of Middlebury ; and no land owner can make out a title to his 
farm except by the statute of limitations, or by a prior possession, 
which no man can dispute with a better title. There was never 
any regular division of the lands. The whole seems to have been 
accomplished by an irregular system of pitches. The right of 
pitching was often granted on condition of performing certain 
services, such as clearing out and opening roads. Besides, all the 
records of the proceedings of the proprietors and of the surveys 
were burnt previous to the tenth of February 1778. A large 
portion of this part of Cornwall had been previously surveyed, the 
records of which were destroyed. The lands near the creek were 
generally settled earlier than other parts of the town ; and nearly 
as many occupants were in possession of the agricultural parts aa 
at the present time. A few of the surveys previously made, were 


recorded after the war, and others are ascertained from subsequent 
deeds. Such are the following. The proprietors granted to Judge 
Painter the right of pitching two hundred acres, for service done in 
surveying the *' great road,'' through Cornwall, which is described 
as lying ^'across the north and south road, not far from the mid- 
dle of the town." One deed, dated May 1, 1784, conveys "ono 
hundred acres, being a part of a certain grant of land, made and 
granted by the proprietors of said township of Cornwall, to Col. 
Seth Warner, and Major Robert Cochran and company, for building 
a block house at New Haven, and other services done for the pro- 
prietors of said town." 

A meeting of the proprietors was held on the 10th day of Feb- 
ruary 1778, by adjourament ; previous to which all their records 
were burnt. This meeting was again adjourned from time to time, 
and on the 15th of April was further adjourned until October fol- 
lowing. But no meeting was then held or subsequently until after 
the war. The next meeting was held in September 1783, the 
notice of which was signed by *^ Timothy Bronson Assistant," and 
dated *' Sunderland June 30, 1788," where he resided. 

Daniel Foot,, previous to his return to Middlebury, after the war, 
being desirous of obtaining a water power for the erection of mills 
on the west side of the falls, on the 6th day of February 1784, 
took a deed from Israel Dewey, of Westfield, Mass., conveying land 
of the following description, — '- One certain right or share of land 
in the township of Weybridge, in the State of Vermont, and County 
of Rutland," '' said right is laid out and bounded on Otter Ceeek, 
on the falls called and known by the name of Middlebury Falls, 
and is lot No. 53, which fell to me the subscriber, original propri- 
etor, by draft." There are also on record several deeds referring to 
Weybridge *^ Old corner." It is obvious that a diflferent line was 
originally recognized, as dividing the towns of Cornwall and Wey- 
bridge, and far enough south to include the falls in the latter town ; 
and by persevering examination, we find that it forms the division 
line between Foot's mill lot, and the home farm of the late Col. 
Storrs. There is no record of the time and manner of altering this 

line, nor have we found any living man, who had any knowledge of 


such a line. But it is probable that the change was made by the 
surveyor general in 1784, when the town lines of Middlebury weffe 
re-surveyed and corrected. Among the records of Cornwall town 
meeting in November 1787, is the following : " A petition from 
Weybridge for setting off from Cornwall to the former old line was 
read and rejected." 

The town of Cornwall was organized on the second day of March 
1784, two years before Middlebury. The following is the action of 
the town of Cornwall, in relation to the first bridge built fey Daniel 
Foot across the creek at the fiills, at a meeting in September 1788 : 
" The report of the committee to confer with Mr. Foot About the 
bridge was read : Voted to join with Daniel Foot of Middlebury, 
to petition the assembly for a lottery to pay ]\Ir. Foot for his bridge 
over the creek^ and, if not granted, to petition for a land tax for 
the aforesaid purpose." A land tax was granted on the town of 
Cornwall, as well as on the town of Middlebury, and of which one 
half the expense was paid by Cornwall. 

Asa Blodget from Salisbury, Conn., was probably the first set- 
tler in that part of Cornwall annexed to Middlebury. Previous to 
the 27th of October 1774, he seems to have been the owner of the 
right of Zuriel Jacobs. On that day he pitched, on that right, 
''one hundred acres and seven acres for allowance for highways, 
according to the vote passed at the proprietors' meeting the 3rd of 
May last," embracing the large bow in the creek, near the south 
line of the town, owned by the late Ira Stewart, Esq., and now in 
possession of his sons. In the summer of 1773, and previous to 
his survey, Blodget had settled on this lot, near the creek. The 
principal travel at that time was on the creek, by boats and rafts in 
the summer, and on the ice in the winter. His object in locating him- 
eeif in this place, was to provide refreshment and rest for travellers. 
He built his cabin on the rising ground a little west of the creek, 
near where the present house stands. He had also a shanty near the 
creek to accommodate temporary travellers, when it was not over- 
flowed, as was common in high freshets. His house was the point, 
to which all travellers to and from Cornwall and the vicinity aimed. 


He continued in this place until the war and until most of the inhab- 
itants had left. 

Dr. Merrill says, " Before the revolutionary war, Penuel Stevens 
settled on a strip of land near Otter Creek, south of Blodget, 
and north of Flat Brook." We have no further information of 
this man. He could not have owned land there, and he did not 
return after the war. Mr. Russell Vallett, who recently owned this 
land, says there is evidence of a former settlement there, about fifty 
rods abo\ e Blodget's pitch, and one budred rods north of Flat Brook, 
on a small p:cce of land on the bank of the creek, which is not 
overflowed by freahcts. Some remains of the foundation of a house 
and cornhills are found there, and the trees growing round it, when 
he purchased^ were smaller than those of the surrounding forests. 
The small timber on about thirty acres, somewhat higher than the 
surrounding swamp, and about fifty rods from the creek, he thinks 
evidence of a former clearing. 

Theophilus Allen, before the war—probably in 1773, settled on 
an eighty acre lot next north of Blodget's farm. We find no 
record of the lands on which he settled until after the war. He 
subsequently pitched the lot on which he lived ; and the hundred 
acre lot, on which his brother David Allen afterwards settled, and 
both on the right of Nathan Benton. 

James Bentley, Jr., previous to the war, settled en a hundred 
and fifty acre lot, a part of which is now owned by Mr. Warren 
Moore, and built a small house, near the house in which Mr. Moore 

Thomas Bentley settled on a lot lying south and east of the 
above, and running to the creek, which is the fiu-m since owned 
successively by Asa Harris and Hon. S. S. Phelps, and now by 
Marshal T. Shacket. His house was near the present dwelling 
house. What title he had at that time we are not able to ascertain. 
But after the war in 1786, he made a pitch of two hundred and 
twenty-two acres, extending from the Creek west to William 
Douglass's land, including this farm. Bentley returned after the 
war and continued in po33ession of his farm until 1793, when he 
sold it to Hezekiah Wadsworth, and removed Ox)m the country. j 


> Next south of Thomas Bcntley, William Douglass settled near 
the house in which his son James Douglass, and his grand son of 
the same name have since resided, and which was owned by the 
late Dr. Ford of Cornwall, and now by his son, Charles R. Ford. 

Joseph Throop, from Whiting, in 1774? settled on a lot next 
Gouth and east of Douglass and running to the creek, on the 
ground where Dan Throop, his son, afterwards lived, and which has 
since been owned by Johathan Hagar, Esq., and occupied by 
Joseph Steams. The same lot was recently owned and occupied by 
Abijah Hurd, and has lately been purchased by Grardner and 
Isaac Eclls. Joseph Throop also owned the lot south of the above, 
on which his son Samuel resided, and which now belongs to the 
farm purchased by Eells of Hurd. In the spring of 1848, Alvali 
English resided on tliis fann, which he had owned and (Sccupied for 
several years. He owned also a lot on the creek. In a great 
fresliet which occurred at that time, the low lands were overflowed, 
his fences were swept away and the rails were floating on the 
water. In order to collect and save these he built a raft of rails, 
at the bend of the creek, near the foundation of the house, where 
James Bentley, and afterwards Samuel Benton resided before the 
war, took on his son, ten or twelve years old, and attempted to go 
in pursuit of his floating rails. Not being able to guide his raft 
it was drawn into the current and parted in the eddy, and he and 
his son fell into the creek and were drowned, on the 20th day of 
April of that year. He was in his forty-fifth year. The body of 
his son was never recovered. 

In 1774 James Bentley, senior, had settled and resided on the 
bank of the creek, about five rods south of Throop's line at the 
bend of the creek, about two miles south of the village. In the 
year following he lived in a house on the north part of the 
Bentley pitch in Middlebury. 

Col. Samuel Benton, who owned considerable land in other parts 
of Cornwall, in 1775, established his residence on the bank of the 
creek at the same place and probably in the same house which had 
been occupied by James Bentley, and which, for want of a title or 
otherwise, he had left. The foundation of this house, some 


currant bushes, and other signs of a residence were to be seen, 
until they were removed by the construction of the rail-road. 

These were all the settlers on this tract before the war. 

In 1783 Asa Blodget returned to his former possession, and 
continued it until 1795, when he sold it to Anthony Rhodes, from 
'whom it has passed through several hands to its present owners. 

Theophilus Allen, at the close of the war also returned and went 
into possession of his former lot, and resided on it until 1797, 
when he deeded it to Joshua Henshaw, from New Hartford, Conn. 
Mr. Henshaw's first settlement in this town was at this place, whefe 
he resided until he removed to the village in 1800. It is now as it 
has been for many years, occupied by Silas Piper and his son Silas 
Piper, Jr. 

William Douglass, in the fiiU of 1783, returned to his farm with 
two young sons, for the purpose of making preparation for tho 
return of his family. On the 19th of December of that year he 
went into the forest to cut wood and was instantly killed by the 
fall of a tree. On a monument erected at his grave on the 
rising ground southerly from his house is the following inscription : 

'*Mr. William Douglass, bom June 22, 1735, waa killed 
instantly by the fall of a ti-ee, December 19, 1783. 

Here Ife and aU its pleasures end, 
Here mourners wander, read and weep ; 
Soon each succeeds his fiillen friend, 
And in the same cold earth must sleep. 

Mr. Douglass, his widow and children owned several tracts 
adjoining his home farm, occupied at different times by different 
members of his family, including Orange Throop, his son-in-law. 
James Douglass was the last of his sons, who occupied the home- 
stead after the death of the widow. He went to the south in 1822, 
where his daughter was teaching, and died there. His widow and 
fether-in-law James Bentley continued to reside there with his son, 
until their several deaths, and his son afterwards sold the drm and 
moved to the west. 

Joseph Throop, when he returned after the war, went into 
possession of his ferm, but died twelve or fourteen years after, and 


his widow married Eleazar Davis. Davis and his wife continued Sa 
possession for a time, and in 1796 gave a deed of the two lots 
above mentioned to her sons Dan and Samuel Throop, who occupied 
the premises as before stated. 

Col. Samuel Benton did not occupy his house on the bank of 
the creek after the war, but resided elsewhere in Cornwall. 

James Bentlej senior, after the war, built him a house on the 
bank of the creek near the house of Hop. Johnson, mentioned 
elsewhere, and after Johnson deserted his family in 1789 Bentley 
lived with his daughter Mrs. Johnson, ^he was soon after married 
to James Douglass, and Bentley lived with them for some years on 
the ridge south of Davenport's new house, until they removed 
together to the Douglass farm, as mentioned above. James 
Bentley, senior, died in 1829, at the age of ninety-three years. 

James Bentley Jr., returned to his farm after the war, and 
remained on it for some years. In 1788, he deeded fifty acres to 
William Donaghy, who built a house southerly from Bcntley's, on a 
road then open, leading from James Bentley's to Thomas Bentley's. 
On this lot Donaghy resided until 1795, when he sold it to Thomas 
and Ep. Spencer, who were in possession for twelve or fifteen 
years, and sold it to Dr. Willard and Ethan Andrus. The 
Spencers were succeeded in the possession of the house by Julius 
Wilcox. A part of the land deeded to Willard on which the 
house stood, is annexed to the farm of Warren Moore. Harvey 
Wilcox, son of Julius Wilcox, now residing in the village on the 
Cornwall road, purchased a piece of land and moved to it the old 
house in which his fiither lived, and resided there until 1830. In 
1831, Harvey Pritchard purchased this and other adjoining lands — 
has repaired the house and still lives there. 

In the year 178ft, Capt. Samuel Wright, then of Weybridge, 
purchased several pieces of land south of the Douglass farm and 
west of the Throop lot, and among others a small piece of Thomas 
Bentley, on which he erected a house, now occupied by Julius 
Douglass, who owns the farm. In this place he resided until his 
death in December 1818, at the age of eighty-two years. By his 
will he provided for the support of his widow, and her daughter 


fey a former husband, during their lives, and gave the remainder to 
the Congregational Society. The amount remaining to the Society 
is about seven hundred dollars. His widow, Esther Wright died in 

1840, aged eighty-eight years. 

In the year 1791 Thomas Bentley deeded to Andrew Nichols a 
tract of eighty-nine acres on the north side of his two hundred and 
twenty-two acre pitch, extending west from the creek, on which he 
reside<i for some time, and it was called his " home lot." Not 
many years since there were on this lot an old log house and a 
plank house, probably built by him, a short distance north of the 
former residence of Thomas Bentley, now owned by Shacket. 

In 1793 Bentley deeded to Luthec Wright, of Swanzy, N. F., 
a tract on the south side of his pitch, extending west from the 
creek to the land of Capt. Samuel Wright. Wright occupied this 
as his homo farm for some time ; but while carrying it on it is 
understood that he lived with his uncle, Samuel Wrigh, and built no 
house on his land. No person, as owner of either of these lots has 
since resided on them. Both lots are now owned by James 
McDonald, Esq. 

David AUen^ a brother of Thcophilus Allen, after the war 

settled on the farm next north of his brother, now owned by 
Alfred Stowell. He continued his residence here until the year 
1805, when he died at the age of forty-three years. His widow, 
after his death, was married to Elijah Keeler, and they remained 
in possession of the farm during their lives. 

Previous to the year 1796, Francis Garrett settled on a lot of 
ninety- two acres, next north of the home farm of David Allen, built 
a log house and resided on it until 1803, when he deeded it to 
Daniel and William Campbell. The title has since passed through 
several hands. The tract between the creek and the road was for- 
merly owned by Asa Harris, and during that time his son built a 
house and resided in it for some time. The house has since been 
removed, and the land is now owned by Marshall T. Shackett. On 
the west of the road, John Steams, son of Joseph Steams, built a 
house and resided a few rods south of the bam belonging to Shack- 
ett. This tract is now owned by Jacob W. Conroe, Esq., and the 
house is occupied by a tenant. 




AiTER the retreat of the American army in June 1776, from the 
disastrous expedition into Canada, the inhabitants of this and the 
neighboring towns were somewhat exposed to depredation from 
scouting parties of British, tories and Indians, and especially after 
tiie defeat of the American fleet under Arnold, in October following. 
And it is not improbable, that some of the more timid families re- 
treated from the country during that season. But they were vastly 
more exposed, the following year, when Burgoyne, with his formid- 
able army sailed up the lake, dispersing every form of opposition. 
For this reason we have been forced into no little incredulity as to 
the exact correctness of the following statement of Dr. Merrill. 
He says — ** Agreeably to advice from head quarters of our army 
ftt Ticondcroga, all the inhabitants of Middlebury and (.'ornwall, 
except Daniel Foot and Benjamin l^malley, removed in June 1776. 
Some of them on the Cornwall side of the river did not leave one 
extreme of their farms, till the Indians in search of booty were 
lurking in the other. Foot and Smalley after being pillaged of 
most of their moveable property, abandoned their homes in Septem- 
ber of the same year. These two individuals however, with their 
families, returned in the following winter and remained until the 
spring of 1778.'' This is a representation of events which might 
be supposed to have existed in June of the year following. But 
the histories of that period do not furnish any adequate reason for 
such general alarm and sudden retreat in June 1776. The last of 


the American troops did not leave St. Johns until the 18th of 
June. From the reduced and enfeebled state of the army, it was 
decided to relinquish Crown Point and concentrate the whole army 
at Ticonderoga ; but they did not leave the former place until after 
the 12th of July, and retained possession of Ticonderoga until 
driven from it by Burgoyne's army on the 6th of July of the fol- 
lowing year. The American Xavy had the control of the lake until 
the British had constructed their fleet and defeated the former in 
October. Until this time the British had no organized force south 
of Canada, and their fleet, which then came out, remained only 
about a month, and rctumeil to Cana<la with their whole force, 
without attacking tljc Amciican fortifications at Ticonderoga. 
There were, at the time of the invasion of Burgoyne in 1777, 
American families at Crown l^oint and on the opi)osito shore in 
Addison, Bridport and Panton, who for the first time fled on the 
approach of the Indians so near, that they hardly escaped with the 
utmost haste. At the time of the evacuation of Ticonderoga, on the 
6th of July of that year, the Convention engaged in forming the 
jSrst constitution of the State were thrown into a state of excitement 
and disorder because the families of some of the western members 
were exposed by the invasion.' After this, and ^rhaps before, 
foraging and scouting parties, composed of British, Tories and 
Indians, were often roaming through the country to obtain supplies, 
who stole and carried away every moveable thing they could lay 
their hands on, but there was no general destruction of property 
or capture of prisoners until the fall of 1778. Even at this time, 
there were residents in several of the neighboring towns who were 
taken prisoners and sent into Canada. 

By the records of Cornwall, it appears that Judge Painter 
surveyed a lot of land in that town on the 11th of April, 1777, 
which was entered of record the same day, but was recorded 
afterwards. The records of that town previous to February 1778 
being burnt furnish no further evidence previous to that time. 
At the meeting of the proprietors held in that town on the 14th 
and 15th of April 1778, much important business was transacted 
relating to their lands. But we are not able to call to our aid any 


living witnesses or records in Middlebur j to offset against tke better 
testimony which Dr. Merrill had an opportunity to obtain. 

Whatever the correct date of the retreat may be, it is true that 
on a sudden alarm most of the settlers fled from the country in 
great haste. The privations and hardships of their recent settle- 
ment in the wilderness were sufficiently appalling, but were fearfully 
aggravated by their being so suddenly banished from their homes 
into exile by the ravages of war. It is to be regretted that some 
one did not, before it was too late, collect from the sufferers the 
stories of their trials. Philip Battell, Esq., more thoughtful than 
others, several years ago collected some facts from a few individuals 
since dead. These, with such others as we have been able ta 
obtain from other sources, we intersperse with our narrative. 

Miss Olive Torrance, daughter of Robert Torrance, whom we 
have mentioned as a settler, is the only witness who had any 
knowledge of the events before the war, or during the retreat. 
The following is a part of her story as reported by Mr. Battell : 

Her father, she says, came to this country from Ireland in 1754, 
when he was eighteen years old. He became a resident of Wood- 
bury, Conn., and married Sally Peck, of that place. He removed 
to Middlebury with his family, with the first parties in 1774. 
They descended Otter Creek on a boat or raft, and made their 
beginning in a log house, which he had built on the spot where the 
fitmily still live. She was then five years old. 

The retreat from the country occurred three years after, upon 
the invasion of Burgoyne. She thinks the removal was in August; 
it might have been in June or early in July. Her mother went 
out, before they left, among the garden vines, which were numerous 
and promising, regretting to leave them. The state of apprehen- 
sion had been previously such that one Evarts, belonging to that 
neighborhood, and then in a company at Ticonderoga, arriving and 
visiting at their house early in the morning, produced great 
agitation among them. As a further alarm was to be given, the 
men, before hoeing was finished, turned out and dug out six bass- 
wood canoes near the river, and decided not to go until further 
notice*, when all were to be in readiness. When the final message 


<5aine their goods were taken to the river, the raft constructed, on 
which the women and children were placed, and the journey com- 
menced, Otter Creek being again their common highway. The 
party landed at Pittsford, where there was a military post, and Mrs. 
Torrance followed the train of women and children towards the settle- 
ment. She was carrying a child two years old in a sort of double- 
gown, brought over her shoulders, and in this plight saw a regiment of 
soldiers drawn up in front of her. She sat down by the way on a log 
und wept. A neighbor, Mr. Boardman, coming up on a horse, 
carrying an ox yoke behind him, insisted on laying off his yoke and 
taking her instead, bidding her not be down-hearted, but expect 
that things would turn out better than she feared. As they passed 
the regiment, the Colonel recognized her and called out, " My 
God, there's Sally Peck. It makes a man's eyes run to see you 
brought to this." The soldiers, at his instance gave up their 
quarters to the women and children, brought them water for their 
washing and cooking, and made them as comfortable as possible 
under the circumstances. Many of them knew Mrs. Torrance as 
their towns-woman, and sympathized with her and felt for the 
distresses of the people. Miss Torrance's father joined his family the 
next day, bringing with him his stock of cattle. From this place 
the family went to Rutland, and from that place communicated with 
a brother-in-law in Richmond, Mass., who came on with horses for 
their party. The family was under the protection of an uncle 
in Litchfield for a time, and then joined her father, who was then 
employed, during the war, in one of the furnaces in Salisbury, 
casting ordnance for the army. He was absent eight years. He 
was employed seven years in the furnace, the eighth he took a 
&rm. His cow he had sold on his flight at Rutland, his oxen in 
Coimecticut. These were replaced by the produce of a cow bought 
in Salisbury, which, by letting, had multiplied with her issue to 
twenty-one, having but a single male in the number. 

The first child born in town, as Miss Torrance thinks, was with 
them on the raft. This was Hannah Bentley, the only in&nt 
among fifteen or sixteen children, and of course much noticed 
among them. Mr. Slasson, whose child is said by Dr. Merrill to 


have been the fust born in town, Jived in the immediate neighbor- 
hood of the Torrance family, after they came to town, and she is 
certain had no child bom there. 

The first school house was built of logs, before the retreat of the 
settlers on '' Tallow Hill," on the road leading from the poor house 
to Jonathan Seeley's. Eunice Keep, daughter of Samuel Keep, 
the fii'st clerk of the proprietors, was brought from Crown Pointy 
where the family tlien resided, to teach in it. She had commenced 
her school, but left on the alarm. Miss Torrance had not begun to 
attend. After their return, a school, the second in town, was kept 
by Mrs. Torrance, in their own neighborhood. 

Some kinds of provisions were left concealed by the inhabitants, 
on their retreat. Sugar and flour, left by her family, she says, 
were taken from their storage, under the floor and consumed. 
Their pewter, and other articles, buried for safe keeping, were 
also taken up and appropriated. The house itself sufiered no injury, 
except, as she thinks, from a party of immigrants, who had it for 
a shelter some cold nights, and took a board from the chamber floor 
for kindling wood. Otherwise they found it as they left it. 

The Story and Smalley families remained through the war. 
Mrs. Story's cave, on the bank of the creek in Salisbury, Miss 
Torrence supposed to have been intended for a storehouse for goods 
only, rather than for the concealment of individuals. Mrs. Smalley 
told her of a visit from a scouting party of the enemy, chiefly 
Indians. An Indian took a milk-skimmer she was using and put 
it in his bosom. On which she complained to the commander, who 
compelled him to restore it. A part of the Foot family staid at 
John Foot's to secure the crops. They visited her mother's garden 
after the family had gone and found the melons ripened by 
thousands. Thus far Miss Torrance. 

It is represented by all, that the flight of the inhabitants was 
sudden and made in great haste. It was the common practice to 
dig into the gi'ound, and conceal such articles as they could not 
carry with them. The family of Daniel Foot, before they left, 
dug into the ground, in a thick hemlock grove, and built a large 
crib with poles, into which they put a half barrel of soap, such 


part of ihe furniture and other articles as they were compelled to 
leave, covered the crib with plank, and on the top of the whole 
piled hemlock branches, so as to resemble a large brush heap. On 
their return, after the war, they found their soap and other articles 
uninjured. Mr. Allen Foot, a grandson of Daniel Foot, has now 
in his possession a chest, which was thus preserved. A case of 
drawers, preserved in the same way, still remains in the possession 
of some of the relatives. 

Mrs. Loomis, daughter of Col. John Chipman and wife of Horace 
Loomis Esq., of Burlington, represents, that her family fled in great 
haste, and, like the other inhabitants, buried such articles of value, 
as they could not in their haste take with them. She showed us a 
small looking glass, which was thus preserved. The frame was 
rotted off, and it has since been put into a rough frame, apparently 
" whittled out '* with a jack knife. 

William Douglass, before he left, concealed the family articles in 
the same way, but his family not returning until after he was killed, 
the place of deposit was never discovered by them. 

While the British had control of the lake, probably in 1777, 
f jraging and scouting parties, composed chiefly of Indians, made 
excursions into the several towns, appropriating to themselves such 
moveable property, as suited them belonging to those, who had left, 
or in the possession of those who remained. Daniel Foot had re- 
mained for some time after the settlers had generally left. A 
British party sent out to obtain supplies, came upon him, seized 
and drove off his oxen, while he kept out of the way to avoid being 
captured. Other similar depredations were made. Several other 
persons remained in the different towns, without other molestation, 
until the fall of 1778. 

In the fall of that year, two British vessels came up the lake 
with troops, designed it was said, to march upon Rutland ; but 
being, in some way, thwarted in their purpose, the troops consisting 
of British, tories and Indians, were landed on both sides of the lake, 
and spread themselves, in scouting parties, over the whole region, 
where settlers had located themselves. They destroyed all the 
buildings and other property they could find, and made prisoners 


of all the men, who had had the temerity to remain, and sent them 
to Canada. In Middleburj, the whole population by this time had 
retreated, and none were taken prisoners. But all the buildings 
in the town were destroyed, except the houses of Joshua Hyde, 
Bill Thayer and Robert Torrance, in the same neighborhood, in the 
south part of the town, to which probably their excursion did not 
extend. The frame of a bam of Col. John Chipman, recently 
built of green timber, which they could neither bum or chop 
down, also escaped. It is still standing on the farm of Jonathan 
Seeley, with marks of the hatdlets on its timbers. 

Judge Painter, although driven from his home, like the others, 
did not immediately leave the State, but remained for a time to watch 
the movements of the enemy, as well as of the New York claimants, 
and to aid by his co-operation and advice, in measures to thwart the 
purposes of both. He was acquainted with Ethan Allen, in Salis- 
bury, the common residence of both, before either came into Ver- 
mont, and Was intimately associated with him, Seth Warner and 
Remembrance Baker in their movements. He did not leave the 
State, until the British forces under Burgoyne, had obtained such 
extensive and dangerous control over all Western Vermont, that he 
was forced for safety to cross the mountain by Onion River, and 
went south on the east side of the State. W^ile living, he related 
to his friends many anecdotes of his adventures ; but many of them 
are forgotten, especially in their dates and details. He was inti- 
mate with Hon. Horatio Seymour, in the later period of his life, 
and freely communicated to him many of the events of his life. Mr. 
Seymour relates the following : 

While the British were in possession of Crown Point, probably 
in 1777, Judge Painter, in a feigned dharacter, several times visited 
that post as a spy, to ascertain the condition and plans of the Brit- 
ish troops. Th6 last time he went, he feigned the character of a 
half idiot, and took with him a basket, with a little butter and a 
few eggs, and other small articles to sell to the soldiers. He pre- 
tended to belong to a family of poor settlers, who needed the pro- 
ceeds of his articles for their support, as was indicated by his own 
dress. The under ofiScers had been charged to arrest every suspi- 


cioug person, who appeared, and bring him before the oommanding 
officer. When Painter arrived at Chimney Point opposite the fort, 
and had made known his wishes, he was put into a boat with some 
British officers and soldiers, as he supposed, to go to the fort. When 
he went on board, he threw himself down on the boat, and began to 
examine his articles for sale, and talk with himself about his treas- 
ures, and to calculate the proceeds of his traffic. His articles were 
kept in separate parcels, and, as he was soliloquizing, he said, this 
butter is mother^s. so many pounds at such a price will bring so 
much ; these eggs are sister Susey's, so many and I shall get so 
much money for ?usey. It is claimed only, that this is the char- 
acter and purport of his words. Instead of going directly to the 
fort, he soon discovered, that the boit Avas directed towards a vessel 
lying in the lake, on which the superior officers were, and where 
they were taking him for examination. He became alarmed. He 
was then in the power of the enemy, and it would be easy for 
tliem to prove .that the history he had given of himself was fiilse. 
But he continued his soliloquy and feigned manners. After a time, 
one of the officers watching him said to another, — *' This is a perfect 
idiot, it is not best for us to take him up there. I should bo 
ashamed to take such a fellow there.'' The other officer assented 
to this view, and after a further consultation, they directed to change 
the course of the boat for the fort. After going on shore, Painter 
finished his traffic with the soldiers as soon as possible, and left them 
with a determination never to put himself in so hazardous a position 

The following anecdote is recorded chiefly because it illustrates 
the character of Judge Painter, as well as that of the times, in 
which he lived. Having occasion to go the south, — probably when 
he attended the convention in Dorset, in July 1776, — he passed 
through Clarendon. Here was located a nest of tories. As he was 
drawing near he met two or three men on horseback, whom he sus- 
pected to be of that class. In order to avoid a suspicion of his own 
character, he inquired of them, ** Can you tell me where Esq. S — 
lives?" as though he was his friend. This Esq. S — was the leader 
of the tories, and his house their place of rendezvous. The men 


gave him the information asked of them and he passed on unmo- 

Judge Painter was a delegate from Middlebury to a conventicm 
of members from the west side of the mountain. The convention 
was called by a circular sent to tlie several towns, to consider the 
delicate and diflScult position of the *'New Hampshire Grants." 
The congress of the United States had made their declaration of in- 
dependence, and left the Grants without any government, except by 
submission to the government of New York, to which that body 
had advised, and to which the Green Mountain Boys made a deter- 
mined opposition. The convention was held at Dorset, on the 24th 
of July 1776, and adjourned to the 25th of September following. 
At this time delegates were present from both sides of the mountain, 
and it Avas ** resolved to take measures, as soon as may be, to declaro 
the New Hampshire Grants a free and separate district.'' Judge 
Painter was also a member of the convention, on the 2d of July 
1777, which formed the constitution of the State. 

In the revolutionary Avar, he *^held a captain's commission and 
served in the quartermaster's department." We have no details of 
his service. 

Col. John Chipman was also extensively engaged in the war of 
the revolution. We copy the following summary of his services 
from a paper left by him in his own hand writing, and preserved by 
his daughter, Mrs. Loomis. 

" I turned out the commencement of the war, as a volunteer with 
Colonel Ethan Allen, in the spring of 1775, to take Ticonderoga 
and Crown Point. In May or June I received a second lieutenant's 
commission in Capt. Grant's company, Colonel Seth AVarner's regi- 
ment, went into Canada, Avas at the taking of St. Johns and Mon- 
treal ; was discharged at Montreal, and returned home the first part 
of December. In the summer of 1776, I received a first lieuten- 
ant's commission, in Capt. Smith's company, Seth Warner's regi- 
ment, and joined the army at Ticonderoga, in March 17T7. I was 
in the retreat with the army, and was in the battle of Hubbardton. 
I was also in the battle of Bennington so called, on the 16th of 
August of that year, and was at Saratoga at the taking of Bur- 


goyne in October. We were ordered to Fort Edward and Fort 
George in 1778 and 1779. I was promoted to a captain, and served 
in that capacity until October 1780, when I was taken prisoner, at 
Fort George. I remained in this situation until, the summer of 
1781, when I was exchanged and remained a supernumerary until 
the close of the war.'' 

Col. Chipman had the command of Fort Edward and Fort Goorgo 
successively, and was in command of the latter, at the time of the 
capture of the garrison. Kot suspecting the enemy was in the 
neighborhood, he had sent out a largo portion of his troops, on 
scouting parties, which left him a force of only sixty or seventy men. 
In this condition he found himself surrounded by an overwhelming 
force and the garrison was forced to surrender. After he was ex- 
changed in 1781 he was raised to the rank of major. • While he was 
in the cdmmand of these forts, in a comparatively settled state, Mrs. 
Chipman remained with him. After the clase of the war. Col. 
Chipman retained in his possession the orderly book, containing a 
a record of general orders, court martials and other proceedings of 
the garrison, and when he was appointed clerk of the proprietors, 
the book, not being filled up, was used by him for the record of 
surveys. After his death, Mrs. Loomis, understanding the fact, 
procured that part containing the proprietors' records to be taken out 
and re-bound, leaving the orderly book by itself, which she still 
retains. This she kindly showed us, and wo regret that we had 
not time more thoroughly to examine it. Among the records was 
an order for a court-martial, signed by Col. Warner, supposed to be 
in his own hand- writing. 

190 HWTO'.IY ur AIlDLMtUURr. 



After the war had closed in 1783, the former settlers gradually 
returned to their possessions in Middlebury. Benjamin Smalley, 
Bill Thayer and Jonathan Chipman returned with their families in 
April of that year, and took possession of the lands they had left. 
Joshua Hyde came also himself, and labored that season on the 
land he had before occupied, leaving his family in Salisbury until 
the following year, and during the time boarded in the family of 
of Bill Tliayer. Daniel Foot came also with his sons Philip^ 
Freeman, Martin, Stillman and John, leaving his wife behind until 
the next year. 

In the year 1784, Gamaliel Painter, John Chipman and Hobert 
Torrance returned with their families and resumed possession of the 
lands, from vrhioh they had ilal at the commencement of the war. 

Bill Thayer continued his possession of that part of the Slassoa 
pitch on which he had before settled, and occupied that and home 
lot 3-1, adjohiing it, as his farm until 1793, when ho sold it to Eber 
Evarts. About that time he removed to New Haven and settled 
on a farm on New Haven Kiver. 

Jonathan Chipman continued on the farm on which ho first 
settled until January 1790, when he sold it to Col. Chipman and 
left town. 

Benjamin Smalley, on his two hundred acre pitch, which he still 
occupied as his home farm, soon replaced his log cabin with a 
comfortable frame house. His first wife, Martha Smallev, died in 
iS«pt«Habir 17ii)2. aud lut woi afttT-.vard* m^m-it:*'! to widow Storv. 


«e celebrated in history and romance, the early death of T^hoae 
husband had left her to contend with the perils of the wilderness 
and war alone. She survived her new husband and was afterwards 
married, in the old age of both, to Capt. Stephen Goodrich. Mr. 
Smalley, in 1792 deeded to his son Imri a part of his farm, includ- 
ing his house and other buildings, and in 1794 the remainder to 
his son Alfred Smiilley. The father continufni to reside with his 
son Imri until his death, which occurred in 1807, at tlie age of 
82 years. Ilis son continued to occupy the premises for several 
years and then removed to the west. William Huntington suc- 
ceeded him, and he was succeeded by Michael Sanders. The farm 
is now owned by iliohael Ryan, a son-in-law of Mr. Sanders. In 
1803 the share of Alfred Smalley was purchased by Peter Foster, 
a respectable citizen and active christaiu. who resided on it in a 
one story house until his death. He died of the prevailing epidemic 
in December 1812, at the age of fifty-one years. His son. Col. 
Nathaniel Foster, succeeded him in the possession for several years. 
Mr. Sanders afterwards owning this lot, built the present largo 
two story house. It is now owned by Gen. Nash, of New Haven, 
Robert Torrance renewed his residence on home lot No. 33, 
where he had made a bef'innin;; before the war.* Here he built tho 
brick house, which is still standing, which he continued to occupy 
until his death in 181G, at the age of eighty. His daughters, 
Olive and Molly, and his grand son, Orleans Torrance continued the 
possession. The daughters have both died, Olive in 1850, at the 
age of 84, and Molly May 13, 1857, aged 76, and the grand son 
alone remains. The northern of his three lots waa set oflF to his 
son Silas Torrance, and had not been cleared until about the year 
1823, when Noah Stearns commenced a clearing and settlement on 
the west half, and Justus Hier on the east half The whole is now 
owned by Chester Fenn, or his son James Fenn, both of whom 
reside on it. Of the return of Mr. Torrance and other reminis- 
cences of his daughter Olive, we continue her statement made to 
Mr. Battell. At the time of their return she was the eldest of 
the children. They drove from Salisbury seven cows and ten sheep. 
They came in a sleigh and were six days in making the journey, 


stopping one at Richmond. At Pittsford thej took the creek, 
and reached home at night. 

Miss Torrance was now old enough intelligently to witness and 
appreciate the commencement of societj in a new world. Other 
families hod returned, and the settlers began to enjoy that Arcadian 
period in their history, when they have an abundance and all are 
upon the same level, and constitute one family. Religious services 
were held on the Sabbath at Jonathan Chipman's, and Mr. Chip- 
man and Benjamin Smalley made the prayers, and Col. John 
Chipman read the sermon. Mr. Collins w^as the first preacher, and 
after him a Mr. Bliss. 

In the time of harvest, all the neighbors united and assisted each 
other in the labor of getting it in. They met at the place appointed, 
and the women came with them. While the men were employed 
in the field, gathering the crops, the women were engaged in pre- 
paring the feast for dinner, and spreading it out on the long board 
table, around which men and women gathered to satisfy their 
appetites from its abundance, when they all departed without 
spending the evening. They had no spirits in their harvests, but 
used beer. And Miss Torrance says, ** we had a quiet township of 
people till Jabez Rogers built his still house.'' After awhile the 
gaieties of the new country commenced, and at the balls, which 
were occasionally held, the young people, from the whole region 
around, were collected, especially in Court time. 

Miss Torrance, at the time of this communication, had in her 
possession, the first table made in town of the description above 
mentioned. It was made for Miss Melissa Stevens, daughter of 
Capt. Stevens, then about to be married. When die removed fh)m 
town, Mr. Torrance bought it and left it to her. 

The mother of Miss Torrance died in 1798, and her father in 
1816. At the time of this communication the two daughters and 
grand son constituted the family and occupied the homestead. 
The &rm consisted originally of three hundred acres; but part 
having been set off to the sons, only 140 acres remained. The land 
Miss Torrance says, is good, but an orchard never succeeded on it. 
She and her sister Rhoda spun thirty-nine runs of yam at eight 


pence a run, and bought thirty-nine apple trees at the same price, 
but ohlj one of them lived. Her father said the land would never 
bear an orchard, on this intervale. They had, she said, enough 
and wanted no more to take care of. 

Mr. Torrance was a worthy and honest man, waa out in various 
capacities in the French war, and it is supposed, with the Green 
Mountain Boys under Ethan Allen. They were probably 
acquainted before they came to this country, for they were special 
friends in after life, and had exchanged guns and powder flasks. 
"The former," Mr. Battell says. ** I saw, which the good ladies 
preserve with religious care — a long duck piece, hanging up loaded 
in a spirit not unworthy of a token of the hero of the Grants." 

Joshua Hyde having purchased of James Owen his fifty acres on 
the Slasson pitch, lying west of and adjoining home lots 35 and 36, 
which he also owned, settled on these a year or two after the war, 
and occupied ftiem as his home farm. On the ^^lasson pitch, he 
built the two story house still standing, and resided in it until his 
death, which took place in the year 1828, at the age of seventy- 
eight. After his death, his son Joshua Hyde, Jun., who had 
always resided with him, continued in possession until his death in 
1848, at the age of seventy-five. After that event, Luman Hyde, 
his son, continued in possession until recently he sold it to Hiram 
Sessions, who has now the possession. 

Oliver Hyde, another son of Joshua llyde, Jun., about the year 
1881, received a deed of one hundred aeres of the Skeel pitch, and 
for the accommodation of his residence, purchased of Mr. Cham- 
plin a small piece from home lot 38, on the east side of the road 
opposite his farm, and built there a house, in which he resided until 
-within a short time he has sold his farm to his brother Luman, who 
is now in possession of it. It was on this lot, that Joshua Hyde, 
senior, first settled in 1774, and the foundation of his house is still 
to be seen there. 

Joshua Hyde, senior, was one of the most prominent and useful 
'citizens in Middlebury. While he was in active life, and even until 
an advanced age, no man occupied so often the office of selectman 
and other places of trust in the town ; and no man better understood 

194 iiKTOUT or middllbi:rt. 

the prudential and financial interests of the town, or more fa'tlifuTI/ 
and economically managed them. He was, for several years, dected 
a representative in the legislature. 

Simeon Chandler, after the war, resumed his possession of home 
lots 37 and 38, on which ho had before settled, and oontinuod to 
reside on this farm, until he sold to Joshua Hyde in 1798 the west 
end of both lots, and removed to the north part of the State. Mr. 
Hyde gave this land to Paul Champlin, Escj., who married bis 
daughter. Mr. Champlin continued to occupy it until his death, 
which took place in 1853, at the ago of seventy- nine. It is still 
the residence of his widow, to whom we are indebted for several 
facts relating to the early settlement. 

Col. John Chipman, after his return, went to work in earnest for 
the improvement of his farm, and soon his fertile fields were cleared 
and proiluccd an abundance of the comforts and even luxuries of 
life. He built on the ground, where his first cabin fetood, a hand- 
some brick house, in which he resided with his family many years. 
His house was opened for the entertainment of travellers coming 
into the country, and being four or five miles distant, was often the 
resort of parties from the village at the falls. The smooth road on 
the bank of the creek, lined on both sides with forest trees and 
shrubs, and the hospitable dwelling and inmates at the end, rendered 
it a Civorite ride, especially for the young, and was, not inappropri- 
ately, called *^ Love Lane.'' 

Col. Chipman was a prompt, active and efficient man, of com- 
manding person and address, with talents and manners, which pecu- 
liarly fitted him for an executive officer. He was elected sheriflF of 
the County for twelve years, from 1789 to 1801. He was also 
much of the time moderator of town meetings, and selectman and 
held other offices of trust in town. He continued in possession of 
his farm, until the marriage of his daughter, Mary Chipman, who 
had been the light and life of his dwellhig, to Horace Loomis, Esq., 
of Burlington, in 1805, and the death of his wife in 1810, at the 
age of fifty-eight, left him alone. In his advanced age, he made* 
his home in the family of Freedom Loomis and his son George C. 
Loomis, in the neighborhood of his farm. He died in 1829 at the age 

ffI;3t01lY OF ^IDDLKinjRY. 195 

of eigttj'-icnr years 'i ho farm was afterwards purchased by William 
Y. Ripley, Esq. While in hii possession, the brick house built by 
Col. Chipman was burnt, and he erected the present handsome house, 
with its appendages. Mr. Ripley afterwards removed to Rutland, 
where he still resides. It is now occupied by Mr. Jonatlian Seeley. 
Mrs. Julia C. R. Dorr, daughter of Mr. Ripley, has made tliis res- 
idence and neighborhood the scene of her well written novel, 
'* Farmingdale.'* 

Col. Chipman's family was connected with several others, which 
are more or less noticed in our history ; some account of wbich wo 
propose to place together here to save the necessity of a more distinct 
notice elsewhere. Col. ( hipman's father was John Chipman, who 
was a brother of Thonias^ Chipman an original proprietor, of Jonji- 
than Chipman an early settler, and of Samuel Chipman, the father 
of lion. Daniel Chipman. Col. Chipman's father died early, leav- 
ing two sons, John and Thomas and tbree daughters, Mrs. Vic- 
toria Painter, first wife of Judge Painter, MrSi Swetland mother of 
William Swetland, Esq. of Plattsburgh, and Mrs. Mary Vanduzer, 
wife of Abraham Vanduzer. Thomas Chipman, brother of John, 
in 17W, settled on a 100 acre pitch of his brother, directly south 
of the latter's flirm. He conthiued to occupy this farm until 1815, 
when he sold it and moved out of tl>e State. It is now owned by 
Locklin Wainwright. The former two story house built by Chip- 
man was burnt, and has been re-built by Mr. Wainwright. 

After the death of his father. Col. Chipman's mother was married 
to Samuel Keep, one of the original proprietors, and their first 
clerk. They had two daughters, Eunice, who kept the first school 
in Middlebury, and Hannah. The former waa first married to a 
Mr. Marvin, and, after his death, to John Smith Esq. of Leicester, 
in this County. Hannah became the wife of Moses Sheldon of 
Salisbury, Conn., who lived for some time and died in Salisbury in 
this County. They were the parents of Samuel Sheldon and Oscar ^ 
Sheldon of that place, of Mrs. Case, wife of Loyal Case Esq., of 
Mrs. Johnson, widow of the late Austin Johnson, who has recently 
died, February 18, 1859, aged 65, and of his former wife and of 
th« wife of Samuel Crook. 


Samuel Keep lived for a time at Whitehall, and was residing at 
Crown Point, with his family, when Burgoyne's invasion drove 
them from their home. In their old age, Mrs. Keep resided with 
her daughter, Mrs. Yanduzer until her death, and her husband 
with his daughter, Mrs. Smith, in Leicester. He died in 1802 af 
the age of 84, and his wife in 1804 at the same age. 

In November 1772, Col. Chipman was married to Sarah Wash- 
bum, daughter of Abisha Washburn of Salisbury, Conn., of whom 
notice will be given hereafter. Besides Mrs. Loomis, before men- 
tioned, Mrs. Sally Rogers, wife of Jabez Rogers Jr., was a daughter 
of this marriage, and died in 1839, aged 64 years. Washburn's 
other daughters were married as follows: Mercy to Lemuel Bradley, 
father of Harry Bradley, John Bradley and Miss Bradley ol Bur- 
lington, Hannah to Abraham Bethrong and Olive to Freedom 
Loomis, The last two were settled in Middlebury. 

Eber Evarts, on his return after the war, resumed his possession 
of the farm on the north line of Salisbury. On this he resided 
until he purchased as before mentioned, a part of the Slasson pitch 
and home lot No. 84. He then sold his farm to Joel Boardman, 
who still resides on it, and moved to his new purchase. He built 
the house still standing on the Slasson lot, and resided in it until 
his death in 1838, at the age of eighty-five. His widow survived 
him and died in 1841, at the age of eighty-five. Abner Everts, son 
of Eber, resided with his father, and after his death occupied tho 
farm, and until lately resided in the same house. Recently he has 
resided with his son-in-law, Frederic Leland, who has built a house 
near the east end of 34, in the village of East Middlebury. 

John Hinman, aft;er his return, entered into possession of the lot 
on which he had before settled, and continued for a time and sold it 
to Moses Hale of Rutland. Hale occupied it until about 1797, 
when he deeded the south half to his son Moses Hale, Jun., and 
the north half to his son Hial Hale. William Carr, Jun., now 
owns the south half deeded to Moses Hale Jun., and Zuar Barrows 
in part Hial Hale's lot. 

While the parties were absent during the war, Eleazer Slasson 
deeded the balance of his two hundred acre pitch to Col. George 


Sloan, a son-in-law of Daniel Foot Sloan, in the spring of 1784, 
came to Middlebury, and took possession of the land, where Slasson 
had begun his settlement, and occupied it until the fall of 1793, 
when he sold it to Abraham Vanduzer, and removed to the village. 

Samuel Bentlcy did not return to Middlebury, but during the 
war Benjamin Risley had purchased the whole of his two hundred 
a<5re. pitch, on which Bentley had settled, and in 1784 came to Mid- 
dlebury, and went into possession of his purchase. He remained in 
possession just long enough to be appointed moderator of the first 
town meeting, and in April sold hid fiirm to Asa Fuller, of Butland, 
who soon after deeded the north half to his brother Elisha Fuller. 

The sons of Daniel Foot, who returned with him in 1788 
brought with them a considerable number of cattle, and remained 
through the succeeding winter to take care of them, and make 
some further propUrations for the family. As they had no hay, or 
much other fodder, they undertook to winter the cattle on browse. 
For this purpose they had, during the winter, cut over a considerable 
tract covered with maple trees ; and in the sprmg they drove their 
cattle to the swamps for feed. But the cattle became much 
emaciated and many of them died. But the ground, which they 
had cut over in the winter, after the brush was burnt, looked 
80 promising that Mr. Foot proposed to plant it with corn, and went 
to Castleton for the seed. On the 10th of June, they planted 
their corn among the fallen trees, and had an abundant crop of 
such rapid growth, that by the 10th of August, the ears were fit 
for roasting. 

Mr. Foot, after the war removed his residence to the southeast 
comer of No. 6, of the second hundred acre division. He first 
built a small house south of the large one, which he afterwards 
built. Previous to the year 1790, he built a large bam, designed 
for the accommodation of religious and town meetings, and about 
the year 1798, he built his large house still further north, and 
lived in it with his fiimily while he remained in town. The dwell- 
ing house of his grand son, Allen Foot, constitutes a part only of 
that house. 

Daniel Foot, as before intimated, had purchased large tracts of 


land in Middlebury, and it is said that he owned more than a 
thousand acres before the war. At an early day he deeded to each 
of his sons, and his daughter, the wife of Enoch Dewey, one or 
more tracts of land, and in 1801, made a disposition of the 
remainder and started for Canton, in the State of New York, 
having a passion for new countries. No roads had then been 
opened to that place from this direction, so that he went by Lake 
Champlain and the St. Lawrence River, and only just reached his 
destination when he died. He was a very enterprising man, and 
perhaps somewhat restless, as was evinccil by his former life. The 
following, copied from "The Foot family, or the descendants of 
Nathaniel Foot," furnishes some fioicts of his history and some 
traits of his character. 

" Daniel Foot, born in Simsbury, Conn., April 27, 1724, and 
son of Daniel Foot, of that town, well sustained some of the 
remarkable traits in the character of the Foot family, — indomitable 
perseverance and a strong propensity to pioneer life. He removed 
firom Simsbury about the year 1764, and located himself in what 
was once called Hartwood, now Washington, Massachusetts, cleared 
away the forests and made a farm. From thence he removed to 
Dalton, in the same State, at the foot of Dalton Mountain, pur- 
chased a tract of land and brought into cultivation a valuable farm. 
This farm he subsequently sold to his eldest son, and removed to 
Middlebury, Ver., where he purchased some five or six hundred 
acres of wild land, on which he built mills, felled the forests and 
resided for many years. At the age of eighty, having previously 
lost his wife, Mr. Foot distributed his property at Middlebury 
among his children, and about the year 1801, set out to make a 
a new settlement in Canton, in the County of St. Lawrence, State 
of New York, then a wilderness, whither his son Stillman had 
removed a short time previous. On his way there through Mon- 
treal, he took the small pox, of which he died a few days after his 
arrival in Canton. He was a man of great industry and energy, 
and peculiarly fitted for a pioneer in a new country. He could 
never be contented on a well cultivated farm. There must be 
forests to subdue, and new dwellings to erect, or it was no place 


for him ; and at last he died in the woods, and for lack of boards 
for a coffin was laid in bark from an elm tree." 

Mr. Foot had purchased in Middlefcry, probably twice the 
amount of land mentioned in the quotation, and principally in the 
neighborhood where he settled. He had set his heart upon making 
the handsome tract between his residence and that of his son Philip 
Foot the centre of business for the town, and the location for the 
meeting house. It was near the centre and the " town plat," 
located by the Committee was regarded as unsuitable. A large 
number of second hundred acre lots met here and were bounded 
on the west end of the home lots. The town and religious meetings 
were held here f^r many years, while the town was settling. But 
after the village, at the falls, had increased in its population and 
business, intimations were given of the claims of the village to be 
made the centre; and soon their strength became sufficient to 
control the majority, and the matter was settled against the claims 
of Mr. Foot and his neighbors. In this controversy Mr. Foot 
evinced, as in all his other enterprises, his constitutional energy 
and decision. But amidst it all he was regarded as a conscientious 
and respectable man. The enterprize and energy of the Foot 
family were of great service in the settlement and organization of 
the town. 

Philip Foot, eldest son of Daniel Foot, having been married 
during the war returned to the farm, where he had commenced 
a clearing before the war, and continued to cultivate it as his home 
farm until his death. He built on the northwest corner of No. 7, 
the two-story house now standing, and resided in it during his life. 
He died in 1827 at the age of 75 years. The house and a part of 
the farm belonged to the estate of E. W. Lyons, and has been 
recently purchased by Mr. Eli Parker, a mechanic from the 
village. William Foot, a son of Philip also owns a part, and lives 
in a house just south of the other. 

Martin Foot, another son, early settled on home lots 65 and 66, 
received from his father. As early as the year 1786, he put up a 
plank house, in which, with some additions, he lived until his death. 
He died in 1854, at the age of ninety-two. He had before his 

200 Ei3To:.T oy hidlledurt. 

death deeded a part of his farm to his son Deacon Martin N. Foot, 
who built the two-storj house in which he lived and died. It is 
now occupied by his son-in-law Joseph W. Boyce. The house and 
farm, left by Martin Foot, is owned by Marquis L. Branch, son 
of his last wife. 

Freeman Foot, another son of Daniel Foot, was in possession of 
the south half of Hyde's 200 acre pitch, as eai'ly as 1785 ; and 
made some additions, which extended hiaufiirm to the creek. In 
1786 he built a house just north of the village, near the cellar, 
built by Ep. Miller^ which for several years remained uncovered, 
and on which Oliver Severance has built a dwelling house. In 
1788 he was married to Silence Clark, and took possession of his 
house, and continued to cultivate his farm until the year 1801. 
In the fall of that year he sold his farm, except such parts as ho 
had sold for village lots, to Daniel Chipman ; and in the following 
winter or spring removed to the fiirm which his father had recently 
left. On this farm he resided until the time of his death, which 
took place in 1842, at the age of eighty-three ; and tlie ferm has 
since been owned by his son Allen Foot. At the time of his 
purchase above mentioned, Mr. Chipman deeded to Ep. Miller, that 
part of the land which lies west of the paper mill road, and to 
Samuel Mattocks that which lies between that and the New Haven 
road. The large meadow purchased by Mattocks was owned until 
recently by Gen. Nash, who has now sold it in parcels to Oliver 
Severance and three others who have built houses on it. 

In the distribution of his lands, by Freeman Foot, amoQg his 
children in his life time, he gave to Alfred Wainwright, who had 
married two of his daughters, home lot 59, and No. 6, of the sec- 
ond hundred acre division. The former is now owned by John W. 
Ilalladay, and the latter by Timothy Boardman, Jun. • 

Freeman Foot, about the same time, deeded to his son Clark 
Foot, with oth4r lands, five or six acres at the comer of the roads 
on home lot 60, on which the latter built the present house, in 
which he resided for several years, and afterwards removed to the 
village, and since to Michigan. The house and lot are now owned 
by Jonathan and George Smith. 


Appleton Foot, youngest son of Daniel Foot, and father of Mrs. 
Slade, widow of Hon. William Slade, remained on the premises, 
and after his marriage lived in a small house south of his father's 
residence, and received from his father a deed of a hundred acres 
of his home farm. In 1792, he purchased of his brother John the 
lands and water privileges, which the latter owned on the west side 
of the falls, in exchange for the lands received from his father. 
John went into possession of the premises left by Appleton, and 
superintended the erection of his father's large house. Having 
completed this object, he removed to New Haven, to the fjirm of 
his father-in-law, Bill Thayer, of the whole of which he afterwards 
became the owner. Here he remained until he removed to East 

Stillman Foot, another son of Daniel Foot and the two last men- 
tioned, will be referred to elsewhere. 

The widow of Enoch Dewey, who had begun a clearing before 
the war, a daughter of Daniel Foot, came into the country after the 
war, and was married to Roger Nobles of New Haven, with whom 
her children lived until they were of age. The land which their 
father owned was divided between them, the daughter taking the 
home lot, and Stillman, the son. No. 2, of the second hundred aero 
division. The daughter was married to Jacob Fuller of New 
Haven, and never took possession of her land, but it was sold and 
is now divided between several owners. Nathan Carpenter's house 
lot on which he resided in his life time, * is a part of it, Jonathan 
Smith owns a part of the same lot, and Jesse Goodno owns and 
occupies tlie remainder. Stillman Dewey, the son, after he arrived 
at full age, in 1793, went into possession of his lot, and remained 
there until his death in 1841. at the age of sixty-eight years. He 
built the two story house in which he lived and died. The princi- 
pal farm is now owned with considerable additions by his son Enoch 
Dewey, who built another house on the premises, and a son of the 
latter ; both of whom reside on the farm. 

• Mr. Carpenter died April lOtb, 1868, at the age of 69. 




William Hopkins, who commenced a settlement before the war, 
on the south half of Oliver Evarts' 200 acre pitch east of the 
village did not return, but sold his land to Captain Stephen 
Goodrich, from Glastenburj, Conn. Capt. Goodrich, in the spring 
of 1784, came on with his two sons, William and Amos, and took 
possession of his land. The sons remained and worked on the land 
that season. The spring following the father returned with his 
familj. We have been able to obtain, through Mr. Battell, as 
before mentioned, the story of Amos Goodrich, communicated in 
his lifetime, of some incidents attending the settlement, which, 
with some facts obtained otherwise, we here insert. 

Amos Goodrich came from Glastenburj in 1784. His way was 
by Pawlet, to HUbbardton, and across Hubbardton mountain 
through Whiting to Middlebury. Hop Johnson had the only 
dwelling at the village, a sort of shanty on a small scale. He 
kept a ferry across the creek near where the railroad bridge is. 
His brother William was with him, and remained and became a 
citizen of Middlebury. They passed to their lot at Dr. William 
Bass's, and spent the summer in clearing upon it. The lot was 
bought the fall before by his father at Manchester, when he was on 
a journey to examine into his interest in the town of Richford, of 
which he and other Glastenbury men were proprietors. He had 
accompanied his father on this journey. William Hopkins had 


made an opening on the lot during the summer, and commenced a 
cabin. When he and his brother came in 1784, Foot was on the 
Foot street, Chipman and Painter were beginning again in the soath 
west quarter of the town, but only Hop Johnson had a dwelling in 
the village quarter, on the west bank of the creek, and a Washburn 
a clearing where he was building a saw mill. They passed their 
time agreeably in their solitary place. He never was happier. 
A few strips of bark on the roof above their bed protected them 
from the rain, and a few slabs of bass-wood logs, set up about them, 
kept off the wind. Provisions they brought, as they had occasion, 
from Pawlet, where their fiither arranged for their supply of pork 
and flour, with a man who obtained them from Shaftsbury. 

Amos Goodrich, soon after coming to town had occasion to go to 
the falls, and as the paths which he followed were circuitous, he 
undertook to return by a sti-aight course. The whole region around 
the falls was a terribly dense hemlock forest. After traveling 
some time he lost his way and found himself again on the bank of 
the creek above the falls. Following, the creek down to the Falls, 
he chose to return by the circuitous path, rather than venture 
himself again in the pathless forest. While his brother was gone 
to Pawlet for provisions, ho had occasion to go again to the falls. 
The eddy, as it is called, below the Falls, was filled with a compact, 
immovable mass of flood-wood, which he walked over as on dry 
land. At the foot of the falls ho found an open place, with a 
flat, white rock at the bottom of the water, covered with trout. 
He returned to the house, took a hatchel tooth, bent it into a hook, 
tied it to a tow string, and hooked up the fish by the gills, until he 
had taken nine large trouts, weighing a pound and a half each, 
when the remainder fled under the flood -wood. This fact is stated 
to us by William F. Goodrich, son of Amos, as received from his 

The same spring, his fether, Stephen Goodrich, came up on foot 
from Glastenbury, the brothers meeting him at ^Pawlet, and the 
whole party went to Richford to examine their lands there. They 
were to meet a surveyor at Chimney Point, where they waited one 
day, and went on to Burlington. Here again they were detained 


waiting for Ira Allen, who was absent in Canada. At that time 
there was But one log house in Burlington, owned by Capt. Bying- 
ton, and at the falls only a mill and log house. 

In 1785, other farms were commenced about them — Kirby on tlie 
lot where he settled, Huston on the northeast, where Hammond 
lives, Johnson on the cast, on the lot where Deacon Matthews lives, 
Parker on the lot south.* Freeman Foot owned within the village, 
and built on the New Haven road, near Miller's cellar, perhaps not 
until the next year. About this time Stillman Foot owned a saw 
mill on the west side of the falls, and the first road was opened from 
the mills to Foot street, and west into Cornwall. 

Stephen Goodrich, his father, with his mother and sister, came on 
in 1785, having a cart and oxen, five cows and five or six hogs. 
The hogs followed the cart, lying under it at night, and were fed 
with the milk, which was not needed for the fiimily. The son also 
states, as having learned from his father, that after the family had 
used what milk they wished, the remainder was put into the chum 
on the cart, and the motion churned it ; and thus the fiimily, on 
their way, were supplied with butter as well as milk. There were 
no cattle near them for the first two summers ; the third, each of 
the neighbors had a cow. 

The brothers having met the family at Pittsford, they with the 
cart, were put on boaixl a raft and floated down the creek. Tlie 
creek became a favorite road in the summer and winter. A boat 
was built early, which ran weekly to Pittsford and back for pass- 
engers and freight. The roads in general were paths only, the 
bushes being cut away and the trees marked. Such was the road, 
by which the brotliers came through Whiting, passing round the 
swamp nearly into Shoreham. The road from No. 4, (Charleston, 
N. H.,) to Ticonderoga, crossing the road they travelled, was of the 
same character. 

Hop Johnson's was the point sought by travelers for Middlebury. 

* The lot on which Joseph Parker settled, was a fifty acre lot, pitched by Judge 
Painter, and lying cast of his Washburn pitch, en the south side of the road opposite 
Dr. Bass's. The eastern part of it belongs to the widow of Jonathan Wainwright, 
as a part of her dower* No residence was long continued on that lot. 

niSTOHY OF MlDDLi:BURT. * 205 

Ilis accommodations were scanty. Old Mr. Blodget kept a tavern 
in the part of Cornwall which is now in Middlebury, very conve- 
nient for the travel on the ice, and much frcquAted. 

The bridge over the creek at Middlebury Falls was built by 
Stillman Foot, logs being laid as abutments, the layers iutting over 
as they rose, till they extended, Mr. Goodrich thinks, over the 
water,* leaving but seventy feet span to the trestle. This was 
crossed by singL* string-pieces formed of pine trees, and these were 
covered with poles. It rose about twelve feet above the water. 
Goodrich, for his sliaro, worked twelve d;iys gratuitously. 

The first grain ground.afier the family came, Amos Goodrich took 
to Salisbur3^ Col. Sawyer had just completed a mill on the falls 
on Leicester River, at Salisbury Village, and before Foot's mill 
was finished here, lie \>ent by the creek and Leicester River, 
to within half a mile cf the mill, and carried the grain from there 
on his back. 

The first preaching, he says, was by an old gentleman, who 
came on account of the service of Mr. Foot, a fine man, who read 
some of his old sermons. Mr. Robbins, now Dr. Robbini of 
Hartford, came on and was spoken to about settling, but his father 
advised him, not yet. He was a young man, but ** read off his 
sermons pretty smart.'' Mr. John Bamet was settled for a time. 
He was well liked, but left on account of some controversies in the 
church, perhaps in connection with the difficulties with father Foot. 

Mr. Goodrich says they had occasional adventures with the bears, 
which were troublesome, and ate the corn. The little dog, he says, 
treed a bear and cub, at one time, on Buttolph's land. Buttolph 
and his boy and Robert Huston and others came out, but the party 
had but one gun between them. This Goodrich fired and wounded 
the bear. She ran to another tree, a pine, going high up and 
resting upon a stub. He then shot so directly under her from 
below, that she fell nearly upon him, and he dispatched her with a 
club. Buttolph then shot the cub in the face, so that it fell, and 
Goodrich seized it by the neck and hind legs, swung its head 

* In this Mr. Qoourioh was mistakeD, or Mr. Baitell misunderstood him. 
The logn which formed the abutment did not extend orer the WAter. 



against the tree and killed it. At another time Earby foand a bear 
near his house. The dog treed it. John Kirby and Hollister were 
along. It saw them^and sprang down, but the dog pressed it back, 
and was carried up the tree, hanging to the haunches of the bear, 
by its mouth. The bear was shot, and both fell together, twenty- 
five or thirty feet. 

Mr. Goodrich, when this communication was made, said he had 
voted for every representative chosen in town^ and for every 
President from Washington down. Painter was the first represen- 
tative, then Miller. It was said that the House preferred Miller, 
who ** talked out what ho wanted. Painter was one of your long- 
headed fellows, sly around, but would bring things about. Miller 
would talk out. Painter would work out of doors and carry his 

The father and brother of Mr. Goodrich were in the army. He 
' was excused on account of his stammering. His father was Lieu- 
tenant in Chester's company at Bunker Hill, and had the same rank, 
with the command of a company at Saratoga. The captain, on that 
occasion, being young, and the soldiers refusing to obey hun, was 
displacefl. Ho fought on three days without injury. This was his 
last service in the militia. His commission at Bunker Hill was 
from King George; after a few weeks he had one from Washington,* 
which is still preserved.* 

Stephen Goodrich and his son Amos continued to live on, and 
cultivate, the farm on which he first settled until January 1800. 
He had previously made an arrangement to exchange his land for 
the farm on which Judge Painter first settled on the south line of 
the town. Fifty acres on which his house stood he deeded to Dr. 
William Bass, who had, two or three years before, then a young 
man, commenced the practice of medicine here. That part of the 

♦ Capt. Goodrich may have belonged to the regular army and had a commis- 
sion as Lieutenant, fi*om Washington, as his son supposed, which has been losi or 
sent to Washington to obtain hi:i pension ; but the commission remaining among 
his papers in signed by Jo^'AT^A^' Tkumeull, governor of Connecticut, dated 20th 
May, 1780, after all his service mentioned above, and contains his appointment as 
" Captain of the third conipany of the alarm list, in the 6th regiment of the State." 


fenn which lies between the road leading to Edwin Hammond's and 
the farm of Freeman Foot, he deeded to Daniel Chipman, he 
having about that time purchased the Foot farm ; and the remainder 
Goodrich deeded to Painter. In January he removed to the Painter 
fiurm and resided on it until his death in Sept. 1823, aged ninety- 
three years. Amos continued to live with him, during his life, and 
occupied the farm afterwards until his own death in 1854, at the 
age of ninety. The farm is now occupied by William F. Goodrich, 
son of Amos. • 

William Goodrich, the other son of Stephen, about the year 1787, 
settled on a second hundred acre lot, extending from Otter Creek 
eastwardly, where he built a small house and kept a tavern for 
travelers on the creek, on the site of the cottage afterwards built 
by Austin Johnson, Esq., and since occupied by his widow. In 
the year 1791 Goodrich purchased the west half of the second 
hundred acre division on the minister's right, now owned by Jacob 
W. Conroe, east of Dr. Bass's, on the opposite side of the road, 
built him a small house and lived there a few years. In that year 
his wife opened, at her house, or in a small school-house, on the 
opposite side of the road, built about that time, the first school for 
children kept in the neighborhood of the village. Mr. Goodrich, 
for several years afterwards occupied the mill house and tended the 
iaw mill of Judge Painter. After that he erected the brick house 
now owned by the Episcopal Society, as a parsonage, where he 
lived until his death. In the meantime he was chosen town clerk 
annually from 1797 to 1812, except one year. He died in the 
last mentioned year, of the epidemic, at the age of fifty- seven. 

In 1785, Kobert Huston from Voluntown, Conn., settled on the 
north half of the Oliver Evarts' pitch, about a mile northeast of 
the village. Evarts, an original proprietor, in the controversy be- 
tween tlie colonies and the mothci^ country, adhered to the cause 
of the latter. He had resided for a time in Castleton, Rutland 
County. Like many others, he probably stood on neutral ground 
until the invasion of Burgoyne, which produced a general panic, 
and to the faint hearted a discouragement as to the prospect of the 
colonies. He about that time went over to the enemy, and was 


re3iding in Can:ida after llio war. As usual, bis land was promptly 
confiscated by tbc autborities of tbc State. On tbc 24th of August 
1778, James Clagborn of Rutland, *' commissioner for tbe sale of 
confiscated estates, in tbe probate district of Rutland in the County 
of Bennington,'' *' in tbe name and behalf of the representatives 
of tbe freemen of tbc State of Vermont,*' granted to Robert Hus- 
ton the whole of Evarts' land, including bis pitch, except one hun- 
dred acres before sold to William Hopkins, which land " was th6 
jfroperty of Oliver Evarts, and now forfeit to this State by his trea- 
sonable conduct." Here Mr. Huston continued to reside until the 
time of bis death in 1827, at the age of seventy-seven. His son, 
Robert Huston Jun., who had always resided with him, continued 
the possession for several years, and sold the farm and removed to 
the west. It was until htely the residence of Edwin Hammond, 
Esq. It has now by an exchange, become the residence of the widow 
of William S. Hammond. Robert Huston Senior, at tbe second town 
meeting in 1787, was chosen town clerk, and continued in that 
oflBce until 1797. He was also tbe firet postmaster, and held sev- 
eral important trusts in town. 

Ebenezer Johnson, from Wells, Rutland County, the same year, 
went into possession of lot No. 10, of tbe second hundred acre 
division, which lies next north of No. 9, of tbe same division, about 
a mile east of the village. Johnson continued his possession until 
1794. It was afterwards owned by Josiah Stowell, from Mansfield, 
Conn., and was occupied from 1804 to 1812 by bis son, Alfred 
Stowell, who built tbe present house. At the latter date, Josiah 
Stowell went into possession himself It is now owned and occupied 
by Dea. Eli Mathews. Josiah Stowell also owned a part of No. 
9, on which the house of Millen Stowell, another son, stands. 

Elijah Buttolpb came into town as early as 1786, and perhaps 
the year before. His son says, that, at the time, there were only 
sixteen families settled in town after tbe war. lie soon married tiRe 
widow of Joseph Plumlcy, who had taken possession of tbe farm, 
on which her husband had commenced a settlement before the war. 
He occupied her farm until tbe daughter ^ame of age, and had the 
use of a part afterwards as the dower of his wife. Buttolpb after- 


Tvards purchased several pieces of land, and a small piece of tho 
Plumley lot, on wbich he built his two story house, now owned by 
his son Elijah Buttolph, next south of the Plumley farm. Elijah 
Buttolph senior, died in the year 1835, aged ninety-four years. 
The daughter of Joseph Plumley mamcd John A. Sumner of New 
Haven, and they sold her form on her coming of age. It has since 
been owned, successively by Billy Manning, who resided on it sev- 
eral years, and by John bimmons Esq. It is now owned by Reu- 
ben Wright. 

Abraham Kirby from Litchfield, Conn., father of Ephraim Kirby, 
a distinguished politician of that State, moved with his family into 
town in February 1786, and settled on a lot, which he had, on the 
25th of March previous, pitched on the right of Rufus Marsh, 
lying next south of a lot pitched on the same day for Joshua Hyde. 
John S. Kirby, a son of Abraham, remained through the season of 
1785, and cleared four or five acres and sowed it to wheat, on his 
father's pitch. In the year 1790, Mr. Kirby purchased for his 
son Joseph, who had settled in Lancsborough^ Mass., a lot lying 
next south of his and next north of Moses Hale's farm. His son, 
in January 1792, moved on his family and took possession of his 
land. He and his father occupied together the house which the 
latter had built, and which still remains on the farm. In the spring 
of 1787, the year after his removal here, Mr. Kirby sent his son, 
John S., to Pittsford, in company with some other men, to procure 
apple trees, for the commencement of an orchard, which was the 
second planted in town. They went up the creek in a canoe, and 
on their return, ran into the rapids above the falls before they were 
aware of it, and the current was so strong that they were unable 
to run their canoe ashore, and were rapidly approaching the fiills 
and expecting to be carried over and dashed to pieces on the rocks 
below. As they passed under the bridge, which was then building 
in the place where it now stands, Kirby caught hold of one of the 
timbers, and clung to it and delayed the course of the canoe, until 
some men, who were present, came to their relief and rescued them 
from their impending death. 

In January 1791, Mary Kirby, a daughter of Abraham Kirby, 


was married to Samuel Severance, son of Ebenczcr Severance, an 
early settler, who will be mentioned hereafter. After their 
marriage they settled on Hyde's pitch, next north of Kirby's farm, 
(Sommenced a clearing, built a house and resided on it six years. 
Afterwards Severance and John S. Kirby exchanged lands, and 
Kirby took possession of Severance's farm, and lived on it until, at 
an advanced age, he went to reside with his son in Ripton, where 
he remained until his death in 1848, aged eighty-five years. 

Abraham Kirby, the father, died in 1796 at the age of sixty* 
five years. After his death, his sons Joseph and John divided the 
farm, of which he remained the owner, Joseph remaining in possession 
of the homestead, until his death in 1881, at the age of sixty-three 
years. The house and farm are now occupied by his son Ephraim 
Kirby, and the farm of John S. Kirby is owned and cultivated by 
Alvin Ball. All this family were among the most respectable 
citizens of the town and members of the Congregational Church. 
Joseph was one of its earliest deacons. 

In 1786 Benjamin Sumner, of Claremont, New Hampshire^ 
having a deed of the governor's right from Martha Wentworth, 
daughter and heir of Governor Benning Wentworth, and her 
husband, Michael Wentworth, Col. William B. Sumner, his son, 
settled on that lot, cleared it up, and built the large house now 
standing on it. He remained in possession of this farm until within 
a few years he sold it to Jonathan Wainwright and went to the west 
to reside with his daughter. For some years he kept a house of 
public entertainment. Previous to his final sale, he had sold about 
one hundred acres, which has been owned successively by Juba 
Olmstead and Henry and Lucius Barrows, sons of Lucius Barrows, 
and now by Charles IL Wicker. Col. Sumner also sold a small 
tract, at the south end, which is owned by John A. Hummond. 
The remainder of the lot was set off to the widow and heirs of 
Jonathan Wainwright, and most of it is occupied by a tenant under 
the widow. 

Jonathan Preston, from New Canaan, N. Y., was the first who 
commenced a settlement on Munger Street. In 1786, he went 
into possession of home lot No. 42, cleared a piece and sowed it to 


wheat. The next spring ho moved his family, built a log house on 
his land, and afterwards the prosent frame house. 

Mr. Asa Preston, his son, who is still living, and was then a 
member of the family, states that there was no clearing between his 
father's and the village, except on the rising ground where Robert 
Huston had just located himself, and where Edwin Hummond has 
since lived, and that, as far as this place they traveled wholly by 
marked trees. From Huston's the trees were cut away for a road. 
The path which they traveled through the woods was full of roots, 
and, in many places, the mud was deep between the roots. Mr. 
Preston says, that while riding through at one time on horse- 
back, his horse steppd one of his feet between two birch roots, and 
was held fast. He struggled to extricate himself, but could not 
until Preston obtained a lever and pried the roots apart sufficiently 
to let the horse's foot out. There was a sort of bridge across 
Muddy Branch, where they passed, made with poles placed length- 
wise across the stream, and just wide enough for a single horse to 
pass. As Mr. Preston was riding to mill with his grist on horse- 
back, his horse^ on account of some defect' in his limbs, traveled a 
little sideways, and stepped one foot over the bridge and tumbled, 
with rider and grist, into the stream. Preston picked himself up, 
drew his bags out of the water and went on. 

It was at that time all woods, Mr. Preston says, on the east 
side of the falls, where the village now is, except a small clearing 
about Painter's mill, and a small plank house where the miller 
lived. On the west side of the creek, there was a saw mill 
belonging to Stillman Foot. The house built by him was then 
new, probably built the year before, and is the same, with additions 
and alterations, in which Daniel Henshaw lived for many years. 

Jonathan Preston continued to occupy the farm on which he 
first settled until his death in 1809, at the age of sixty-three years. 
Since that event it has been owned and is still occupied by his son 
Asa Preston. 

Nathaniel Munger, and his son-in-law Nathan Case, from Nor- 
folk, Conn., commenced a settlement on home lot 43, next south of 
Preston's, in 1787. Case was a blacksmith, and he and Mr. 


Mungcr had each a log house on the lot. Mr. Munger boarded 
with Mr. Preston in 1787, when he commenced clearing his fiirm. 
He afterwards built the frame house in which Hiram Munger now 
lives. After a few years Mr. Case moved to No. 12, in the east 
tier of home lots, where Dudley Munger had commenced a clearing; 
and Nathaniel Plunger continued to occupy and cultivate the farm 
on which he first settled until the time of his death in 1830, at 
the age of eighty years. 

Edmund Munger, in 1788 or 1789, settled on lot No. 44, next 
south of Ncithaniel JIungor's, partly cleared it, and resided on it a 
few years, and sold it to Alpheus Brooks, who occupied it until his 
death, and it is now owned by Hiram Munger. 

Jonathan Munger, about the same time, commenced a settlement 
on 41. next north of Preston's. It was afterwards, for many years, 
owned and cultivated by Capt. David Chittenden, and it is now 
owned and in the possession of David Hooker. Edmund and 
Jonathan Munger, as early as 1797, removed to Ohio, and on their 
journey stopped at Cincinnati, when there were only four log 
houses there. 

Previous to 1792, Dudley Munger, a brother of the others of 
that name, had made considerable improvements on No. 12, and in 
that year sold it to Nathan Case, and removed to No. 45, next 
south of Edmund Munger, on which he settled. Phineas Phelps 
had before made a beginning on that lot and built a log house. 
Munger soon after built the present two-story house and resided on 
the lot until the deatli of his wife, when at an advanced age he 
went to reside in the fiiniily of his only son Hiram Munger, Esq., 
on the Nathaniel Munger farm. The farm on which he lived is 
now owned by Samuel N. Brooks. 

Reuben Munger, another brother, came to Middlebury about the 
year 1789. His first settlement in Vermont was at Fair Haven. 
He settled on No. 40, the north lot on the west tier of home lots. 
He lived on this lot until his death in 1828, at the age of 72. 

Seymour Sellick, from Salisbury Conn., settled on No. 46, 
belonging to the right of Bethel Sellick, his father, an original 
proprietor. This lot lies south of and adjoining Dudley Munger's 


farm, dnd Sellick was in possession of it before Mungcr had taken 
possession of his. Munger about that time married Sellick's sister. 
While they lived there, they each built a two story house, of tho 
Bame dimensions, only a few rods apart. Both were raised on the 
same day, and both painted red. jSIr. Sellick continued to culti- 
vate his farm until his death. It has since been owned by dififerent 
persons, and among others by Dea. Salmon Moulton from Orwell, 
who lived on it several years. While in his possession in 1834, the 
house built by Sellick was burnt, and the present house was built 
by him. It is now owned by Chaunccy Moore. 

These seven families constituted the neighborhood of Munger 
Street, came into town near the same time, and settled within an 
average distance of fifty rods of each other, occupying the whole 
land on both sides of the street, — their farms being fifty rods wide on 
the road, and one mile in length, east and west. The five Mungers, 
with Elizur Munger, wbo spent only one year in town, constituted 
the six sons of Elizur Munger of Norfolk, Conn., and were among 
the most respectable citizens of Middlebury, as were also Mr. 
Preston and Mr. Sellick* 

There has been no permanent settlement on homo lot No. 47, 
next south of Seymour Sellick's. But Philip Foot, at an early 
day, built a saw mill on the west end of the lot, which is now owned 
by Nichols and Wheeler, and used in comiection with their chair 
factory. It has been owned, and the houses in the neighborhood, 
occupied, at difierent times, by different individuals. 

Abel Case, a brother of Nathan Case, at an early day settled on 
home lot 48. He built the house now standing on it, and continued 
his residence there until 1831, when he was thrown from his wag- 
gon while returning home from the village in the evening, and de- 
scending the hill north of Edwin Hammond's. When discovered 
he was dead. His son-in-law, George Smith, now owns and lives 
on the farm. 

Daniel Sellick, a brother of Seymour Sellick, at an early day, 
settled on the second hundred acre division on the right of his father, 
Bethel Sellick, about a mile southerly from the village. He had 
resided a year or two with his brother Seymour, and in the mean- 


time was married to Eleanor GofiF from Winchester, Conn., then re- 
siding with her brother-in-law, Abel Case. He built a log house 
on the lot then entirely new, cleared it and resided on it until ho 
died in January 1813, of the epidemic. His widow afterwards re- 
sided with her son Bethel and a daughter on the same farm, and 
died October 27, 1856, aged ninety-seven years. 

Mrs. Sellick in her life time stated that when they settled on 
their farm, Judge Painter, Dr. Matthews, John Doming and Samuel 
Miller resided in the village, — the last in a small office. The vil- 
lage, she says, was not cleared except around the houses ; th at a 
road was then open from their house northerly, to the road which 
passes Dr. Bass's, a little east of Mr. Conroe's barn ; but was open 
no further south, except a wood road in winter, which was travelled 
only on horseback in F^unimer until the Centre Turnpike was built. 
She states, that while slie livod at Abel Case's, she, with Mr. Case 
and others, in the winter, started on an ox sled through the woods 
to attend meeting at Daniel Foot's. The slod, on the way, run over 
the end of a log, arnl turned them over, and her arm wius broken. 
Religious meetings were then held in Dniiiel Foot's largo barn. 

As early as 1785, Ilezekiah Wadsworth, a brother of Israel 
Wadsworth, owned a second hundred ticrc lot, lying north of the 
farm formerly owned by Doa. Simon Farr. He afterwards settled 
on it, built a house and resided there fur several years, and after- 
wards resided on the Harris farm, on the west side of the creek, 
then in Cornwall, novr o^Yned by Mr. Shackett. The Wadsworth 
lot was afterwards owned by Samuel Miller, as a part of his home 
farm. The house, which Wadsworth built, stood on the road men- 
tioned by Mrs. Sellick ; and was afterwards moved by Mr. Miller 
to the turnpike, a little south of the dwelling house lately owned 
by Seymour J. Dewey, and now occupied by the widow of Gideon 
Carpenter, who died November 22, 1858, aged 66 years. The 
house has been known as Miller's farm house. The lot is now owned 
by Gen. Nash, and the house by Louis Hope. 

About the year 1790, Dea. Simon Farr settled on a farm lying 
south of Wadsworth's, and north* of Daniel Sellick's, where he re- 
sided for many years, until he removed to New Haven. The farm 


had for many years, been owned by Mr. Roswell Fitch, since deceased, 
and is now owned by Augustus H. Matthews. 

Martin Evarts, Esq., settled on home lot 64, lying next north of 
Martin Foot's farm, as early as 1788, cleared it up and built the 
two story house, in which he resided until the time of his death. It 
is now owned by Gardner C. Cady, who resides on it. 

Ebenezer Severance, from North field, Mass., moved into town as 
early as the spring of 1790, and settled on the west end of homo 
lots 16 and 17. These he cleared and cultivated, as his home farm 
until the time of his death in 1812, at the age of seventy-three. 
lie owned also the west half of 18 and 19, and the east half of 55 
in the west tier of home lots, lying west of and adjoining No. 18. 
By an arrangement between his son Samuel Severance, and his son- 
in-law John S. Kirby, he deeded to the former the three lots last 
mentioned, and Samuel Severance deeded to Kirby the lot on which 
he had commenced and rcoitltd, and took possession of the lands 
received fh)m his father. And, as before mentioned, John S. 
Kirby took possession of the L-t next north of his father, Abraham 
Kirby, received from Severance. 

Samuel Severance settled on the east end of 55, aiu^ cleared 18 
and 19, which were entirely wild. Ilore he resided until 1851, 
when he died at the ag^^ of r: Jity-six years. The farm is now 
owned by his sons Smith Severance and Dariu-. Severance, each of 
whom has a house on the premises. The widow of Samuel Sever- 
ance is a daughter of Abraham Kirby, as we have before intimated, 
and is still living at the age of eighty-five, with a remarkable in- 
telligence and memory for her age. From her we have derived 
many facts in relation to the early settlement. 

Enos Severance, another son of Ebenezer Severance, settled on the 
west end of home lots 14 and 15, next north of his father, built 
the present house, now occupied by his widow, and remained until 
his death in 1842, at an advanced age. 

Moses Severa-.ce, another son, who came into town with his 
father, after residing elsewhere for several year^, returned to Middle- 
bury with his family, and lived in the house with his father, and 
took care of him in hiz old age, and remained in possession of the 


farm until his death. The farm is now owned and cultivated by 
David E. Boyce, son of Dea. David Boyce. 

John Tillotson, a young man from Long Island, came to Middle- 
bury in 1784/ with no capital but his hands, and an enterprising 
disposition. The following year he married the daughter of Sim- 
eon Chandler, then a resident, and for several years remained iu the 
family of his father-in-law. In the meantime he labored for dif- 
ferent persons, and thus supported his family, and accumulated 
property sufficient to enable him to buy land for himself. He first* 
began and built a log house on home lot No. 29. lie soon moved 
to No. 28, where Philo Achlcy had commenced a clearing and built 
a plank house. On this lot he built the present house and adjoin^ 
ing buildings. Here he resided until October 185.5, when he died 
at the age of ninety-three. The farm has been recently sold by his 
heii^ to E. K. Severance, who now owns it. 

About the time of John Tillotson's purchase, his brother Silas 
Tillotson settled on No. 30, next south. He remained several years 
in possession of this lot, and moved from town. The farm is now 
owned by William P. Huntington. 

Deacon Ebenezer Sumner, in 1787, settled on home lot 36 oppo- 
site the house of Philip Foot, where he resided until his death. 
The following is a part of the story of his widow as related to Mr. 
Battell in 1850, when she was ninety-one years old. She died in 
1853, at the age of ninety-four. 

She waa a native of Chatham, Conn., and her name was Hall. 
Her husband was from Middletown. They were married in 1780, 
and ten days after they accompanied his father to Wells, in Rutland 
County. After remaining there seven years, the difficulty of main- 
taining a religious organization, in so broken a town, led her hus- 
band to remove. They came to Middlebury with their children, 
and settled near the north end of Foot Street. Their log house 
stood with the wood so darkening around it, that they could not see 
the road on the left ; and seemed shut off from it. and it was at first 
very gloomy. After mentioning the organization of the church, 
she says, that there was subsequently much interest, with a port of 


the people, in religious things. The women and children came to 
meeting on sleds from Munger Street, and old Mr. Weeks and wife 
came six miles from Salisbury. Four or five professors, within two 
miles, among whom was her husband, would meet once a fortnight, 
at each other's houses for prayer and conversation. She does not 
remember the names of the first preachers. *Dr. Swift preached 
two or three times a year before Mr. Barnet came. Mr. Bamet 
was ordained in a bam ; Dr. Merrill in the Court House. Mr. 
-Bamet lived in her own neighborhood. One summer Mr. Foot did 
not like to be troubled with the meetings, he said, and they were 
held in her husband's bam. 

The stake for the centre of the town was set south of them on 
Foot Street ; but Mr. Foot would not set out fifty acres in lots, and 
Judge Painter said they must go to the village. When they did 
this finally, father Foot left the church and joined the Baptists, and 
was immersed in Lemon Fair. Mrs. Sumner thought him a good 
man, but he was irritable and strong tempered. His wife was an 
excellent woman. Her name was fctillman, and she had two- sis- 
ters in Middletown, one of whom waa the mother of Mr. Daniel 
Henshaw. Mrs. Foot used to tell of being here before the war. 
The summer before they left, their beds were packed every moming 
ready for a start. Mr. Foot finally left and staid in Washington, 
Berkshire County. 

Dr. Willard was the first physician she saw here. The people 
used to doctor one another. Hearing of the sickness of others, and 
supposing some remedy would be useful, they communicated it. 
Watchers went two miles and more. She remembered the dysen- 
tery as an epidemic about forty years ago. A grave was opened in 
tDwn every day for four weeks, and on two Sundays of those, a man 
and child were buried. She used formerly to visit Connecticut, at 
least as often as once in five years, travelling by sleigh or waggon, 
and sometimes on horseback. She had ridden, in this way, the 
whole distance, going about forty miles a day. 

Mr. Sumner was one of the first deacons in the congregational 
church, and was regarded a» a very pious man, and a &ithfttl sup- 


porter of religious institutions. His death occurred in August 
1844, at the age of eighty-seven years.* 

Elijah Olmstead of Bolton, Conn., in 1787 owned lots 11 and 
12 of the second hundred acre division, lying east of the governor's 
lot These two lots belonged to Oliver Evarts, at the time his 
property was confiscated for * treasonable conduct,'' and seem not 
to have been discovered by the authorities of Vermont. Olmstead 
settled on No. 12, cleared it, built the two story house still stand- 
ing, and continued to occupy it for many years. In 1814 he sold 
this farm to Col. Eleazer Claghom, then residing in Salisbury, who 
continued his possession of it until his death in 1813, at the age of 
sixty-eight. It is now owned by Harry Goodrich Esq. 

Lot No. 11 was purchased by Samuel Little, who, with his 
brother, James Little, went into possession of it, cleared it, and 
each built a plank or log house, one on the north part, where Mr. 
Barrows' house stands, and the other on the south half Eleazer 
Barrows in 1796 purchased the whole lot^ and resided on it with 
his family until his death in 1840, at the age of seventy-one. In 
the meantime he built the present two story house. Mr. Lucius 
Barrows, his son, has occupied the farm since his death. 

Abraham Vanduzer of Salisbury, Conn., came to Middlebury in 
1789, with his eldest daughter and his son Harry Vanduzer, leav- 
ing his family behind for about two years. For two or three years 
he carried on the farm which Judge Painter left when he removed 
to the village. His son remained through the winter to take care 
of the cattle, and boarded at Capt. Thomas Chipman's, the nearest 
resident family. In 1793, Vanduzer purchased of Col. Sloan the 
south half of the Slasson pitch and settled on it. While livmg 
there he built the small house, in which he resided at the time of 

*Dea. Suninor at' an early day deeded to his son, James Sumner, home lot 22. 
In 1811 he began to clear it, then in an entirely wild state. On this lot he has 
since resided with his family. His son, J A. Sumner occupies with him the new 
house recently built. Dea. Sumner also deeded to his son Samuel lot No. 20. who 
cleared it and resided on it for several yo;xrs. and afterwards removed from town. 
Charles Landon Jan., occupied the south half and vjharles SuUeus the north half. 



his death, "which occurred in 1795, at the age of fifty-three. His 
widow survived him many years and resided in the same house. 

Harry Vanduzer, son of Abraham, in 1794 began a clearing on 
home lot 58, on the right of Noah Chittenden, the whole of which 
his father previously owned, built a log cabin on it, and resided 
there with his family. In the meantime Samuel Vanduzer had 
built the two story house now standing on the homestead of his 
father. In the year 1806, Harry, having purchased the interest of 
Samuel in the premises, removed to that farm and resideil on it 
until the year 1825, when he removed to Oneida County, N. Y., 
where he died in 1829. Mrs. Dorrance, widow of Martin S. Dor- 
rance, is his daughter The ^vllole farm, on wliich Abraham Van- 
duzer first settled, is now owned by the town, as a poor house and 

John Vanduzer, another son of Abraham, settled on the second 
hundred acre lot, on the right owned by his father, lying east of 
and adjoining the f^lasson pitch and north of the Loomis lot. Ho 
cleared this farm and built tlie present house which has since been 
altered and repaired. He removed from the State in 1814, and 
was succeeded by Capt. Timothy Matthews. The farm is now owned * 
by* John Vallett, residing in the village. 

Rev. John Barnet, who was ordained as the pastor of the Con- 
gregational Society in 1790, and, as '* the first settled minister," 
was entitled to a whole right, instead of selecting either lot on that 
right for a residence, settled on home lot 57, in the neighborhood, 
which it was supposed would l)e established as the centre of the 
town. On this lot he resided while he remained in town. This lot 
and the lot south of it, on which Harry Vanduzer first settled, were 
united in one farm by Dr. William Bass, and constituted the farm 
lately owned by Jacob W. Conroe and now by Smith K. Seeley. 

Cyrus Starkweather had commenced a settlement on the lot after- 
wards occupied by Mr. Barnet. He then settled on the east half of 
the second hundred acre lot on the minister's right, built a house 
there and in 1793, sold the premises to John Doming. 

Moses Boardman, about the year 1788, settled on No. 3 of the 
second hundred acre division, and after residing on it for several 


years sold the farm to Ichabod Morton, who continuc<l to occupy it 
until his death, and in the meantime built the present two story 
house. He died in 1826, at the age of sixty-four years. 

Billy Munger, about the same time, settled on No. 1, east of Mo- 
ses Boardman's, and adjoining the home lots. He cleared this lot^ 
built a house and resided on it until his death in 1822, at the age 
of sixty *eight. This lot and the preceding were afterwards occupied 
by Ichabod M. Cushman as his home farm^ until the time of bis 
death, residing in the house built by Morton. The widow of Mr. 
Cushman retains her dower in the farm, and tlie remainder is owned 
by his son-in-law, John Hacket, who resides with the widow on the 

Bethuel Gooilrich, about the year 1790 settled and built a house 
on No. 4, lying north of Boardman's lot, and resided on it until bis 
death in 1829 at the age of fifty-three years. The lot was after- 
wards owned by Austin Johnson, Escj., and now belongs to his es-* 

Elnathan Hammond, from Lanesborougli, Mass., in the year 
1794, settled on a lot of about forty acres next north of Luciu.s 
Barrows' farm, on the west end of the second hundred acre division, 
on the right of John Howe. This was a long lot about forty rods 
wide, lying between the old and new line of New Haven. On this 
he commenced a clearing and built a plank house. This whole lot 
extended east a few rods over the Muddy Branch, and a small tract, 
including the falls, at the east end has been appropriated as a mill' 
lot and is now owned, witli the marble saw- mill and privileges, by 
Isaac Gibbs. Ephraim Spaulding for many years, and until his 
death owned and occupied the remainder as his home farm. It ii* 
now owned by Horatio Goodrich. 

Mr. Hammond remained at the place of his first settlement only 
a year or two, and removed to that part of No. 13 next north of 
Robert Huston's lot, which lies east of the road. Here he built a 
house and resided with his family until the 10th of September 1856, 
when he died at the age of ninety-five. His sons, William S. and 
Edwin having grown up to maturity, have advantageously and prof- 
itably improved the farm, and from year to year have added to it. 

niStORi' (3F MiDDLEBl'RV. 221 

tmong other tracts, the remainder of the original lot, on which their 
fiither settled, and the ^vhole of the Robert Huston farm. Edwin 
occupied the house on the latter, and William S.* in his lifetime re- 
cently built him a new house opposite to the old homestead, which 
by an exchange with his widow is now occupied by Edwin. John 
A. Hammond, another son, as elsewhere stated, resides on the south 
east comer t)f the govemDr's right, and otitis a part of that with 
other lands. 

Richard Hall from Mansfield <.'<>nn., purchased the lot on which 
Mr. Hammond first settled, with other adjoining lands in New Ha- 
ven, and occupied them as his home farm until 1799, when he was 
succeeded by Dea. Samuel Craft. After Deacon Craft's sons, Pearl 
Craft and William Craft arrived at mature age and had families of 
their own, his father divided his farm between them; but they suc- 
cessively sold their lands and removed to the west. While they 
lived here. Deacon Craft and his son Pearl lived together in the old 
plank house, which is now demolished, and William built the pres- 
ent house for his residence. This house, with the adjoining lands, 
is owned by Almon Famsworth. 

Eleaaer Conant from Mansfield, Conn., in 1794, purchased the 
south half of the Bentley pitch and a part of the Risley pitch, and 
went into possession of it with his family ; and the same year his 
brother John Conant purchased of Elisha Fuller, and went into pos- 
session of the north half of the Bently lot. Eleazer Conant resi- 
ded on his farm for many years, until his sons had grown up and 
settled in the west, among whom was Hon. Shubael Conant of De- ' 
troit Soon after in 1819 he and his wife went to visit their child- 
ren, and both died, while making their visit at the residence of their 
son, Hon. Horatio Conant, at Maumee, Ohio. His farm is now 
owned by different persons. The dwelling house and land above 
the road belongs to the estate of John Simmons Esq. 

John Conant continued on his farm until his death. It has since 

*WUliam 3. Hammond died of a lang fever, aflei* a short but distreBsiag illnees, 
on the 27th May, 1858, universally lamented. He was a deacon of the Congrega- 
tional Church, and as a man wa» universally respected and loved. 


222 niSTORY OF middlebury. 

been owned by (Jen. Hastings Warren, and afterwards by William 
Y. Kipley, and now by Edward Muzzey. 

Abisha Washburn, in 1793, received from his son-in-law John 
Chipman, a deed of the farm on which Jonathan Chipman first set- 
tled, and in 1796 deeded it to his son-in-law, Freedom Loomis, then 
of Sunderland, on the condition of receiving for himself and wife, 
during their lives, such sums as they might need for their support 
They continued to reside here together until the time of their re- 
spective deaths. Mr. Washburn died in 1813, aged 91 years ; his 
wife in 1815, aged 87, and Mr Loomis in 1822, at the age of 56. 
George C. Loomis, son of Mr. Loomis, continued in possession of 
the farm for several years. It is now owned by Smith K. Seelcy. 
The two story house built by Mr. Loomis was burnt in 1838 or 1839, 
and has not been rebuilt. 




James Ckane was the first settler in the neighborhood, constitu- 
ting the north part of the east tier of home lots. He and his broth- 
er Jerepaiah in 1790, commenced on different parts of No. 11. 
That year they worked on their land and the next year removed their 
families. The first year there was no family, on any road leading 
to that neighborhood, nearer than Joshua Hyde's ; and the brothers 
went there to get their clothes washed. Jeremiah Crane continued 
to cultivate his farm until his death, which took place many years 
ago. After four or five years, James Crane removed from his farm, 
and it was afterwards owned successively by Waldo Carey and Elea- 
zer Abbey, and is now owned by his son, Warren Abbey. When 
he left this farm he settled on the east half of No. 8, with some ad- 
joining lands. On this farm he resided until his death in 1845, at 
about the age of eighty. The farm is now owned by Luther C. 
Fales and Joseph Fales. 

Nathan Case about the year 1792, settled on lot No. 12, on which 
Dudley Munger had' commenced. Here he built the present dwel- 
Ilhg-house and resided until his death, at an advanced age. Before 
his death, his son Abel P. Case occupied a house, which had been 
built on a part of the same farm, and continued the possession of 
the whole farm for several years, and moved to the west. The farm 
has since been divided and is now owned severally by Sidney Mead, 
Warren Abbey and D. W. Chittenden. 

Ilorae lot No. 51 was also owned by Nathan Case, and constitu- 
ted a part of his home farm. Among other tenants. Major William 


Cummings lived for a lime on the lot. He had been a school teaoli- 
er, and was poor and in feeble health, and was troubled to obtain 
food for his family. These circumstances occasioned a fatal depres- 
sion, which, it was thought, disturbed his mental faculties, aad led 
him to commit suicide, by hanging himself on a tree near the house, 
in December, 1817, at the age of 47. The lot is now owned and 
oocupied by Isaac Lovett. 

Elisha Sheldon, about the year 1790, made a beginning on No. 
9, and in the year 1794 was succeeded by Benjamin Maltbio, who 
remained in possession until 1797, when he removed, with Jonathan 
and Edmund Hunger, to Ohio. At the last mentioned date, Gide- 
on Abbey, of Mansfield Conn, purchased and settled on this lot. He 
also had a perpetual lease of No. 10, ' on the right of the Society 
for Propagating the Gospel, and ccmtinued to occupy both tho lots 
until his death at the age of 92 years. Mr. Abbey built, and while 
he lived, resided in the present dwelling house on No. 9. Theoda- 
tus Phelps now occupies the house and lot. Orin Abbey and Abel 
Abbey, and perhaps other heirs, severally own parts of No. 10. 

The east road passes from south to north through nearly the whole 
length of the east tier of the home lota, and divides them into une- 
qual parts. The different parts of the same lot have been severed 
and added to parts of other lots, and all have frequently changed 
owners. This renders it perplexing for us to ascertain, or the read- 
er to understand correctly, the history of the settlement. And be- 
ing more recently settled, and not properly included in the " early 
settlements/' we feel bound not to trespass longer on the patience of 
the reader, with these tiresome details, in the correctness of which 
neither they nor we can have much confidence. We are therefore 
obliged to abridge our materials as well as plan. This we regret 
the more, as the territory is fast rising in importance, and in public 

We add only one or two cases in other parts of the town. 

Darius Tupper from Charlotte, where he first settled in this State, 
in the winter of 1794-5, removed his family and settled on lot No. 
23, a second hundred acre lot, lying south of home lot 66, then 
owned by Martin Foot, and north of Slasson's pitch. Mr. Tupper 


soon after built tlie present large house, for many years kept a tar^ 
em and remained in possession until his death. He died in 1828, 
at the age of 74. Amos Boardman had previously commenced a 
settlement on this lot. Previous to his death a house had been built 
and occupied, on the opposite side of the road, by his son-in-law, 
James Champlain. After his decease, the farm was divided among 
his heirs, and that part l^ing cast of the road, and a part of that on 
the west side, was for some years owned by Edwin B. Douglass and 
now by Ira B. Wicker. The remainder, with the large house, is 
occupied by Silas Perkins, a son-in-law. 

Deacon David Boyce in 1814 had taken a permanent lease of the 
second hundred acre lot on the Glebe right, and owned thirty acres 
on home lot 53, north of and adjoining his leased lot, settled on the 
latter and built the brick house and other buildings now standing 
there, cleared both lots and occupied them as his home farm until 
his death. Uis widow and son Elijah S. Boyce now reside on the 


The west part of this \'illage, as far east as Kneeland Olmstead's 
dwelling house, is located principally on home lot 35. The build- 
ings north of the road, leading from the school house to its junction 
with that which leads from the Torrance place, are on lot 34, for- 
merly owned by Eber Everts. That part of the village which lies 
east of Kneeland Olmstead's is on the mill lot pitched by Joshua 
Hyde. The village lies principally along the north border of Mid- 
dlebury River, and extends east to the foot of the mountain, where 
the river issues from a deep gorge. 

The first application of the extensive water power at this place 
was the erection of a saw mill in 1790, by John Foot, on the south 
side of the river. The year following Foot built a house for the 
miller, which was occupied by the family of Nathan Carpenter, who 
had charge of the mill, and was father of Nathan and Gideon Car- 
penter. His was the first femily which resided in East Middlebury. 
Joshua Hyde and Eber Everts, who then owned the mill lot, deeded 
to him one half of it, as a consideration for his erecting the mill. 
Hyde also soon after built a saw mill on the upper dam. Foot, at 


the time, resided on the west side of the falls, in Cornwall, and was 
concerned in the mills there. In 1811, Foot moved from New Ha- 
ven, as before mentioned, to the mill lot in East Middlebury, rebuilt 
the saw mill, and successively erected works for dressing cloth and 
carding wool, a grist mill and the gambrel roof house, a.few rods 
south of Farr's tavern, in which he resided for several years. 

Epaphras Jones, who had previously, in the name of the Ver- 
mont Glass Factory Company, erected a large establishment for 
manufactunng window glass, at Lake Dunmoro in Salisbury, wish- 
ing to extend his operations, in the year 1812, erected in East Mid- 
dlebury, a little west of Farr's hotel, a large circular brick build- 
ing for the manufiicture of glass ware. He also built two dwelling 
houses, near by and westerly for the accommodation of his workmen, 
and another building for a store and oflSce This establishment en- 
couraged the hope, that the place, with its valuable water power, 
would soon become a place of extensive business. This hope induced 
Mr. Foot to build the large tavern house above mentioned. In this 
he opened and, for several years, continued a house of public enter- 
tainment, which is now occupied by Royal D. Farr. But Jones' es- 
tablishment, because he did not succeed well in the manufacture of 
glass, or for other reasons, broke up, and the brilliant prospects, 
which it had induced, vanished with it. The anticipated growth of 
the place was checked, but not wholly stopped by this disaster. Mr. 
Foot erected and repaired his works above mentioned, and rebuilt 
his grist mill, and died in 1849 at the age of 84 years. Other es- 
tablishments were successively erected, and the business and popula- 
tion of the village has been gradually increasing, until the present 
time. If there had been sufficient capital available, the increase 
would have been much larger. 

Mr. Daniel L. Sessions settled in the village in 1821, and by his 
aid and that of Norman Tupper, Esq., we have been able to ascer- 
tain some facts relating to the growth since that year and its popu- 
lation and business at the present time. In 1821, there were ten 
dwelling houses, and a somewhat larger number of families. At 
this time the number of dwelling houses, in the compact part of the 
village, is fifty. Some of the liouses being occupied by more than 


one fiunily, the number of &milies is larger. David S. Church, 
Esq., who, as deputy marshal!, enumerated the inhabitants in Mid- 
dldbury in 1850, at our request, has ascertained the number of in- 
habitants in that village to be four hundred and thirty. He proba- 
bly included some families, not embraced in the estimate of Messrs. 
Sessions and Tupper, but properly to be estimated, as belonging to 
the village. ^ 

There is also a neat church, owned by the Universalists, two 
stores, several mechanics and tlic following water- works : At the 
upper dam are a forge and saw mill, owned by Israel 'Davey. Next 
below is the tannery, owned by Horace, son of Parley Enos, who 
first established it many years ago, and a shop owned by David 
Olmstead, with machinery for boring, sawing and turning timber 
for waggons, which he manufiictures. On the south side of the 
river are a saw mill, belonging to the estate of Norman Boardman, 
and a machine for sawing shingles, owned by George Champlin. 
Still lower is a shop owned by Kneeland and Waldo Olmstead, for 
the manufacture of waggons, and machinery for fitting the timber 
for them, supplied by water from the river by a tube. Next below 
this is a grist mill, owned by Norman Tupper Esq., built in 1850, 
and below this a sash factory* owned by Almon P. Tupper, and a 
fiwrtory for sawing and fitting barrel staves for the Boston market, 
owned by E. Hayward & Co. The three last mentioned works are 
furnished with water conducted by a canal, without any dam across 
the river. 

The Middlebury River, at this place, furnishes a large amount of 
water power, sufficient to operate works to a much greater extent 
than those now in operation. It is, like all mountain streams, very im- 
petuous, rises suddenly and is liable, in high freshets, to break 
through the barriers which confine it, and has occasionally done 
mischief in the village. The most considerable instance of this, 

♦This foctory was establbhed by Nonnan Tupper Esq . father of the present 
owner, irho in 1880 invented the nebessary machinery for making the mortices and 
manufiMturing all other parts of window sash by water power; which is still in 


which we now call t6 mind, is the freshet of 1850, which we havd 
elsewhere mentioned. 

Besides the very valuable water power, this village is otherwise 
advai\tageously situated. The ground on which it stands is mostly 
level, and is connected with a level region of considerable extent, 
widening as it recJedes from the mountain. The soil, where most of 
the village stands is gravelly, and the surrounding region is com- 
posed of ah alluvial or intervale soil of a very productive character. 


tlveipy body hlELB heard something of the hardships and privation* 
of a new settlement. But the experience of the present day gives 
no adequate impression of what such an adventure was in the days 
of our predecessors. Now families toay carry with them all the 
comforts, and, if they wish, the luxuries of life, by steamboats, rail 
roads and other open and comfortable roads, to the newest settle- 
ments. And when they reach their destination, they find prairies 
already cleared to their hand, and ready for the plough ; and, if 
they have not all the required comforts, they have easy access to 
them. But when Middlebury was settled, the people who came 
here were poor, as the whole country was, and were forced to make 
their wav, as best they could, without roads and locate themselves 
in a dense forest. This was to be cleared away, with wasting labor, 
before they had room to plant their cabins, or fields for their first 
crop. As to provisions and furniture, they could bring but few ar- 
ticles, if they had them. Before the war and for several years 
after, there were no mills nearer than Pittsford or Ticonderoga, and 
there was no access to them, by roads passable with teams ; and 
much of their grain for food was pounded in large wooden mortars 
made for that purpose. 

Many of the incidents of the early settlements are recorded in oui* 
previous history ; and at the close of this part we add a few others* 

Mrs. Loomis says, that her father's family had become, at ond 
time, destitute of all kinds of flour and meal, and her fii^ther, Col. 
John Chipman. took a bag of grain on his shoulder, and carried it 
on foot to Ticonderoga to be ground and was gone several days ; 

HlSTv/RY OF MlJ[>LLEBUaY. 221) 

and in the meantime the family lived wholly on milk. We loam 
from another source as coming from Mrs. Chipman, that after open- 
ing their log cabin for the entei-tainment of travellers, she had but 
one towel for her guests ; and when travellers camO; who appeared 
rather smart, she went to the river in the evening, washed and ironed 
it, to be ready for her guests in the morning. When Mr. John 
Deming was nominated for tavern-keeper, as mentioned elsewhere, 
he was like all the other settlera, destitute of the requisite furniture 
•for the accommodation of his guests, and unable from the want of 
mechanics, to supply the deficiency. lie neeiled especially bedsteads, 
a&d called on Judge Painter for the loan of one. ** Oh yes," said 
the Judge, " but, in that case I shall be obligetl to lie on the floor." 
But the greatest scarcity of provisions was in 1790 ; and it was 
little short jof a famine. It is said that sufficient provisions wore 
raised the preceding year to supply the settlers ; but, on account of 
the famine in the counties north and in Canada, they had been car- 
ried away to feed the ix?ople in those places. Mr. Loomis of Bur- 
lington says the famine in that neighborliodl was in 1789. Mr. 
Abraham Williamson was then fourteen years old, and recollects the 
famine here. His statement, confirmed by his wife, is that being 
wholly destitute of bread, the women went into the fields and cut 
off the heads of the wheat before it was ripe, dried them, shelled out 
the wheat and boiled it for food ; that almost the only animal food 
was the fish taken in Lemon Fair creek, and he thinks that, with- 
out this supply, many of the people would have starved. He saw 
there, he says, larger collections of people from the neighboring coun- 
try, catching fish, than on any other occasion for many years after. 
lie says that many were so enfeebled for want of food, that they 
could not go : but such as had strength went to the creek, built a 
fire, and, as they caught the fish, threw them into it, while yet show- 
ing signs of life, and when sufficiently cooked stripped oft and ate 
the flesh, without disturbing the entrails. After their own appetites 
were satisfied, they caught and preserved the remainder for their 
friends at home. He states also, that many subsisted on the bulb- 
ous roots of leeks, gathered in the woods, and some stripped the bark 
from oak trees, the inner bark of which they boiled and converted 


into a kind of food ; and that be has seen many oak trees stripped 
of their bark, for tbat purpose, as bigb as men could reach. The 
first bread stuff, he says, brought into the country was Virginia corn. 

The following anecdote is received from Mrs. Williamson. A 
farmer in the neighborhood had a larger supply of provisions than 
his neighbors, but not a proportionate share of benevolence. His 
"wife was a benevolent woman, from a Quaker family, and educated 
in their principles. She was willing to share in the destitution of 
her neighbors, that they might shara in her abundance. She gave • 
to the destitute the bran of her wheat as long as her husband would 
consent ; and she thought it none tlic worse for a little flour mixed 
with it. The recipients of her bounty sifted the bran, and made 
wholesome bread of the finer parts, and such flour cs might be with 
it. One day, when preparing a batch of bread, in the . absence of 
her husband, she took a loaf of the dough and carried it to a neigh- 
bor by the name of Thaddcus Palracr, an uncle of Mrs. Williamson, 
and living near her father, and said to him, "Thaddeus, thee take 
this and give part of it to Polly," and went home. Polly was the 
mother of Mrs. Williamson. 

Miss Althca Doming states, that her father that year went to 
Connecticut, and on his return purchased at Lanesborough a quan- 
tity of beans, peas, wheat and corn, and loaded his own horse and 
those of two young men in company. The sight of such a treasure 
was an occasion of great triumph to Mrs. Dcming, as she had baked 
her last loaf. The family, she says, had restricted themselves to 
two meals a day, and after the cows were milked at evening, they 
finished the day with milk punch, seasoned with a small allowance 
of whiskey ; and that many families lived for weeks without bread. 

Mr. Asa Preston says that he well recollects the famine ; that the 
family were destitute of all kinds of bread stuffs, as well as animal 
food. Their whole dependence was on the milk of two cows. In 
this dilemma, his father started on horseback for the south to pro- 
cure gi'ain, and was gone some time. While his father was absent, 
he went to the woods and dug up a large quantity of the roots of 
leeks, which were dried and cooked, when needed, and eaten with 
their milk, and that this was their only food. 


ClIAPTKU viir. 


Although a considerable part of tlu) mountainous region, on the 
east part of the town has been set off to Ripton, there still remains 
in Middlebury the first or western ridge. Some of this is valuable 
tillage land, and some suitable for pasture lands, but much of it is 
steep, and some parts difficult of access from the low lands, and' a 
large share of it, although well timbered, is too steep and stony to 
be advantageously improved for farming. Of that part which lies 
west of the mountain, some of it is level, alluvial land, on the banks 
of Otter Creek and Middlebury Kiver ; but most of it is moderate- 
ly rolling. The principal elevation, and the only one perhaps, which 
rises to the distinction of a hill, is that which lies north-easterly 
from the village. This has generally borne the name of Chipman's 
Hill, because Hon. Daniel Chipman formerly owned the south end 
of it, and his residence was at its beautiful southern point. The 
members of college, who used formerly to assemble there annually 
in the spring for their celebration, gave it the name of the " Hill of 
Science." Dr. Merrill in his history of Middlebury proposed to 
adopt the name of ** Mount Nebo,'' which has not been received 
with much favor, and neither of the last two names have been much 
used in cammoJi parlance. The prospect from the summit of this 
hill is among the finest in New England. From it are seen the el- 
evated mountains west of Lake Champlain, the Green Mountains in 
the feast, including Gamers Hump in the north-east, and the less el- 
evated mountains of Rutland County in the south, and the exten- 
sive undulating country enclosed by them. At one point, in a clear 
day, is seen the Lake itself in the north-west. Professor Hall says 
of this hill, ** Its elevation by the barometer, above the level of the 



.water in Ott^r Creek, below the full, is four hundred and thirty- 
nine feet." The principal rivers are Otter Creek and Middlebury 
River, and the next largest stream is Muddy Branch, on which stand 
the saw mills of Nichols and Wheeler and Abbey and Lovett and 
the marble mill of Isaac Gibbs. The supply of water on this stream 
is suflScient for these works except in a dry season. Of the rivers 
suflScient account is given in the preliminary article on the County 
of Addison, and incidentally in this history. 

Of the limestone some general account is also given in tlie sketch 
of the County. To this we .add tlie following quotation fh)m Pro- 
fessor Hall. "Lime stone, which, with comparatively moderate 
heat, may be changed into lime, exists in almost every quarter of 
the town." ** Marble of the finest texture and susceptible of a high 
polish, is found here in an inexhaustible abundance. The soil indeed 
of the whole township appears to rest on a vast basis of marble. lu 
more than a hundred places does the marble make its appearance 
above the surface. It is arranged in strata, somewhat irregular, 
and of different thicknesses, but all inclining more or less to the 
plain of the horizon. It is of various colors, from pure white to 
deep grey, verging to a black." Of the quarry owned by Isaac 
Gibbs, he says — ** A white marble has been quarried and wrought, 
on a small scale, in the north part of Middlebury. It has received 
the name of Kirby marble. When polished, it strongly resembles 
the statuary marble of Italy. I have in my mineralogical cabinet 
specimens both from this and from Dr. Judd's quarry, which, in 
point of transparency, delicacy of texture and general beauty, are 
not surpassed by any Carrara or Parian marble, which has ever 
fallen under my observation." 

Middlebury, we think, as a whole, has not much cause for boast- 
ing of its soil or agriculture. There is much good land, in different 
parts of the town, and many fine farms. But a large proportion of 
the soil IS a stiff and not very fertile clay, which requires too iliuch 
labor for thorough tilling, to encourage the fiirmers to make the 
needed effort. Much of the dry upland was originally covered with 
hemlock and pine, which do not furnish so much fertility to the sur- 
fiice of the soil, as deciduous forests by their annually fiilling leaves. 


There 4a also little silicious, vegetable, or other fertalizing substances 
in the soil itself. But it has clay in abundance, which is one of tho 
essential ingredients of a fertile soil, and probably sufficient lime. 
Other ingredients may be added, which will destroy its tenacity, and 
render it fertile and susceptible of more easy tilling. We have 
known some of the most productive gardens made on the stiffest clay, 
by mixing with it sand, muck or rotten chips and barnyard manure. 
The land, in such case, should be ploughed or thrown up into ridges 
in the fall, so as to be exposed to the action of the frost, and drain 
off the surface water in the spring. This would require considera- 
ble labor and expense. But we think that, where the materials can 
be conveniently obtained, the farmer would be well paid by thus 
gradually preparing so much of his land as he may need for tilling. 
The lands, which are not sufficiently dry, should also be thoroughly 
drained. But some dry lands, in their natural state are sufficiently 
mixed with other ingredients to be easily, if rightly, tilled without 
any additional mixture. And much of the lower lands, which were 
originally covered with ash, elm and soft maple, have proved to be 
good for grass, without any artificial preparation. The alluvial 
lands and the higher parts of many hills, which were originally cov- 
ered with maple, beech and other upland wood, have lighter soils, 
are easily tilled and adapted to tho production of com and other 
crops, which require hoeing. 

Lands on the east street near the mountain, some of which are 
Bandy, and others more properly called loam, have heretofore been 
undervalued, and have been slow in their settlement. But more re- 
cently they have risen in public estimation, and are now regarded 
as among the most valuable. Much of the land in the neighborhood 
of the village, in the east part of the town and elsewhere, was orig- 
inally covered with a heavy growth of pine, which is very valuable 
for its timber, but not likely to be selected for farming. We repeat 
therefore, that while we have much land of the first quality, Mid- 
dlebury has not been distinguished for a high agricultural reputation, 
among its more distinguished neighbors. The smaller town of Cornwall, 
at the first census of 1791 had a population more than double that 
of Middlebury, and several other towns in the county nearly double. 


The nature of our soil lias induced the farmers to dovoto their ef- 
forts to the raising of stock ratlicr than tilling. The tendency of 
this has been to reduce the number of farmers, and the population 
in the agricultural parts of the town. But we think our agricul- 
ture is improving, the farms are generally in good and more per-? 
manent hands, and we trust, ere long, we may be able to stand a com- 
petition with our neighbors without discredit. 

Peaches and quinces are not raised here with any success. But 
apples, pears, plums, cherries and all other fruits, common to this 
latitude, are raised in the highest perfection ; as are also all gar- 
den vegetables. 


The following is copied from the history of Middlebury, by Dr. 
Merrill, who was much better acquainted with the subject than we 
are. " About thirty or forty rods to the right of the road, leading 
north-east from the village, and nearly two miles distant, on very 
low land belonging to Messrs. William and Edwin Hammond, within 
a circuit of twenty feet radius, are seven springs, — the Septennary 
Springs. They appear to be independent of each other, as digging a 
channel and lowering one do^s not affect the others. They have de- 
posited, especially the western ones^ in abundance, calcareous tufa, 
which much resembles that of Clarendon. ?ome of this tufa exhib- 
its traces sf iron, and all of it probably, when exposed to intense 
heat, would show the presence of sulphur. Some of them, espe- 
cially the largest and most southerly one, have often proved beneficial 
in cutaneous diseases ; and in cases oT poison, they are said, when 
drunken freely and used for washing the affected part, to afford a 
very speedy and certain cure. When the water about these springs 
shall be so drained off, that they can be thoroughly tested, they may 
yet be turned to a valuable account. 

uiixaiiY or MiDi;iiU;;uRT. 285 


illLLS— foot's mills — HOP JOHXSON — COL. STOllRS — PAINTER 

I^ the year 17T-1 or ITTo, Abisha Washburn, of Salisbury, Conn., 
undertook to take possession of the water power on the cast side of 
the falls. He did not come within the conditions of the vote of tLo 
proprietors in March 170"), one of which was that the saw mill 
should be built within ^' fifteen months.'' But, in consequence of 
some subsequent vote or the general understanding of the proprie- 
tors, it seems to have been considered hy him and others, that build-' 
ing a saw mill would give him a claim to the privilege and the lands 
adjoining. The a<ljoining lot was called the mill lot, even before 
the survey of Judge Painter. Washburn did not bring his family 
here, but spent one summer in getting up a saw mill on the falls. 
Whether it was put in operation we have not ascertained. He 
returned to Salisbury in the fall, and the revolutionary war then 
threatening, or having commenced, the authorities of Massachusetts 
engaged him to undertake the casting of cannon at Salisbury, for 
their use. He did not therefore return to Middlebury until after 
the war. In the meantime, his mill, whatever it was, was destroyed 
by the Indians. Some of these facts we have obtained from Miss 
Bradley and Mrs. Horace Loomis of Burlington, both grand daugh- 
ters of Mr. Washburn. This was the beginning of operations in 
the village^ and the only one before the war. 

In the spring of 1784, Washburn returned for the purpose of 
re-building his mill, and by the aid of Col. Chipman and Judge 
Painter, a new mill was completed and put in operation in 1785, 


but was swept away by the succeeding spring freshet. Afterwards, 
by an arrangement between Washburn and Judge Painter, the latter 
secured the privileges which Washburn was understood to possess, 
and pitched for himself the fifty acre lot, including the fells, called 
the *' mill lot," and for Washburn another fifty acres, south and 
east of his own, which he soon purchased. Neither of these pitches 
was founded on any claim for building the mill, but were probably 
a part of the arrangement, in the transfer of the supposed claim. 
These pitches embrace the whole of the village east of the creek 
and south of Hyde's pitch, afterwards occupied by Freeman Foot 
as his farm. Painter, soon after, proceeded to erect mills, and in 
1787 had put in operation a saw mill, and in 1788 a grist mill. 
The former was built on the rock at the head of the falls, near 
where the present grist mill is, and the latter partly below it. 

In the meantime, in 1783, John Ilobson Johnson,— more gener- 
ally known as Hop Johnson, — built a cabin, at the head of the 
rapids on the west side of the creek, then in Cornwall, a little below 
the abutment of the rail road bridge, on that side of the river. This 
was the stopping place for all travellers on the creek, and he kept 
a ferry afid a place of refreshment for them. Uc continued his 
possession and business here until about the year 1789, when he left 
the country for** parts unknown," leaving his wife and several 
children in possession of his house and ferry. 

After Daniel Foot discovered the failure of his title under the 
Weybridge charter, he purchased the right of pitching under the 
charter of Cornwall, and laid out one hundred acres, embracing the 
whole of the falls on Cornwall side, extending about forty rods 
south of them to the ** old Weybridge comer ;" and the same year 
1784, erected a large building, suflScient to accommodate a saw mill 
and grist mill. The former went into operation in July, and the 
latter in November, 1785. Until a short time previous to the com- 
pletion of this grist mill, the inhabitants were obliged to go to Pitts- 
ford for their grinding. The grain was taken in boats, or on rafts 
up the creek, to Pittsford. A few weeks before Foot's mill was in ope- 
ration. Col. Sawyer had completed a grist mill on Leicester River, 
at Salisbury village, and, during that time, the resort was to his mill. 


Mr. Foot soon gave up the possession of his mills and lands in 
Cornwall to his sons, Stillman Foot and John Toot, and in 1789 
deeded to them his mill lot, w ith mills and other buildings and im- 
provements. Previous to this, one or more small buildings near 
the mills had been erected ; and Stillman Foot, in 1786^ had erected- 
a dwelling house for his own family, which is the oldest dwelling 
house of any description now remaining, and is the dwelling house, 
with considerable alterations and additions, occupied by Daniel Hen- 
shdw, for many years, and which is now occupied by J. S. Bush- 
nell, Esq., his son-in-law. 

About the year 1791, John Foot sold his share of the property 
in Cornwall to his brother Appleton Foot ; but remained in the vil- 
lage two or three years. In July 1794, Stillman and Appleton 
divided their property in Cornwall, and arranged between themselves 
the privileges of the water, which they had before held in common. 
Stillman took the upper part of the falls, where the woolen factory 
now is, extending to the bridge, and Appleton the privilege below 
his, and the land on the creek north of the road leading west across 
the college or academy common, and extending north to the north 
line of the mill lot. Stillman took the land up the creek, south to 
Col. Storrs' land and extending west over part of the college common. 

About this time Appleton Foot built a dwelling house for his 
family, on the ground where the brick house now stands, occupied 
by Dr. Nathaniel Harris. In this he resided until he removed 
from town. Stillman Foot had a grist mill where the stone part of 
the woolen factory stands, and a saw mill further up stream, on the 
rocks back of the dry house. He built ako a small house for his 
miller on his mill yard. Appleton built a stone grist mill and a saw 
mill just below Stillman's mills, and a part of what was called his 
mill house, now owned by the woolen factory company. 

The first tenements, on the west side of the creek, were built 
along its western bank. A few rods south of Hop Johnson's house, 
James Bentley senior, father of Johnson's wife, built a small house, 
in which he lived after the war. On the lot now occupied by Mr, 
Bushnell was a small house called the Judd house, built by Still- 
man Foot for the use of his workmen, and on the lot occupied by 



the widow of Judge Phelps, a small house called the ^' Bed house," 
which was afterwards moved to the ridge south of Mr. Davenport's. 
Mrs. McLeod, a daughter of Capt. Ebenezer Markham, to whom 
we shall again refer, says, that, when a child, she often, in her ram- 
bles, saw the foundations of these several houses. She says also, 
that there was then a rood to the creek from where Mrs. Cutter's 
house stands. Simeon Dudley, who was employed in building 
Foot's mills in 1785, erected a temporary shanty on the site now 
occupied by Mrs. Phelps, in which he lived two years without chim- 
ney or cellar. 

Col. Seth Storrs, who had been in the practice of law at Addison, 
removed to Middlebury in 1794, after the courts were established 
heriD. We mention his settlement in this place, in anticipation of 
the details of our history, because he became one of the principal 
owners, who sold to others the Ian Is, which now constitute the village 
west of the creek. Among other lands, he purchased the ferm, on 
which he afterwards resided until his death, extending from the 
north line of his house lot and garden south to the home farm of 
the late Judge Phelps, and from the creek west to the top of the 
hill, and embracing the land where the college buildings stand, a 
large part of the academy common, and the residences on the streets 
included in these limits. He first resided in a gambrel roof house, 
built by John Foot, on the site of the present brick house, recently 
owned and occupied by Edward Wainwright, afterward by Samuel 
Shepard, and now by George C. Chapman. On this site he built 
in 1801 and 1802 the handsome frame house, which was burnt in 
1831 ; and during the progress of erecting this, his gambrel roof 
house was removed off the ground and occupied by his family. Af- 
ter the destruction of the wooden house, the present brick house 
was erected by Professor Turner, his son-in-law, and was occupied 
by him and his family, with Col. Storrs and his family, until the 
death of each. 

Col. Seth Storrs was a native of Mansfield, Conn., bom June 24, 
1756. He was educated at Yale College, and was graduated in 
1778. Aft;er he left college, he was for several years associated 
with Bev. Timothy Dwight, D. D. in the instruction of a public 


Beminary at Northampton Mass. Soon after the close of the war 
lie c^e to Vermont, then opening an inviting field for the enter- 
prise of young men, and pursued his professional studies in the office 
of the Hon. Noah Smith in Bennington. Having received license, 
he located himself in Addison in this county in 1787. The county 
had been incorporated in the fall of 1785^ but the first court was 
held in the spring of 1786. Addison, at the time, was the most 
prominent settlement in the county. He continued in that place 
until he removed to Middlebury. While he resided in Addison, he 
boarded in the family of Hon John Strong, the first chief judge of 
the county court, and was married to his daughter. We believe 
he was the first lawyer, who settled in the county, except Samuel 
Chipman, a brother of Hon. Daniel Ghipman, who was licensed the 
year previous and settled in Vergennes. Col. Storrs was appointed 
in 1787 the first state's attorney, and was annually appointed to 
that office for the next ten years. After his removal to Middlebury, 
he continued in successful practice here. He was also among the 
most active in counselling and contributing to measures to advance 
the prosperity of the village. He was forward in promoting the 
establishment of our literary institutions. In his deed, executed 
jointly with others, ho conveyed to the corporation of Addison Coun- 
ty Grammar School a large share of the land, on which the build- 
ing of that institution was erected, together with the extensive com- 
mon connected with it. When the location of the college was re- 
moved, and the stone college built, he contributed the whole tract, 
which forms the handsome grounds of that institution. He was 
constituted by the charters, a member of both these corporations. 

From the time of his settlement here, Col. Storrs was an active 
supporter of the religious institutions of the place, especially of the 
Congregational church and society, to which he immediately attached 
himself, and was one of the first regularly chosen deacons of the 
former In the later years of his life, he was more generally em- 
ployed in various offices of trust, than in the labors of his profession. 
He was many years town clerk, and clerk of the Congregational 
church and society, and was moderator and on committees in each. 

Col. Storrs was a gentleman of what has been called the " old 


school," and no man was better entitled to the designation, which 
we have heard applied to him, of a "Christian gentleman."* He 
died at Vergcnnes, while on a visit to his friends in that place, on 
the 5th of October 1842, at the age of 71 years. 

After the completion of Daniel Foot's first mills, Simeon Dudley 
waa employed by Painter in erecting his mills. In 1787, he com- 
menced the erection, near the grounds of the Addison House, of a 
shanty similar to that which he occupied on the west side, which 
took fire and was consumed before its completion. He then com- 
menced the erection of a more permanent building, whidi Judge 
Painter purchased, remodeled and prepared for his own residence. 
It was on ground now the front yard of Mrs. Wainwright's present 
dwelling, near the south line. To this house, in the fall of 1787, 
he removed his family from his farm in the south part of the town, 
and resided in it until the completion of his new house in 1802. 

At that time the whole region was covered with a thick and 
gloomy forest of hemlock and pine, except small spaces about the 
mills and small tenements, which had been erected. At the first 
Christmas after his settlement here, he invited the settlers to a Christ- 
mas dinner. Col. Sumner, who had just settled on his farm two 
miles north. Freeman Foot, who had built a house just north of the 
village, Stephen Goodrich and his sons on the Bass farm, the Foots 
and their workmen on the west side of the creek, and his own 
workmen, were the only near neighbors. But his invitations were 
probably extended further. Whatever the numbers may have been, 
the company, as is common in all new countries, probably had a 
merry time. Samuel Bartholomew,, who resided in Cornwall, was 
a man of some eccentricities, and given to rhyming, on extraordi- 
nary occasions. He had early planted an orchard of sweet apples, 
which became a common resort for the young folks to buy and eat 
apples, and he was therefore called the " Apple man." Among his 
eccentricities, he never wore shoes in the summer, except when he 
went to church, as he sometimes did in this village. On such occa- 
sions he carried his shoes in his hand until he arrived among the 
inhabitants, and then put them on and walked to the place of meet- 
ing. These incidents relate to a later period of his life. This 


entertainment bein^ a pvojx^r subject for bis muse, be composed tbe 
following doggerel verses on the occasion. 

'•This place, called Middlebury Falls 
Is like a city without walls. 
Surrounded 'tis by hemlock trees 
Which sliut out all its enemies. 
The powwow now on Christmas day. 
Which much resemblcil Indian play, 
I think will never be forgotten 
lill all the hemlock trees are rotten.*' 

This effiision, which never before had tlie honor to be put in typo 
was repeated to us by Mrs. Severance, before mentioned, who wo 
think, was one of the guests at the entertainment. 

"When Judge Painter became settled here, with bis ur^ual sagacity, 
he adopted his plans to make this a village and place of business of 
some importance. For this purpose he adopted a liberal plan for 
the disposition of his lands to settlers. His first deed of one acre, 
where the Addison House stands, was given to Simeon Dudley, on 
the 10th of September 1788 ; but no building was erected on it 
until Samuel Mattocks built his tavern house in 1794. 

In January 1789, Painter deeded to Benjamin Gorton of Hudson 
N. Y., a small piece of land, below and adjoining the bridge, being 
the land on which the brick store of Gen. Nash was recently burnt, 
and on which Mr. Cobb has recently erected a large building for 
his printing office, and including the land on which Mr. Wood's 
meat room stood. Gorton was uncle to Jabez Rogers, Jun., and al- 
though he never resided in Middlebury, was extensively connected 
with him, as a partner, in real estate and the various enterprises, 
in which Rogers was subseciuently engaged. On this lot Rogers 
soon erected a building and opened a store, which was understood to 
be the first store in the county. In 1796 he was succeeded by Sis- 
son, Dibble and Shcrrill ; and in 1800 Benjamin Seymour pur- 
chased the building and occupied a part of it, as a residence for his 
family, and a part for his hatter's shop. Here Mr. Seymour pros- 
ecuted for several years his business as a hatter, and afterwards ex- 
changed it for that of a merchant. A small piece of this lot was 
afterwards purcliased by Nathan Wood, who owned the mill, and 


the mill building waa extended over it, and at the same time John 
Seymour, son of Benjamin, built the brick store, afterwards owned 
by Gen. Nash. 

On the point of rock, which extended farther into the creek, Rog- 
ers erected a small separate building, which was occupied for sever- 
al years by Samuel Sargeant as a silver smith shop. This was re- 
moved during the enterprise for removing the obstructions to the 
free passage of the water over the falls.* Sargeant thereupon put up 
the brick building on the east side of the falls, on the point formed 
by the two roads around the park, and removed his shop there. 

In September 1789, Painter deeded to Samuel Miller Esq. a half 
acre lot, on which he afterwards lived, and in December following, 
the meadow east of it. Miller had that year, before receiving his 
deed, put up an office, to which he afterwards built a front ; and oc- 
cupied the whole as a dwelling house until the time of his death. 
The house was afterwards purchased .by Edward D. Barber, repair- 
ed and altef-ed and occupied by him and until recently belonged to 
his estate, and was occupied by Professor Bobbins, and has lately 
been purchased and is now occupied by Mr. Z. Beckwith. 

Samuel Miller was the first lawyer, who settled in Middlebury, 
and was among the most distinguished citizens, who have had a res- 
idence here. lie was born in Springfield, Mass., April 2, 1764. 

♦Large tracts of low Ian is or swamps on the borders of the creek above the fiills, 
were overflowed in the spring and other large freshets, and on account of the slug- 
gishness of the stream and the obstructions at the falls, the water remained so 
long on the lands as seriously to injure them. The rocks at the falls made a com- 
plete dam, and rendered an artificial one unnecessary. The channels for the water 
to the mills were cut through the rocks. The owners of the lands, in order to re- 
move the obstructions to the free passage of the water, in 1806 entered into a con- 
tract with the mill omers to lower their water courses. The legislature, at their 
session in 1804, had granted a tax on the lands to the amount of two thousand dol- 
lars to pay the expense. Much of the land was sold for the tax, and is still held 
under that title. This measure did not satisfy the land owners, and farther expense 
was incurred in reducing the channel at the head of the rapids ; and among other 
obstructions, which needed to be removed, was the rock on which Sergeant's shop 
stood. For this purpose it was exchanged, in 1822 for the ground on which he 
erected his new shop. This point was not included in Painter's deed for a common, 
but was reserved as a part of his mill yard, and by his will became the property of 
the corporation of Middlebury College, and by their agent deeded to Mr. Sargeant. 


He came into the State in 1785, and resided in Wallingford. He 
never had the advantages of a collegiate education ; but this deficien- 
cy was well supplied by superior talents and a thirst for knowledge, 
which he early manifested. Independent of all external aid, he set 
himself to work to build up a character and influence by his own 
native energies.* Before coming to Vermont he had made himself 
acquainted with some of the sciences, especially mathematics in its 
various branches. One object in devoting himself to this science 
probably was to qualify himself, as a thorough practical surveyor 
in this new country. In this department, he was to some extent 
employed after he came to this place. But he aimed at a position 
of higher influence. Soon aft«r he came into the State he entered 
upon the study of tlio law and was licensed in the County of Rut- 
land. Immediately after, he located himself in Middlebury, when 
the site of the village was almost a wilderness. 

Mr. Miller had a mind of unusual activity and vigor, and of very 
quick and discriminating perceptions. He immediately entered up- 
on an extensive practice, not only in this county, but in the western 
counties of the State^ north and south of it. \\ hile he lived, he and 
Daniel Chipman occupied a similar rank, and stood at the head of 
the profession, in the several counties where they practiced. In 
these counties they were engaged in all the important disputed causes, 
together or in opposition. In his addresses to the jury, Mr. Miller's 
enunciation was rather rapid, but his argument was systematic, clear 
and forcible. ^ 

Mr. Miller was disinclined to enter into public life, but was known 
and had an extensive influence through the State. He was elected 
a representative to the General Assembly in 1797, and was a prom- 
inent and influential member. He had then been in town only 
eight years, and previous to that time Judge Painter had been the 
only representative, except one year. A leading politician of the 
opposite party, proposed to him to become their candidate for gov- 
ernor, with the assurance, that, in that case, he would be elected. 
But he declined, and we are not aware that he ever held any other 
public office in the State. His manners were courteous and gentleman- 
ly, and he was rather insinuating in his addrefiB.He was everywhere 


recognized as a gentleman. While the prominent men of Middle- 
bury were urgently pressing, before the legislature and elswhere, 
the claims of their town, it was remarked by a politician of that 
day, that ^* the influence of Painter with his cunning, Chipman 
with his argument, and Miller with his courteous address, "if it 
were possible, would deceive the very elect." * 

Mr. Miller, like other prominent citizens, was devoted to the 
prosperity of the village, which he had adopted as his home, and 
liberally contributed to build up its institutions by his influence and 
money. He was especially aptive in procuring a charter for Mid- 
dlebury College, and in raising that institution to a state of pros- 
perity. Among other contributions he gave one thousand dollars to 
establish the first professorship. By the charter of that corporation, 
he was constituted one of its first members. He was no less devoted 
and active in sustaining the institutions of I'eligion here and else- 
where. He was liberal, especially in his support of the Congrega- 
tional Society in its weakness and trials. When the legislature 
removed the foundation on which that and similar societies were 
formed, and left the support of religion entirely to voluntary asso- 
ciation, he afibrdcd eflBcient aid in the organization and prosperity of 
the new society. In the year 1805, he united himself more closely 
to its interests, by becoming a member of the church. His co-ope- 
ration in all measures to promote thd prosperity of the church and 
society was efficient and influential. In his will he left a legacy of 
one thousand dollars, the income of^ which was to be appropriated 
annually for the support of the gospel in the society, and five hun- 
dred dollars to the Vermont Missionary Society. 

On the 7th of October 1790, the next year after he commenced 
the practice of law in this place, Mr. Miller was married to Rebec- 
ca Mattocks, daughter of Hon. Samuel Mattocks, then residing in 
Tinmouth, and for many years treasurer of the state, and sister of 
Samuel Mattocks Jun. a distinguished citizen of this town. She 
was worthy of him, and made his home the centre of his affections. 

Some years before his death, Mr. Miller was afllicted with a can- 
cerous sore, on one of his legs, which increased in \arulence from 
year to year. No remedies checked its progress. He consulted 


the most skilful surgeons, and among these, Dr. Nathan Smith then 
professor of Dartmouth College. He advised amputation as the only 
hope of avoiding a fatal termination, and he performed the painful 
operation. But it was inefficient as a remedy. The cancer broke 
out in another part of his body, and terminated his life on the 17th 
day of April 1810. His widow survived him many years, in her 
quiet and unostentatious acts of benevolence, and in leading others, 
by her influence and example, in every good work. 

Hon. John Mattocks of Peacham, late governor of Vermont, and 
Hon. William Mattocks of Danville, were also brothers of Mrs. 
Miller, and pursued their professional studies under the tuition of 
Mr. Miller. 

John Deming from Canaan Conn., purchased of Judge Painter 
ten acres, extending north from the south east comer of the Con- 
gregational church to the north line of the mill lot, and west from 
the same bounds to the west line of the late Hon. Horatio Seymour's 
garden, and the north end extending west in a narrow strip to the 
creek, thus forming an L. On this strip stands the house once oc- 
cupied by Ozias Seymour, south of the house in which he now re- 
sides. Deming at the same time purchased of Asa Fuller an addi- 
tional tract, north of the above, on the west side of the paper mill 
road. In order to bring together the several settlements on this 
early purchase of Mr. Deming, with as little confusion as possible, 
we shall be compelled to anticipate the dates of our history. 

Deming was a blacksmith, and erected a building designed for 
his shop on the ground now occupied by Mr. Seymour's house. 
This he divided into two rooms for the residence of his family, while 
he was building a larger house for their accommodation. While he 
was residing in this building, the town nominated him as a tavern 
keeper, the duties of which he undertook to discharge, as best ho 
could. One night his guests amounted to twenty-five, belonging to 
families moving into the country, and they all stopped for breakfiut 
Miss Althea Deming his daughter, from whom we received these de- 
tails, was bom in the same house. 

In 1790 Mr. Deming erected a large house on the ground now 

occupied by the Congregational church, the first two story house in 

246 msTouY OF aiij)i>lebuky. 

the village, and said, at the time, to be the largqst house in the 
County. In this he lived and continued his tavern until the fall of 
1794. In the meantime, in 1792 he sold to George Sloan, also 
a blacksmith, a small tract, on vfhich stood the small house built for 
a blacksmith shop. He subsequently resided in Salisbury about a 
dozen years, and afterwards in Middlebury until 1813, when he re- 
moved to Crown Point, where he (Jied in 1815, at the age of fifty- 
three. His widow and family then returned to Middlebury, and 
occupied the house, which he built durmg his last residence, on 
Seminary street, where his daughter Althea still resides. Here 
Mrs. Deming died in 1841 at the age of eighty-four. 

Samuel Foot in 1794 purchased and took possession of the prem- 
ises left by Mr. Deming, and continued to occupy them until 1803. 
In the meantime he added to his land on the west side of the paper 
mill road a small tract, extending north and including Mr. Sey- 
mour's farm house. "While in possession of the lands purchased of 
Deming, Foot sold, in 1797, to Dr. Joseph Clark, a small building 
lot next north of the houses now owned by Dr. Allen, where Clark 
built the two story house, in which he opened and kept a tavern, 
which has since been owned successively by Dr. William G. Hooker, 
Charles Bowen and others and is now owned by Mr. Bellows of 
Walpole. In 1799, he sold to William Coon the lot on which John 
Jackson now resides, occupying a part of the house for his residence 
and a part for his hat store. The south half of the house had been 
previously built and used for a school house. The north part was 
built by Hiram Seymour, a hatter from Canada, who resided here 
during the last British war. Foot had previously sold to JcHiathan 
I Nichols Jun. the lot next north of the last mentioned. On this lot 
j Nichols moved a blacksmith shop and fitted it up for the residence 
of his father, Jonathan Nichols senior, who, after a short residence, 
resided with his son-in-law Billy Manning until his death in 1814, 
at the age of eighty-seven. Edward Eells, a goldsmith, afterwards 
owned this lot, resided on it several years and built the present two 
story house now occupied by Mr. Parker Cleveland. The old black- 
smith shop, in the meantime, was removed to the south side of the 
lot, and is still occupied as a residence. 


The land which Foot owned on the west side of the paper mill 
road he sold in 1802 to Hon. Horatio Seymour, and the premises 
connected with his tavern stand in 1803, to Landon Case from Ad- 
dison. He then removed to Crown Point, in company with his 
brother-in-law Lewis McDonald. While Mr. Foot remained in town 
he kept a public house, but was principally employed in the duties 
of deputy sheriff. 

Olcutt White in 1807 purchased of Loudon Case a lot north of 
the church on the New Haven road, on which had been previously 
built the south half of the building now standing there, and after- 
wards White built the north half. Li this building ho carried on 
the business of book binding, and had a small book store. It is 
now owned by Dr. Charles L. Allen, and the apartments are rented 
to various persons. 

Mr. Seymour afterwards became the owner of all the lands on 
the west side of the paper mill road, and from him was derived the 
title to the numerous lots now occupied there for residences. The 
following are a few of the earlier lots disposed of by him. In 1803 
he appropriated for a female seminary the lot, on which his son, 
Ozias Seymour Esq. lives. The two story building standing on it 
was that year built and for several years used for a female school, 
but is now fitted up for a resiSence. This lot Mr. Seymour deeded 
in 1806 to the corporation of Addison County Grammar School, for 
the use of a female seminary. In 1803 Benjamin Seymour pur- 
chased the lot on which he built the small brick house now owned 
by Gen. Nash. To this he removed his family, and resided in it 
until his death, but continued his business at the old stand below 
the bridge. In 1808 Martin Post Esq. an attorney settled in Corn- 
wall, who had then been appointed clerk of the county court, pur- 
chased the lot next north of the Female Seminary. Mr. Post built 
here the small house, which forms the kitchen of Dr. Moody's house. 
He died in 1811, at the age of thirty-two. He left a widow and 
several small children, two of whom mxj living and are Rev. Martin 
M. Post, a clergyman of standing in Indiana and Rev. Truman M. 
Post, D. D., of St. Louis Missouri. 




Darius Matthews settled in Middlebury in 1789 as a physician, 
and the year following purchased of Judge Fainter the lot next 
north of Samuel Miller's, and the same year built a small house, 
which constitutes the kitchen of Mrs. Merrill's residence. In No- 
vember of the same year, he was married to Abigail Porter, daugh- 
ter of Judge Porter of Tinmouth, and sister of the late Bev. Ebe- 
nezer Porter, D. D., professor and president of Andover Theolog- 
ical Seminary. He resided in this place until 1797, when he pur- 
chased of Col. Seth Storrs, an acre of land, on which he built the 
house afterwards occupied by Ethan Andrus, Esq. The lot is now 
owned by Jason Davenport, and is the site of his new dwelling 

Hon. Darius Matthews was the second physician who settled in 
Middlebury, and among the most respectable of the early settlers- 
He was bom in Cheshure, Conn., December 17, 1766. At the age 
of thirteen he removed to Tinmouth, in Rutland County, and having 
a fondness for study and perseverance in the pursuit of learning, he 
had obtained a sufficient education to engage in the responsible du- 
ties of school teaching at the age of fourteen^ By the same persever- 
ing disposition and efforts, he made himself sufficiently acquainted 
with the science of medicine, under the tuition of Dr. Marvin of 
Tinmouth, to be licensed to practice at the age of twenty-one. At 
that at age he commenced the practice of his profession in Salisbury, 


but removed to Middlebury in 1789. In 1798, he was appointetl 
clerk of the Supreme Court, in 1801 judge of probate for the Dis- 
trict of Addison, which then embraced the whole County, and in 
1803, clerk of the County Court. From this time he relinquished 
the practice of his profession, and devoted his attention to the &ith- 
ful and very satisfactory discharge of the duties of his several offi- 
ces. He continued in the offices of Judge of Probate and clerk of the 
Supreme Court until his death, and in the office of clerk the County 
Court until 1808. In that year he exchanged his house and lot in 
Middlebury for the farm of Ethan Andrus, Esq., in Cornwall, now 
occupied by his son, Rev. Lyman Matthews. He was elected a 
representative ol Cornwall in the legislature from 1811 to 1817 
inclusive. By the charter of Middlebury College, he was made one 
of the original members of that corporation, and continued a judi- 
cious and useful member and friend and helper of that institution 
until the close of his life. He was a member the Raligious Con- 
gregational Church and Society in Middlebury as well as in Corn- 
wall, and everywhere a firm advocate and supporter of religious and 
literary institutions. He was somewhat reserved in his conversation 
and manners, and possessed an uncommonly cool and deliberate 
judgment, and a conservative disposition. By these traits he exert- 
ed, in all his relations, an extensive and salutary influence. He 
died Oct. 8, 1819, at the age of fifty- three years. 

Curtis and Campbell purchased the house first built by Dr. Mat- 
thews and built the two story front. The south end was used for 
their store, and the remainder was occupied by Campbell for a res- 
idence. Their business was continued until the spring of 1801, 
when their partnership was dissolved. Daniel Campbell then took 
into partnership his brother William Campbell, and the business 
was continued in their name for several years ; and in 1804 they 
purchased the lot of Judge Painter where his grist miller's house 
stood and built the* brick store now standing in the rear of the pres- 
ent Stewart store, and now occupied by Chapman and Barbour. In 
180T Dr. Merrill purchased Campbell's house and resided in it un- 
til his death in 1855, and it is now occupied by his widow. 

Campbell's brick store was purchased by David Page, Jun. and 


Luke Wheelock, under the firm of Page and WLeeloqk , and by 
them in 1812 sold to Noble and Ira Stewart. Page and Wheelock 
were from JaSrey New Hampshire, and in this building, they car- 
ried on extensively the mercantile business for several years. While 
thus engaged, Mr. Wheelock visited Montreal, on business, and took 
the small pox, and on his return was seized with that disease and 
died on the 9th of April, 1810. This establishment was succeeded, 
under different names and by difierent persons, who had been in 
some way connected with the above. Joseph Hough and Nathan 
Wood, who had been clerks to Mr. Page, prosecuted the business 
for some time, and the late Jonathan Wheelock, brother of Luke 
Wheelock, was also for a time connected in the concern. All these 
have since been engaged in other business. Mr. Wood only has 
continued permanently in the mercantile business, and occupied the 
store in front of the mill until it was burnt 

Dr. John Willard was the first physician who setUed in Middle- 
bury, lie came to this place about the year 1787. When he com- 
menced practice the town was almost wholly a wilderness, and the 
roads, which had been opened, were nearly impassable, especially in 
muddy seasons. But he continued an extensive practice until he 
was called to the discharge of other duties. He resided first in a 
house built by Freeman Foot, on the south side of his farm, after- 
wards owned by Daniel Chipman. In 1791 he purchased of Judge 
Painter a small lot, next north of the tavern lot sold to Simeon 
Dudley, and built a house just back of the present bank building. 
Here he lived until 1797, when he sold it to Samuel Mattocks, and 
purchased of Stillman Foot the lot on which the late Judge Phelps 
resided. There was on it, at the time, a small house built by John 
Foot, and occupied by him as a dwelling house. Here Dr. Willard 
resided until, some years after, he built the brick house on the Corn- 
wall road, which constituted the late elegant homestead of Charles 
Linsley, Esq. In 1801, under the administration of Mr. Jefferson, 
he was appointed marshal of the District of Vermont. In this of- 
fice he continued until 18 10. After this appointment he relinquished 
principally the practice of his profession. But, in the meantime, 
he became distinguished as a politician. He was for several years 

PAJNTEH 5yA:/.Ei: 

£ya»£TJ:.-hlf SAFTAIN.-nm. * 

!'!j :-- .!j !■'! 'lil '^N| ■^w |l.|l.^\'f;i||i'. 



at the head of the organization of the Republican party, as chair- 
man of its centi*al committee. No man at that time probably had 
as much influence in controlling the measures of the party as he. 
On the establishment of the Vermont State Bank in 1806, he was 
appointed one of the directors and continued in that office, until the 
Branch at Middlebury was closed. In 18!^, Dr. "Willard was ap- 
pointed and officiated a3 Sheriff of the County. 

Dr. Willard was born in 1759 at the town, then known as East 
Guilford, now Madison, Conn. His father, Capt. John Willard, 
a ship master, died when he was a child, and he was left in the care 
of his mother, and aided in carrying on her small farm. Not liking 
the drudgery of a farmer's boy, he went to sea. Toward the close 
of the revolutionary war he was taken by the British, on board an 
American privateer, and confined in, and subjected to the horrors of, 
the Jersey prison ship, lying at Walabout Bay. After he was re- 
leased and had regained the health and strength, which he had lost 
in prison, he received the appointment of quartermaster in a Con- 
necticut regimont of volunteers. At the close of the war, ho en- 
tered upon the study of medicine under the tuition of Dr. Jonathan 
To<ld, the principal physician in his native place. He had before 
had the limited advantages for education, of only a few months each 
year, at a district school in his childhood. But he was fond of study 
and made the most of the advantages he enjoyed. As an introduc- 
tion to his medical studies, he pursued, to a limited extent, classical 
studies with the pastor of the parish. After completing his medi- 
cal studies, he settled in the practice as before stated. In August 
1809 he was married to Miss Emma Hart, then principal of the 
Female Seminary here, and who has since beccone distinguished in 
that department. After she opened her school at their residence, 
he co-operated with her in building it up and sustaining it. Hav- 
ing greater encouragement from friends in the State of New York, 
they removed their residence and school to WateVford in 1819, and 
two years afterwards to Troy. Dr. Willard's death took place 
May 25, 1825, at the age of sixty-six years. 

In 1791, Elias Wilder a hatter, purchased of Judge Painter the 
lot next west of the land purchased by Deming, on which the 


Brewster brick building stands. Here he built a house and shop, 
and continued his business about two years. 

In the same year, Jabez Rogers, Jun., purchased a lot west of 
the Wilder lot, extending west on the common to the west line of 
the rail-road, north to the northern strip of land purchased by Dom- 
ing, and just north of f he old house last occupied by Rogers, and 
west to the creek, embracing the land and rocks around and below 
the eddy. He also purchased the Wilder lot. On these lots he 
built the old house above mentioned, and in 1800, for the purpose 
of accommodating boarders attending the legislature that year, he 
erected the two story houso, which was removed to make room for 
the rail road, next west of Brewster's block. He, at a later day, built 
the large brick house, north of Mr. Seymour's, now owned by Dr. 
William P. Russel. At an early day he established on the bor- 
ders of the eddy, a brewery, distillery and potash, which he con- 
ducted for several years, in company with his brother-in-law, Lcb- 
beus Harris, father of the present Dr. Nathaniel Harris, a surgeon 
dentist. The elder Mr. Harris died in 1814, aged fifty years, and 
Mr. Rogers in 1816, at the age of seventy-five. 

In the year 1793, the lot on which the brick house stands, now 
occupied by l^athan Wood, and extending to the creek, was pur- 
chased by Anthony Rhodes, who that year settled in Middlebury as 
a merchant. The year following, he purchased a small piece lying 
between the above and the south line of the common, and built on 
these lots a dwelling house, out houses and a potash. His house 
was near where the oflSce of Mr. Starr stands. This ho occupied 
until the fall of 1796. He then purchased about three acres on the 
corner made by the Cornwall and Wcybridge roads. This lot was 
a part of the premises of Appleton Foot, and had been purchased 
the year before by Nehemiah Lawrence, who had put up on the 
land and partly finished the house now owned by Professor Twining. 
Rhodes finished the north part of the house for a residence, and the 
south part for a store, where he continued his business for a time, 
and in 1798 built a store on the lot where the Episcopal rectory 
stands, and removed his business there. In 1801 Rhodes sold his 
house to Ep. Jonesj closed his business and left the State. He was 


the fadier of Holden Rhodes, vrbo was educated at Middleburj 
College, and became a lawyer of standing in Virginia, and of Mrs. 
Cbipman wife of Hon. George Chipman, now of the city of Wash- 

The lot, which Rhodes purchased of Lawrence, extended north 
and included the two house lots of Amon Wilcox, and the house lot 
of Dr. Z. Bass. The southern of these lots was sold by Rhodes to 
William Baker, for many years the principal mason in the village, 
in 1801, who built the present house, the others to Ruluff and Ben- 
jamin Lawrence. Benjamin Lawrence built the two houses now 
occupied by Mr. Wilcox and Dr. Bass. Mr. Wilcox settled in Mid- 
dlebury at an early day, and has been a successful manufacturer 
and dealer in tin and copper ware, and dealer in stoves and corres- 
ponding articles. 

Mr. Ep. Jones occupied the house, purchased of Rhodes, for a ten- 
ement and store for several years, and moved to Lake Dunmore, 
where he established his large glass factory, and when that exploded, 
went to the west and established himself at New Albany, Indiana. 

Ep. Miller in 1796 purchased the premises left by Anthony 
Rhodes, on the east side of the creek, occupied the house built by 
him, and established a tannery on the bank of the creek, which he 
carried on for many years. He afterwards built on the premises 
the large brick house occupied by Mr. Wood, a large three sto- 
ry building, which was removed to make room for the rail road 
and the house under the hill lately owned by Dr. Brockway, now 
by Mrs. Adalin Lagro. He afterwards purchased the farm and 
beautiful site where Mr. Chipman's house was burnt, and erected 
the brick house now owned by Mr. S. B. Rockwell. Here he re- 
sided until his death in 1850, in his eightieth year. 

Lewis and Joseph McDonald, from Litchfield, Conn., came to 
Middlebury in 1793, and purchased the small lot, which John Dom- 
ing had sold to George Sloan, and on the land now constituting Mr. 
Seymour's garden, erected a gambrel rgof building, which they 
used for their store, while Lewis McDonald occupied the old house 
for his residence. Here they prosecuted a successful mercantile 

business until 1801, when they closed their business and divided 


their property. In the meantime, they had purchased several pieces 
of land, on the north side of the road running west from the 
college, extending from the top of the hill westward and forming a 
valuable farm. In the division of their property Joseph took this 
fium, went into possession of the house, which had been before built 
by Winant Williamson, on land purchased of him, and which is now 
occupied by Abraham L Williamson. Here he prosecuted the 
business of farming until 1828, when he returned to the village, 
purchased the house and lot on Weybridge street, now owned by 
Orin Abbey, and resided there until the time of his death in 1854 
at the age of 84 years. About the year 1818, Lewis McDonald 
returned to the village purchased the lot and house now owned by 
Richard Southwell, on the Cornwall street, and resided there until 
his dop-th in 1839 at the age of 72 years. 

Mr. Seymour purchased the lot, which had been, the place of busi- 
ness of Lewis and Joseph McDonald, and occupied the house for 
the residence of his family. In 1816 and 1817. he replaced it by 
the present large brick house, in which he afterwards resided until 
his death. The old house at the time was removed to the lot next 
south of the old Female Seminary building, and was for many years 
the residence of Ozias Seymour, Esq. 

Hon. Horatio Seymour, LL. D., was born at Litchfield, Conn., 
May 31, 1778. He was the son of Major Moses Seymour and 
Mrs. Mary [Marsh] Seymour. His father was a respectable citizen 
of that place, was in the war of the Revolution, represented the 
town in the State Legislature, much of the time from 1795 to 1812, 
and was town clerk for nearly forty years. The subject of this no- 
tice pursued his studies preparatory to entering college, at New 
Milford, under the tuition of his brother-in-law. Rev. Truman Marsh, 
then located in that place. He was graduated at Yale College in 
1797. The following year he spent as an assistant teacher in the 
Acaden\y at Cheshire, Conn.; the second he s|)ent in the study of 
law, at Judge Reeve's Iftw school in Litchfield. In October 1799 
he came to Middlebury, and continued his professional studies in the 
office of Hon. Daniel Chipman. In the spring of 1800, he was 
licensed to practice law,and, in competition with several distinguished 

' If J :^ ^- * ' ^'y 

^ /.- ^^ * . .■ f *-Y-^< .» 

/ ,;-. i.-i'i/'i'^AJ^iT' 


*nd older lawyers, such as Daniel Chipman, Samuel Miller and 
others, entered immediately into an extensive practice, and rose rap- 
idly in general estimation, as a man and as a lawyer. He did not 
seek to extend his practice to other counties, but in the County of 
Addison, no other lawyer, we believe, ever had so extensive a busi- 
ness^ or was engaged, at the same time, in so many causes in the 
diflferent courts. While building his large and very expensive brick 
house, in 1816 and 1817, he expressed to the writer of this notice, 
his regret to lay out so great an expenditure on a house, but stated, 
as some alleviation, that his income during those two years was suf- 
ficient to meet the expense. Notwithstanding his talents, which 
were of a superior order, and his thorough knowledge of the law, 
he was probably no little indebted for his success, to his great pop- 
ularity as a man. His career as a lawyer was uninterrupted until 
the spring of 1821. 

In the meantime, in December 1800, the same year in which he 
was admitted to the bar, Mr. Seymour was appointed postmaster, 
and continued in the oflSce for nine years, but, for much of the time, 
on account of the pressure of his professional business, he commit- 
ted the personal superintendence, with its income, to other hands. 
When the Vermont State Bank was established at the session of the 
legislature in 180G^ he was chosen one of its first directors, and 
continued in that office until the branch' at Middlebury was closed. 
In 1809, he was elected by the people a member of the Executive 
Council, and was annually re-elected for the five following years. 
In October 1820, he was elected, by the legislature, to the Senate 
of the United States, the duties of the ofiSce to commence on the 
4th of March, 1821. At the close of his first term he was re-elected 
for a second. This of course was an interruption to his professional 
pursuits. At the close of his second term in 1838, he returned to 
the practice of law. This he continued imtil a few years since, 
when his infirmities forced him to retire from it. 

The corporation of Yale College, at the commencement in 1847, 
the fiftieth anniversary of his graduation, conferred on him the 
honorary degree of LL. D. 

Mr. Seymour was constitutionally diflEident and distrustful of him- 

2j6 history op middlhburt. 

self. So far from seeking for office, we think he never accepted gm 
but with reluctance and through the solicitation of his friends. 
Many years ago he stated to the writer the following incident At 
the time of his graduation, the faculty of the college assigned him 
an oration .is a part of the public exercises. His diffidence forbade 
his undertaking such an exhibition before such an audiance, and he 
went to Dr. Dwight the president, of whom he al^'ays spoke with 
high respect, and requested to be excused. The president urged 
him with various encouragements and arguments to perform his part. 
But all in vain. Mr. Seymour told him it would be impossible ; 
that he could not go through with it ; ?ind that, if he could not bo 
excused, he must take a dismission from college. At length the 
Doctor consented to excuse him. This trait undoubtedly influenced 
him in the discharge of his senatorial duties. He did not feel 
called, by a sense of duty, among so many distinguished senators, 
so ready to speak, to make a display, which his distrust of himself 
forbade. He was greatly respected for his sound but modest opinions, 
and his influence, though silent and unobtrusive, was generally rec- 
ognized in the senate. His intimate friends and associates were 
among the most distinguished men connected with the government, 
such as Adams, King, Clay, Webster and Marcy. But he did not 
often make any formal address in the Senate. It was otherwise 
when he acted in the capacity ot an advocate. The rights and inter- 
ests of his clients had been intrusted to him, and he had engaged 
for their defence, and no personal feelings could justify his neglect. . 
In his addresses to the court or jury, he made no attempts at display, 
but, in his quiet and modest way, poured forth a powerful and com- 
prehensive argument, which his opposing counsel found it difficult 
to meet, and introduced points in the case, which had not occurred 
to them. He had great ingenuity and tact in the management of 
his causes. 

As a politician, Mr. Seymour was a friend and supporter of the 
administration of Mr. Jefierson and Mr. Madison. When party 
lines were disturbed at the close of the war, and at the end of Mr. 
Monroe's administration, several candidates were presented, reck- 
oned as belonging to the same party, he advocated the election of 


Mr. Adams, and adhered to what was known as his party, and was 
always a decided whig. But, in whatever party he was classed, he 
scrupulously adhered to the principles he had adopted, whatever 
tempting advances were made to him to deviate from them. Ho 
would never be led into a measure which he thought wrong, at the 
bidding of his party. In the discharge of all his official duties, he 
exhibited unusual impartiality, and he has been known to oppose the 
general wishes of his party, when they did not accord with his own 
views of right. 

Mr. Seymour was humble and unassuming, in all his positions 
and intercourse among men. He mode no claims to distinction on 
account of his own standing. In his intercourse with all ranks of 
men, he made all honest men his equals, and treated them as such. 
He had great ingenuity and wisdom in accomplishing his purposes, 
and when circumstances required, he could keep ** his own council ;" 
but he had a scrupulous regard to the rights of all, with whom he 
dealt ; and had no forbearance for dishonesty or intrigue. By the 
interest he expressed in the affairs of all, who needed his sympathy 
or aid, and by his very courteous and kindly treatment of all, with 
whom he came in contact, in every form of association, he secured 
not only the respect and confidence, but the. personal friendship of 
all. No man had fewer, if he had any, enemies, or more attached 
personal friends. 

Mr. Seymour was a patron of all our literary institutions, and for 
many years was a member of the corporations of Middlebury College, 
and Addison County Grammar School. He was elected a member of 
the former m 1810. He unit^ with the Episcopal Society at its 
first organization, was for many years senior warden of the parish, 
and had been a communicant in the church also for many years. 

In the spring of 1800, Mr. Seymour was married to Miss Lucy 
Case, a daughter of Jonah Case of Addison, and sister of Loyal 
Case, Esq., an Attorney of Middlebury. She died in October 
1838. Since her death he has remained unmarried. 

For some time previous to his death, Mr. Seymour had been 
slowly and rather prematurely declining with the infirmities of 
advancing age, and died at his residence, at six o'clock Saturday 

258 mSTORY OF middluburt. 

evening, November 21, 1857, in the eighteith year of Lis age. Efe 
left to mourn bis decease, tbree sons, Ozias Seymour Esq., an Atr 
tomey of tbis village, Moses Seymour, Esq., of Geneva, Wisconsin, 
and Horatio Seymour, Esq , an attorney of Buffiilo, N. Y., and 
tbeir children and tbo children of a deceased daughter, Mrs. Emma 
H. Battell, who bad constituted a part of his family. His sister 
Mrs. Clarissa Marsh, widow of the late Rev. Truman Marsh, the 
oldest member of his father's family, survived at his death at the 
age of eighty-five years, in Litchfield Conn. The late Moses Sey- 
mour And Ozias Seymour of Litchfield, Henry Seymour of Utica, 
N. Y. and Epaphro Seymour of Brattleboro Vt., were brothers of 
Mr. Seymour. 

Samuel Mattocks, Jun., in 1794, erected on the Dudley lot a 
large house, with necessary out houses, 'and opened a tavern, which 
he continued until 1804. Samuel Mattocks senior, on the same lot 
and north of the tavern, erected a two story house called the " green 
house," in which he resided until his death in 1804, in the sixty- 
fifth year of his age. He also built on the Willard lot next north, 
and in front of the house built by Dr. Willard, a double store, the 
upper story being made into a large hall, used by the masonic lodge. 

In 1804 Nathan Rosseter from Williamstown, Mass., purchased 
the Mattocks' tavern house and continued the tavern. Mattocks 
then removed his family to the ** green house," and commenced and 
continued for several years the mercantile business in the building 
built by his father on the Willard lot The tavern was owned and 
kept successively by Nathan B^seter, Loudon Case and Artemas 
Nixon until 1812, when the latter leased it to Harvey Bell, who 
continued it until his death in 1814, at the age of fifty-nine years. 

In 1816, the tavern house, green house, store, Willard house and 
all the out houses connected with them were consumed by fibre. 
After this fire a tavern was opened in the brick house built by Ep. 
Miller, and was kept by Samuel Mattocks, until the brick building 
was erected on the old tavern stand by Nathan Wood in 18^6. This 
was opened as a public house in the spring of 1827, and was known 
as the Vermont Hotel. Different tenants occupied this until 1852. 
At the previous session, the legislature incorporated the '^ Middle- 

niST^iUY OF ilDDLEBURT. 259 

bury Hotel Company ;" who proceeded to make extensive repairs 
and alterations. It is now known as the '^ Addison House." It 
has been kept successively by George R. Orcutt and Edward Muz- 
zey, and it is now under the superintendence of Richard Adams, 
and George Adams, under the firm of Adams Brothers. 

Samuel Mattocks, who built the first hotel on this ground, besides 
the business mentioned, was sheriff of the county in 1813 and 1814, 
and was an efficient and useful citizen. He died in 1823 at the 
age of fifty-eight 

In 1817, after the destruction of the hotel and other buildings on 
these grounds, Thomas Hagar who had retreated from Canada at 
the commencement of the war, purchased the Willard lot and 
erected the brick building, now owned by the bank, which he de- 
signed and for some time used, as a store. In 1825, the whole of 
these grounds became the property of Rufus and Janathan Wain- 
wright. The tavern lot they sold to Nathan Wood, and on the Wil- 
lard lot they erected the large brick house, now the residence of 
Joseph Warner, Esq. It was designed for the residence of Jona- 
than Wainwright, and by him occupied with his family until his death. 

In the year 1790, William Young, a cabinet maker, came to the 
village and purchased of Judge Painter the lot next north of the 
lot purchased by Dr. Matthews. He erected for his dwelling the 
small house standing between the houses of Mrs. Simmons and Mrs. 
Merrill. He also built a shop, in which he prosecuted his trade 
until 1795* About this time Col. Nathaniel Ripley, from Wind-» 
* ham, Conn., a carpenter, moved into the village, and in 1794 pur- 
chased the lot next north ot Young's, which Young the next year 
purchased and added to his own. 

In 1792, Festus Hill a carpenter purchased of Judge Painter 
the comer lot now owned by Hon. Peter Starr. On this lot he built 
the one story house, occupied successively by Dr. Hastings and Mr. 
Starr, until the latter removed it to the lot east of it and built his 
present house. 

Dr. Joseph Clark settled in the village, as a physician, in 1793, 
and purchased of Judge Painter the lot on the comer formed by 
the New Haven road and Seminary street Here he built a small 


house, in which he resided until 1796. He then removed to the 
house he built on the lot purchased of Samuel Foot In 1801, he 
left the State and his family together. 

Ruluff Lawrence, from Canaanj Conn , in 1796, purchased the 
lot, where Dr. Clark first settled, and established the blacksmith 
business^ He was joined in a few months by his brother, Benjamiil 
Lawrence, ahd they continued their business with great success un- 
til the year 1804, when they closed it and divided their property, 
in their division, Ruluff took the lot above mentioned and built on 
it the present two story house. He afterwards purchased of Daniel 
Chipman the land on the north side of Seminary street, then a part 
of the farm formerly owned by Freeman Foot, on which stands thd 
house occupied by Judge Tilden and that next east of it for many 
years owned by Miss Jerusha Frisbie, and now by James M. Slade 
Esq. The latter he built and occupied for a time, and afterwards 
built the other, in which he also resided for several years. He af- 
terwards removed to the house now owned by Dr. Sidney Moody, 
the front part of which he also built. Benjamin Lawrence, in the 
divii^ion, tx)k the lot, on Weybridge street, purchased of Anthony 
Rhodes, and successively built and occupied the houses, which aro 
the residences of Amon Wilcox and Dr. Z. Bass. They afterwards 
resumed the business of blacksmithing separately, and both are now 
living at a very advanced age.* 

Noble Stewart and Lu Stewart, who had been in the mercantile 
business in New Haven, having purchased of Ruluff Lawrence the 
house on the comer lot, and the store built by D. and W. Campbell,' 
removed their business to this village, and prosecuted it in that store. 

Their father, mother and sister, resided with them, constituting 
one family. For the purpose of bringing their business nearer the 
the travelled way, they erected the brick store in front of the former 
one. Li the midst of a prosperous and active business. Noble Stew- 
art, one of the partners, was seized with a violent fever, which ter- 
minated his life in 1814, at the age of thirty-seven. 

Jm, Stewart, the surviving brother, continued the business as be- 
fore for many years. John Stewart, the father, who had been a sol- 
♦Benjamin Lawrence has tince, April 4, 1859, died, at the age of 86 years. 

UISTOKY oil illDDLEBUFwV. 261 

(iier in the French and Revolutionary wars, diea in 1829, in hia 
eighty-fourth year, and Mrs. Huldah Stewart, the mother, in 1847, 
at the age of 95 years. Hon. Ira Stewart, the surviving brother, 
died in February 1855, at the age of seventy-five years, leaving his 
aged sister, and his two sons, Dugald Stewart, County Clerk, and 
John W. fcftcwartj in the practice of law, the inheritors of his name 
and estate. Miss Cynthia Stewart has since diedj in March, 1857, 
at the age of eighty-four. To Ira Stewart were committed various 
responsible trusts in town, and twice he was elected to represent the 
county of the State Senate. 

In 1819, he was elected a member of the corporation of Middlebury 
College, and continued in that position until his death ; and he was 
appointcil by that body to superintend the erection of the stone chapel 
of that institution, wbidi service he executed with his usual sound 
judgment. He was ever an active and devoted patron, friend and 
supporter of the college and other educational .institutions in the vil- 
lage. As a man of conservative disposition and sound practical 
judgment, he was always consulted, and aided in all plans for the 
advancement of any public interests. He had been, for many years 
an active and efficient member of the Congregational Church and 
Society, and an exemplary CTiristian ; and in his last sickness and 
death exhibited strikingly the consolations and triumphs of religion. 

John Simmons Esq. purchased the two lots, next north of the 
Matthews lot, originally purchased and occupied by William Young, 
and erected the two story dwelling house, and resided in it until his 
death, and it is still occupied by his widow and family. Mr. Sim- 
mons was from Ashford Conn., was educated at the college in Provi- 
dence, Rhode Island, and licensed to practice law at the March term 
of the county court for this county in 1801 ; and at the same time 
established himself in his profession in this village. He was very 
successful in his practice, and very respectable and useful as a citi- 
zen. He was unassuming and rather diffident; and did not appear 
much as an advocate before the courts, but had an extensive practice 
as attorney, counsellor and conveyancer. Mr. Simmons compiled 
the first book of legal forms, ever published in the State, — "The 
Law Magazine '' — which was published by HuQtington and Fitch 


in this place in 1994. No man possessed more fully the confidence 
of the community as an honest, judicious and correct business man. 
He was many years appointed select man, and to many other im- 
portant trusts in town. He held the oflSce of treasurer of Middle- 
bury College from 1810 to the time of his death, and was ever for- 
ward as a patron and supporter of the College and the other educa- 
tional institutions. He was also a regular supporter of religious 
institutions in the Congregational Society, and in 1816 he became 
a member of the church, and adorned his profession by an exempla-^ 
ry life. He died in 1829 at the age of fifty-three years. 

In May 1791, while the courts were sitting in Addison, and lit^ 
tie progress had been made in making a village in this place, Judge 
Painter, in anticipation of his purpose of making this the county 
seat, deeded to the county a small tract of land, and in 1794 anoth- 
er piece. We refer to the account of Addison County, for ia more 
particular statement of the proceedings relating to the county prop- 
erty and buildings. In the disposition of his lands, on the east side 
of the cre^k, he accommodated all the building lots, so as to reserve 
for the public what now constitutes the common, and was known by 
that name, although not deeded by him until 1799. 

At the time Judge Painter deeded to Benjamin Gorton in 1789, 
the small piece adjoining the bridge, ho also deeded to him another 
piece twelve rods square, about five rods above the bridge, on the 
bank of the creek, dcsigneil for a potash. The title of this lot, with 
another small piece passed in 1798 to Samuel Clark Jun., Joseph 
Plumb and Jonathan Lawrence, under the firm of Clark, Lawrence 
& Co., who added another small piece. On this lot they erected 
the old building, which stood where James M. Slade & Co.'s store 
stands. In this they opened a store, and with it connected the man- 
ufacture of potash, and continued their business until 1802, when, 
being unsuccessful, they closed the concern. This building remained 
until after the railroad was completed, used by different persons and 
» for different purposes. It was then removed and a building erected 
by E. D. Barber and Lyman P. White, into which Slade & Co. re- 
moved their mercantile business. The upper story was occupied by 
Barber k Bushnell and Linsley & Beckwith, as lawyers' ofiices. 


On the 22d of February 1852, this building was burnt with near- 
ly all its contents, including the libraries and offices, the whole of 
the records and papers belonging to the Congregational Society, and 
the whole of the records and files of the probate court from the com- 
raencement. Soon after, Slade & Co. rebuilt the store, which is 
now occupied by them, having in the upper story a large hall, for 
lectures, concerts and other exhibitions. 

In 1705, William Young removed to the lot now owned by Alan- 
pon Dustin, having previously purchased it of Freeman Foot. On 
this he built the present dwelling house, and continued his business 
as a cabinet maker. In the meantime, he received into partner- 
ship his son-in-law, Gen. Hastings Warren, who had served his ap- 
prenticeship under him. In 1805 the partnership was dissolved, 
and Gen. Wan-en purchased thp house, and continued the business ; 
and Mr. Young removed to a farm in Leicester. He was among 
the most respectable citizens, a prominent member of the Methodist 
Society, and one of its founders. Gen. Warren had purchased of 
Daniel Chipman a lot of land on the corner, now occupied by the 
Methodist chapel. On this lot he erected his shop, which was burnt, 
and soon after its successor was subjected to a similar destruction, with 
much of their contents. Afterwards he erected for a shop the brick 
building now occupied by James M. Slade, Esq., as a dwelling house. 
He also purchased afterwards of Mr. Chipman the lot next north of 
the above, and erected a dwelling house on the ground, where the cel- 
lar remains. This house was also burnt in the winter of 1833-4. 
Gen. Warren had been successful in his business and had accumu- 
lated a handsome estate. In the meantime he directed his attention 
to his farm and an extensive trafic between the north and the State 
of Georgia, in which he met with occasional losses. These, with 
his accumulated losses by fire, embarrassed him in the latter years 
of his life. Having lost his wife and his family having scattered, 
he spent the decline of his life with his son-in-law^ William Y. 
Ripley, in Rutland, and died there. 

Hon. Daniel Chipman removed to Middlebury in 1794, and set- 
tled in the practice of law. IJe selected for his future residence a 
site on the southern point of the hill which bears his name, now 


owned and occupied by S. B. Rockwell Esq. It is generally es- 
teemed the most elegant location in the village. Here he purchased 
of Freeman Foot five acres, which before constituted a part of Foot's 
farm. He was then unmarried. After his marriage, he purchased 
the lot next north of William Young's lot, which Freeman Foot had 
before sold, and on which he had built a small house. The house 
Mr. Chipman fitted up for a residence, and it has since been owned 
and occupied successively by Mrs. Latimer, Calvin C. Waller and 
Edward D. Barber, and is now owned by Miss Lucy Merritt. In 
1802 and 1803 ho erected on the lot first selected for his residence 
his large house, in our estimation the most elegant building ever 
ereted in Middlebury . It was designed and partly built by Samuel 
D. Coe, an architect of fine taste, who died before its completion. 
While Mr. Chipman was attending the Legislature in the fall of 
1818, this elegant mansion was wholly consumed by fire. He then 
removed his family into the three story building on the opposite side 
of the road, which he had previously erected for a law school. 

Hon. Daniel Chipman, LL. D., was born in Salisbury, Conn., 
October 22, 1765. He was one of six sons of Samuel Chipman, 
then residing in that place. In 1775, the father removed with his 
sons to Tinmouth in Rutland County. Daniel there labored on his 
farm until November 1783, when he commenced his preparatory 
studies with his brother Nathaniel, who was then in the practice of 
law in Tinmouth. He entered Dartmouth College at the com- 
mencement in 1784. Notwithstanding the short time he spent in 
his preparatory studies, by his confirmed habit of industry and his en- 
ergy, he graduated in 1788, with a standing among the first in his 
class. Hg immediately commenced the study of law in the oflSce of 
his brother Nathaniel, and in September 1790 was admitted to tho 
bar, and opened an ofiice in Rutland. He soon had an extensive 
practice, regularly attending all the courts in the counties of Rut- 
land, Bennington, Addison and Chittenden. In 1793, three years 
after he was licensed to practice law, he was chosen a delegate from 
Rutland to the convention held at Windsor, ior amending the con- 
stitution. In the year 1794 he removed to Middlebury, still con- 
tinuing his practice in the counties above named. In 1796, he was 


married to EleutLcria Hedge, daughter of Rev. Lemuel Hedge, a min- 
ister of Warwick, Mass., and sister of the late Levi Hedge, professor 
in Harvaru College, then residing with her mother in Windsor. In 
1798 and two succeeding years, he represented Middlebury in the 
General Assembly, and in several other years previous to 1808. 
He was chosen that year a member of the council, under the old 
constitution, and was annually elected to that body for several years. 
Ho represented the town also in 1812, 1813 and 1814. 

In 1813 he was elected speaker, and was distinguished for his 
promptness and decision. It was a time of high purty excitement, 
the two political parties, Federal and Democratic, being nearly equal. 
The constitution provides, that *' at the opening of the General As- 
■vnbly, there shall bo a committee appointed out of the Council and 
ad Assembly, who,after being duly sworn to the faithful performance 
of their trusts, shall proceed to sort and count the votes for governor 
and declare the person who has a major part of the votes to be gov- 
ernor for the year ensuing, and if there be no choice made, then the 
Council and General Assembly, by their joint ballots, shall make 
choice of a governor.'* Such committee had been appointed at this 
session, and some time in the evening, having completed the canvass, 
the Governor and Council came into the chamber of the House of 
Representative to^ hear the report of the canvassing committee, and 
agreeably to the uniform usage, on such occasions, the speaker re- 
signed his chair to the governor, who was appointed chairman. The 
canvassing committee reported that there was no choice of governor 
by the people, and thereupon the committee of the two houses ad- 
journed to an early hour the next day. On examination of the 
constitution the next morning, Mr. Chipman was satisfied that the 
report of the canvassing committee was conclusive ; that the two 
houses had no power to canvass the votes, or to act on the subject 
otherwise than by a concurrent resolution to meet and elect a gov- 
ernor by their joint ballots. He therefore considered it would be 
highly improper, and indeed in violation of the constitution, for the 
House of Representatives to join the governor and council, to decide 
the question whether a governor had or had not been elected by the 
people. Having taken this view of the subject, he at once decided 


on the course to be pursued : that he would not resign the spoak^* 
cr's chair to the governor, when he and the Council shall enter the 
House, but retain it and continue to preside, and preserve order in 
the House, leaving the governor to preside in the Council. Ac- 
cordingly, when the Governor and Council came in, he retained the 
speaker's chair, seating the Governor at his right. This was so un- 
expected, that there was profound silence for several minutes. At 
length a member of the House arose and addressed the chairman. 
The speaker called him to order, saying if he had a motion to make, 
he must address the speaker. Several other members made the 
same attempt, but were immediately put down by the speaker. A 
member of the council then addressed the chairman ; upon which 
.the governor, turning to the speaker, observed, "there seems to bi 
great confusion." *' There is indeed,'* said the speaker, " but yoUf 
excellency may rest assured that the most perfect order will be pre- 
served in the House, over which I have the honor to preside." At 
length the Governor and Council, finding that the House of Repre- 
sentatives would not act with them, retired, and the two houses af- 
terwards met by concurrent resolution, and elected a governor by 
their joint ballots. 

This incident in the life of Mr. Chipman, which produced some 
excitement at the time, we have copied from an account given by 
himself, not only because it is an illustration of his character, but 
bec<iuse it is an event connected with the political history of the 

In the year 1814, Mr. Chipman was again elected Speaker of the 
House, and the same year was elected a representative to Congress. 
He attended the first session, but, by reason of ill health, was unable 
to attend to his duties a great portion of the time, and, during the 
next session, was confined at home by sickness. The year following 
his health was so far restored, that he again resumed the practice of 
law, and in the years 1818 and 1821 represented the town in the 

In the year 1822, he published an essay on contracts for specific 
articles. It was highly commended by Judge Story, Chancellor 
Kent and other eminent jurists, met with an extensive sale, and 

nratoHY of middleijury- £67 

added much to bis reputation as a lawyer and scholar^ In the pre- 
face to this work, he urged the importance of having the decisions 
of the Supreme Court reported. At the next session of the legis- 
kture, in the year 1823, an act was passed providing for the ap- 
pointment of a reporter, and he was appointed to that office. Hav- 
ing published one volume of reports, ill health compelled him to 
resign it. 

In the preface to this volume, he urged the importance of divid- 
ing the legislature into two branches, by constituting a Senate. 
The Council of Censors having recommended this among other 
amendments, a convention was called for the purpose of considering 
it. In the meantime Mr. Chipman had retired from public life, 
and invested considerable property, and built him a large house iu 
a pleasant location in Ripton, and had fixed his residence in the re- 
freshing and salubrious atmosphere of that place. Such was his 
aiyciety to have this amendment adopted, that he yielded to the so- 
licitations of his neighbors and accepted the appointment of dele- 
gate to the convention, held in Jauuaay 1836, from that town. Mr. 
Chipman took a conspicuous part in the able and animated debate 
on that subject, and the aniendracnt was adopteil by a small majority. 

In 1846, Mr, Chipman published the life of his brother, 
** Hon. Nathaniel Chipman LL. D., formerly member of the United 
States Senate, and Chief Justice of the State of Vermont." He 
afterwards published several smaller works, ** Memoirs of Col. Seth 
Warner '' and '* of Thomas Chittenden, first Governor of Vermont, 
with a history of the constitution during his administration," which 
are valuable publications. 

In 1850, Mr. Chipman was elected delegate to the constitutional 
convention of that year, and there made his last appearance in any 
pulic capacity. The journey to Montpelier proved too much for his 
advanced age and feeble health. While in attendance upon the con- 
vention he was attacked with sickness, from which he never* recov- 
ered. He reached his home in Ripton in a feeble condition, and 
died on the 23d of April 1850, in the eighty-fifth year of his age. 

The preceding history furnishes probably sufficient information 
of the character and standing of Mr. Chipman. We doubt whether 


there is, ot* ever lias been, another man so fatpiliarljr acquainted 
•with the early history and interests of the State. From childhood, 
he was in the company and under the influencG of his brother, 
Judge Chipman, with a discernment capable of comprehending and 
appreciating every measure adopted. His perception of truth was 
quick and discriminating. He was a plain man in his dress and 
tiddross, but courteous in his manners. His addresses at the bar 
and in public assemblies, as well as in private conversation, Hrere 
in eloquent fiom the power of his argument and the weight of his 
tlie opinions, rather than from any polished oratory. Mr. C hipman 
every position, was devoted to the interests of the town, and among 
the projectors and founders of our educational establishments. He was 
especially a libenil contributor and supporter of the college, and a 
member of its corporation from its beginning. In 1849 the corpo- 
ration of Middlebury College conferred on him the honorary degree 
of LL. D. 

Mr. Chipman was by conviction an Episcopalian. But before an 
Episcopal Society was established here, he contributed liberally to 
the support of the Congregational Society, and for the erection of 
their church. 

The reader will, we trust, excuse the introduction here, as illus- 
trating the character of Mr. Chipman, of a merely personal matter. 
When about his twenty-first birth-day, the writer closed, as penni- 
less as he commenced, two years of severe labor as tutor in college, 
which he wished to have counted as two years in the study of law, 
Mr. and Mrs. Chipman received him into their family, treated him 
as one of its members, and furnished a convenient room for the pros- 
ecution of his studies. On being admitted to the bar in 1804, Mr. 
Chipman received him into partnership, on equal terms in all the 
courts to which he was admitted. In this position he spent the only 
six ycai*s of his professional life. 

Several lots, on the north side of Seminary Street, from Free- 
man Foot's farm, and sold by him belore he sold it to Mr. Chipman, 
were settled at an early day. An acre lot next west of Mr. Chip- 
man's house lot was purchased by Nathaniel Bishop from Attle- 
borough Mass., on which James Sawyer had previously resided in a 


small house. The lot was afterwarrls divided into two lots, 
which have been successively owned by different persons. On the 
front of the east half stands the brick district school house. The 
west half, with that part of the east which lies back of the school 
house, is owned by Harry Langworthy, a merchant doing business 
in Nichols' building, at the south end of the bridge. In 1798, 
Bela Sawyer, for many years a carpenter in the village, purchased 
the lot now owned by Myron Langworthy, of the firm of J. M. 
Slade & Co. Sawyer built and resided in a one story house, to 
which Langworthy has abided a second story. The lot between this 
and the Bishop lot was purcliascd by Col. Nathaniel Ilipley from 
Windham, Conn. The lot is noAv owned by Richard Cottrell, of 
Plattsburgh. Ilipley built the present house, and resided in it many 
years. He afterwards resided for a few years on a farm in 
Weybridge, and afterwards in a house on the farm of his son, 
William Y. Ripley, in the south part of the town, and died there 
in 1842 at the age of eighty years. In 1798, James Sawyer, a 
joiner and carpenter, and father of Bela Sawyer, purchased an acre 
lot next west of Bela Sawyer's. On the west half, he built a small 
house and resided in it for several years. The east half was sold 
by him to Abijah llurd, who built a house on it, which was occu- 
pied for some years by his brother llinman Hurd. The lot was for 
many years owned by Mr. Samuel B. Bent, who built the present 
house and other buildings.* Mr. Bent was from Rutland, Worces- 
ter County, Mass., and a manufacturer of cards^. This business he 
prosecuted here until his death, adding from time to time new Lia- 
chinery with late improvements. He died suddenly of enlargement 
of the heart, December 4, 1857, much respected as an honest, up- 
right citizen and exemplary christian, aged 73 years. The other half 
of this lot was for some years owned by Timothy C. Strong, a printer, 
who built the present house and resided in it. It has since been 
owned by Dr. Merrill in his lifetime, and occupied, as a residence 
for his family, by Mr. Z. Beckwith, who has long been known among 
us as a merchant. It is now owned by Dr. Hiram Meeker. 

•Mr. Harry Langworthy has recently purchased this house and fitted it up for 
his own residence. 



After Mr. Chipman became the owner of the Foot farm, tlie lots 
now occupied by Dea. Elmer, Mr. Ansel D. Stearns the painter, 
and Mr. Garner, on the Now Haven road, were early purchased and 
have been since occupied by different families. Until the year 1814, 
the land between Dea. Elmer's and the Methodist Chapel lot, was 
a smooth meadow, where we have seen a general training. In that 
year, Mr. Chipman opened a road through the vacant lot and offered 
building lots for sale. The writer of this history purchased the 
north half, and that year and the following he erected his present 
dwelling house. And here, in 1817, he commenced the interesting 
business of housekeeping, with his own family, and here he hopes 
to end it, when dciith shall remove him from his earthly relations. 




We proceed now to further settlements under purchases from 
Judge Painter. In 1795, Oliver Brewster, a tailor, purchased the 
lot next north of Festus IlilFs, on which he built the present house 
and resided in it until he left the state. Capt. Jonathan M. Young 
became the owner of the lot in 1805, and resided on it many years. 
When he came to this place in 1804, he engaged in the mercantile 
business with Adonijah Schuyler, under the firm of Young and 
Schuyler. He was afterwards owner of the Applcton Foot grist 
mill, deputy sheriff of the county and constable of the town. At 
the commencement of the war of 1812. he received a commission 
of lieutenant in the regular service, lie died in March ^ 1854. at 
the age of eighty-two. 

In 1835, Asa Francis, Esq., formerly from Hartford, Conn., pur- 
chased this lot, and occupied it for the residence of his family, until 
within a few years he removed to the house next north of Dr. Lab- 
aree's, where he still resides. lie had been extensively and suc- 
cessfully engaged in mercantile business. He some years since re- 
tired from it, and established his son, Parkhurst Francis, in the 
same business, first in Middlebury and since in Illinois. The lot 
which he left is now owned by James Negus, in business as a mer- 
chant tailor. 

In 1705, Capt. Josiah Fuller purchased the lot, now occupied by 
the family of William Morton.* on the west side of Pleasant street, 
and running to the creek, on which he built a small house, and es- 

*Mr Morton died April 30, 18G6, aged Gj years. 

£72 uisToay of middlebury. 

tablishcd his tannery on the bank of tbe creek. Fuller the next 
year ]jurcbased the lot on the opposite side of the street, next north 
of Oliver Brewster's. On this lot, in 1801, he built the present 
house. It ii now — greatly remodeled and repaired — the residence 
of Rov. Benjamin Labarce, D. D., president of the college. It 
was also the residence of Rev. Joshua Bates, D. D., while in 
that oflSce. 

Philip Davis from Rockingham, also a tanner, in 1806 purchased 
both these lots, established a tannery and built the present house on 
the creek lot, and resided in it several yoa^s. 

Thomas Archibald, in 1796, bought the lot next south of Fuller's 
creek lot, and built the present house. It was the first residence 
of the family of Hon. Peter Starr, and is now the residence of Mr. 
David Piper, a carpenter and joiner. 

The lot in possession of Mrs. Bell, widow of the late Harvey 
Bell, Esq., was first purchased by President Atwater, and by him 
sold in 1808 to Dr. Edward Tudor. There was then a small shanty 
on the lot. But the house now standing on it was built by Dr, 
Tudor, and occupied by him with his family for many years. He 
afterwards removed to the house, where he resided until the time of 
his death, next north of the Catholic church. The house left by 
Dr. Tudor was purchased by Mr. Bell in 1818, 'and was the resi- 
dence of his family until his death in 1848, at the age of fifty-sev- 
en years, and is still the residence of his fiimily. 

Harvey Bell, Esq. was the son of Harvey Bell, mentioned else- 
where. He was graduate^! at Middlcbury College in 1809, studied 
law, in part with John Simmons, Esq., his brother-in-law, and partly 
at the law school in Litchfield Conn., and was licensed in 1812. 
He commenced practice in partnership with Mr. Simmons, but con- 
tinued it afterwards separately as an attorney and advocate. In the 
later years of his life he w^as the editor and publisher of the Ver- 
mont Galaxy. He was one of the first members elected to the state 
Beuate in 1836, after the establishment of that branch of the legis- 
lature, by the amendment of the constitution of that year. He was 
also a member in 1837, and was among the prominent members of 
that body. He was Secretary of the Corporutiou of Middlebury 


College from 182G to 1843, and was always prompt in aiding and 
supporting that and our other educational institutions. He was also a 
liberal supporter of religious institutions, and was a member of the 
Congregational Church from 1835. 

Joshua Ilenshaw first settled, as before stated, on the farm now 
owned by Silas Piper and his son. In the year 1800 he purchased 
the lot, now constituting the rail road depot grounds, and built the 
large house standing there. To this he removed his family and re- 
sided in it until he removed to Canada. The house has since been 
the residence successively of Professor Hall, Professor Fowler and 
Joseph Warner, Esq., and is now occupied by Professor Robbins. 

Levi Hooker came to Middlebury about the year 1801, with a 
large stock of merchandize, and in 1803 purchased the lot, now the 
residence of Asa Francis, Esq., on Pleasant Street, and for many 
ycai*s previously occupied by Cyrus Birge, Es<i., and built there the 
present house. He also built successively three stores on the ground 
on which the four stores of Jason Davenport stand. The three up- 
per stores Mr. Davenport built since the construction of the rail 
road, which altered the position of the ground, and raised the trav- 
elled way above the foundation of the former buildings. Mr. Hook- 
er was largely engaged in the mercantile business for a few years, and 
afterwards occupied himself with various other pursuits, and removed 
many years ago to the State of New York. Mr. Birge, mentioned 
above, was also for several years in the successful prosecution of the 
mercantile business. He resides now in the city of Washington. 

Loyal Case, Esq., in 1803, purchased the lot next south of Pain- 
ter's house lot, now belonging to the estate of Austin Johnson, and 
occupied by Rev. James T. Hyde. He built the present dwelling 
house, and resided in it until his death. Mr. Case had been ad- 
mitted to the practice of law in September, 1797. He had studied 
law with Hon. Daniel Chipman, and after his license, entered into 
partnership with that gentleman. In 1804 the partnership was dis- 
solved, and he continued the practice separately. From that time 
until his death, he was annually appointed State's Attorney for the 
county. He was a man of ardent temperament, and of a kind, be- 
nevolent disposition, easily kindled at every appearance of injustice 

Ill Mi N. 




Ua£aa^a: jjlcccLt 



or oppression, and at this day would have been a prominent reformer. 
He became a very ardent and popular advocate, and was increasing 
in popularity. Hon. Horatio Seymour rclateil to us the following 
characteristic anecdote. A fugitive slave was overtaken and arrest- 
ed at Shoreham, and a time appointed for the trial. Mr. Seymour 
was employed as counsel for the owner, and Mr. Case for the fugi- 
tive. They started together on liorscback for the place of trial. 
Case remonstrated with his companion, who was also his brother-in- 
law, against his engaging in so unrighteous a business as defending 
slavery. Mr. Seymour justified himself with theargum(nt, that it 
was his duty to vindicate the legal rights of all persons, and see that 
the laws were duly executed. This did not satisfy Mr. Case, who 
continued his remonstrance, advised him to return, and assured him 
that if he went on such an ermnd, some judgment would come upon 
him from Heaven. While passing through (.ornwall, Mr. Seymour 
was seized with a violent cholic, which was so painful as to arrest his 
progress, and force him to stop and return without attending the court. 

The career of Mr. Case was suddenly arrested, on the 13th of 
October, 1808, by his death at the age of thirty two. 

Cyrus Brewster, at an early day settled on the lot, between Mra. 
Simmons' house lot, and the Stewart lot, and in 1803 it was pur- 
chased by Joseph Dorrance, a hatter, who built the present dwelling 
house. The lot was owned by, and was the residence of, the late 
Hon. William Slade, and is now occupied by his widow. 

Hon. William Slade, whom we have thus incidentally mentioned, 
has passed from among the living, since this work was written ; but 
we deem it improper to send it to the press without some further 
notice of him, as among our distinguished citizens. He was the 
son of William Slade, Esq., of Cornwall, who was sheriff of the 
county for ten successive years, from 1801 to 1810 ; and was born 
at Cornwall, May 0, 178G. He was graduated at Middlebury Col- 
lege in 1807, having maintained a prominent standing in his class, 
and immediately entered upon the study of law in the office of Judge 
Doolittle. He was admitted to practice at the August term of the 
County Court in 1810, and immediately opened an office in this vil- 

' ■' '/I I ,, ')lfrr(i 


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JAMy^^) Qjl CLcIj^ 


lage. He continued to practice with increasing reputation, especially 
as an advocate, until 1814. 

As a politician Mr. Slade was of the school of JcSerson and Mad- 
ison. In consequence of the measures, adopted by these adminis- 
trations, in resistance of the encroachments of the British and French 
nations, who were engaged in an exterminating war, and followed by 
our own war in 1812, party politics raged to an extent never since 
known. A majority of the people of this state had given in their 
adhesion to the Democratic party, at the commencement of Mr. Jef- 
ferson's administration. But the parties were so nearly equal, that 
the Federalists obtained the ascendency for two years, during the 
war. The struggle between the parties was arduous and exciting. 
Mr. Slade entered with his whole soul into the conflict, and became 
an active and influential partisan, lie addressed with zeal and ef- 
fect all political assemblages, and Avrote much, in enforcing and vin- 
dicating his political views. On account of hia popularity as a wri- 
ter and public speaker, he became an acknowledged leader. Tho 
Democratic party, in the fall of 1813, had established a paper, called 
the Columbian Patriot ; but the editor who had been employed not 
proving satisfactory, he was dismissed ; and Mr. Slade, eai'ly in 
1814, gave up his profession and became tho editor, — a business 
which was congenial to his talents and temperament. He also es- 
tablished an extensive book store and printing oflice, and published 
several books. This business did not prove successful, and was con- 
tinued only two or three years. But he occupied so prominent a 
position in his party, that his friends were ready to give him any 
office which might be vacant. Accordingly he was elected Secretary 
of State, successively from 1815 to 1822 ; Assistant Judge of Ad- 
dison County Court, from 1816 to 1821 ; Clerk of the Supremo 
Court for the county from 1819 to 1823. After the failure of his 
printing and publishing business, the offices, which he held at home 
in 1823, did not satisfy his pecuniary wants, and he took the office 
of clerk in the Department of State at Washington in 1824. Af- 
ter the disorganization of the political parties, at the close of the 
war and during the administration of Mr. Monroe, and when the 
election of a successor approached, towards the close of his admin- 


istratioD, Mr. Skuio attached himself to the party of John Quincj 
Adams, in opposition to Gen. Jackson, as did most of the people of 
Vermont. When the latter came into oflSce in 1829, and Mr. Van 
Baren had charge of the department of State, Mr. Sliode was re- 
moved, in a manner which was not relished by the freemen of Ver- 
mont, as they were prepared to manifest at the first opportunity. 
He then returned to Middlebury, and resumed the profession of law, 
and in 1830 was appointed State's Attorney for the county. On 
the first vacancy in 1831 he was elected a representative in Con- 
gress. In this office he continued until 1843. The year following 
he ofiiciated as reporter of the decisions of the Supreme Court, and 
in 1844, he was elected Governor of Vermont, and continued in 
that office two years. 

Since that time to the close of his life, Governor Slade has been 
employed as Corresponding Secretary and General Agent of the 
Board of National Popular Education. The object of this institu- 
tion has been to collect in the Eastern States, and send to destitute 
places at the west, pious and competent female teachers. For this 
work Gov. Slade was, by his talents and temperament, peculiarly well 
adapted ; and has, we believe, accomplished as much good as in any 
other of his labors. On him has devolved the whole business of 
looking up the teachers, and the destitutions where they were needed, 
03 well as of raising the requisite funds. The teachers, before they 
were sent, were collected together at Hartford, and for several weeks, 
placed under the examination and instruction of experienced female 
educators, and were afterwards conducted by the agent to the west 
and located in their appointed places. Two classes were sent annu- 
ally while his health was suflScient ; but, for one or two years since, 
only one, and the last year, we believe, none. Four hundred and 
eighty-one teachers have been sent out under his direction, besides 
109 sent out by a Ladies' Society in Boston, which has since become 
auxiliary. To this service Gov. SLide zealously devoted all his 
time and energy. It required extensive correspondence in its vari- 
ous departments, numerous journies and frequent public addresses. 

Gov. Slade was characterized by persevering industry, and by a 
sensitive and ardent temperament, which were manifest in all his 


enterprises. They were exhibited ia his political movements, and 
in all enterprises, which he thought tended to promote the reformation 
of society. They were exhibited no less in his religious character. 
When a member of college in 1806, he consecrated himself to the 
!:ervice of religion, and united himself to the congregational church 
in Cornwall, his native place, and afterwards transferred his connec- 
tion to the Congregational Church in Middlebury. He nowhere, — 
in Congress or elsewhere, — concealed his profession as i Christian ; 
and his religious character was prominent on all oc'casions. And 
when he became of his approaching exchange of worlds, 
his religion fully sustained hint, and he descended to the grave with 
entire resignation, and with uninterrupted peace and triumph. 

Gov. Shide was accustomed to" public Speaking, and! writing on 
every subject which interested him ; which he continued, to fill up 
his unoccupied time, as long as his strength permitted. While very 
feeble, he continued writing for newspapers and otherwise, and 
delivered several lectures before educational associations. In the 
latter years of his life, his writing had principal reference to relig- 
ious and educational subjects. His style of writing and speaking 
was characterized by simplicity and directness, \vhich enabled his 
readers or hearers easily to understand and appreciate his arguments. 
And, in other respects his style was more pure and classical than is 
common with public speakers and writers. Several of his speeches 
in Congress were published, and were read with interest by many. 
He published in 1823, '^Vermont State Papers," a collection of 
nnpublished documents illustrating the history of Vermont ; in 1825 
a compilation of the Statutes of Vermont ; in 1844 the 15 volume 
6{ the Vermont Reports. He also published several pamphlets, 
including his annual reports as agent of the Board of Popular 

For several years before his death, the health of Gov. Slade was 
feeble and failing, and for the last month or two, he declmed fast 
His death occurred on Sunday night, January 16, 1859, in his 
73d year. 

Gov. Slade was married February 5 1810, to Abigail Foot, 

daughter of Appleton Foot, and grand daughter of Daniel Foot, who 

218' iriSTOllY 61' illDULKBUIlT. 

were among the earliest settlers, and are mentioned elsewhere. She 
survives to mourn the loss of her husband, with three sons, Hon. 
James M. Slade, late Lieutenant Governor, Hon. William Slade of 
Cleveland, Ohio, Senator in the legislature of that State, and Henry 
M. Slade Esq., of St Paul, Minnesota. 

In 1796 Erastus Uawley, a saddler and harness maker, purchased 
a half acre lot on the corner next north of the brick building owned 
by the kte Rufus Wainwright. He built here a two story dwelling 
house, which has since been removed to the lot next north of Mooi-e's 
hotel, and was owned and occupied as a residence by Nahnm Par- 
ker, Esq., for many years until recently, who owns also the shop 
on the opposite side of the street, where he prosecuted the business 
of a cabinet maker. Ho has recently retired from active personal 
labor. The house has recently been purchased by Mr. L. Rock- 
woocl, who has established himself in the mercantile business. 

Mr. Hawley also built a shop south of his house, for the prose- 
cution of his business. In this place Mr. Hawley resided and in 
company with Capt. Justus Foot, under the firm of Hawley and 
Foot, prosecuted the saddling business. He afterwards sold the lot 
to Wightman and Asa Chapman, Avho removed the dwelling house 
and converted the shop into a store for merchandize. After the dis- 
solution of their partnei^ship, the business was prosecuted by Asa 
Chapman separately. The store has within a few years been fitted 
up tor a dwelling house, and has bccii occupied by Mrs. Smith, but 
recently Mr. Chapman has taken possession of it for his own 

Mr. Ilawloy afterwards built the house on the lot next east of 
his former lot. This lot was many years occupied by Hon. Joel 
Doolittlc, as a residence ; and since his death was purchased and 
fitted up by Mrs. Wainwright, widow of Jonathan Wainwright, and 
is now owned by Jacob ^y. Conroe Esq., and occupied for the resi- 
dence of his family. 

Hon. Joel Doolittlc, whose name is mentioned above, was gradu- 
ated at Yale College in 1799, and came to Middlebury in the fall 
of 1800, as the first tutor of Middlebury College. He was admitted 
to the bar in 1801. lie continued in the practice extensively. 


(Ml ' 

^^;;--:?:''T*^--<-^ o.<4^-^-t^^ 

HiiTOJiY OF midi>lebt;iit. 279 

as couDsdlor and advocate, until 1817, when he was elected a judge 
of the Supremo Court, to which office he was elected successively 
for the four following years, and again in 1824. He was also a 
member of the old Council for three years commencing in 1815, 
and a representative of the town in 1824. In 1834 he was chosen 
a member of the Council of Censors, of which body he was chosen 
and officiated as President. 

In 1819, ho was elected a member of the corporation of Middle- 
bury College, and continued in that station until his death. He 
was always a friend and patron of that and our other educational 
institutions. He became a communicant in St, Peter s Church, at 
its first organization, and continued an exemplary and devoted mem- 
ber, exhibiting the influence of Christian principle through life. 
He was studious as a lawyer, and was faithful in his preparation, 
and in the discharge of his duties to his clients, as well as in the dis- 
charge of the higher trusts committed to liim by the public. After 
he left the bench of the Supreme Court, he continued the practice 
of law, more or less, as his health permitted. He died in March, 
1841, at the age of sixty-eight. Mrs. Doolittle has since resided 
in Painesville, Ohio, where she has the society of several of her 
children, and among them John T. Doolittle, Esq., an attorney at 
law, and Mark R. Doolittle, Esq., editor of the Painesville Com- 
mercial Advertiser. 

After Mr. Hawley removed from town, the saddling business was 
carried on by Capt. Foot. In the meantime, in 1811, Foot had 
purchased the old jail house and removed it to the lot east of the 
hotel, and fitted it up for the residence of his family, and resided 
in it until the time of his death in 1835, at the age of forty-nine. 
It is now owned by Calvin Hill, a successor of Capt. Foot in the 
saddling business, who has recently been forced by ill health to re- 
tire from it. Mr. Hill also built on the same lot the house until 
lately in the possession of Mr. Z. Beckwith as a residence, and now 
occupied by Mr. W. H. Remson. 

Capt. Foot, in order to provide himself with a shop for his busi- 
ness, united with Hon. Daniel Chipman, who wanted an office, and 
the Masonic lodge, who wanted a room for their meetings, and they 

280 JUSTORy OF middlebukt. 

erected the brick building next south of the Ilawiey lot This 
building was afterwards owned by the late Sufus Wainwright, and 
since by his son-in-law, Julius A. Beckwith, who had rooms 
in it for his office, which, since his death, are occupied by his broth- 
er-in-law, Rufus Wainwright, Esq., as yiis office, as an attorney. 
The County Clerk also has his office in it, and the lower rooms are 
occupied by a saddler, and by Mr. Rockwood for his store. 

In 1804, David pickinson erected, on a small piece of ground on 
the upper side and north end of the bridge, the present building 
nearest the creek. He afterwards erected the building adjdning it 
on the north. In the former building and other places, Dickinson 
was engaged for many years, in the mercantile business. Both these 
buildings have been rented to different persons for stores and shops. 
Dr. Sidney Moody has for many years, occupied his present location 
for his drug and grocery store. In the principal room of the build- 
ing, Ml*. Zecheriah Beckwith, many years ago opened an auction 
and commission store, and his business, as dealer in general mer- 
chandise, was there extended and prosecuted longer than that of 
any other occupant. Since the erection of Davenport's block, he 
occupies a room in that building with a still greater enlargement of 
his business. In the other building, one room was occupied from 
the time of its erection, by Mr. Joseph Dyar for his jeweler's shop, 
until his death. He resided in the house, on Seminary Street, 
built by William Baker, now owned by Mr. Solomon Parker. 
While he was going from his shop to his house, a pair of horses 
harnessed to a sled, standing at a neighVoring store, were started by 
the whistle of a rail-road engine, ran furiously over him and so 
fatally injured him, that he expired a day or two after, on the 22d 
of February 1851, at the age of fifty-six years. Mr. Alonzo Dus- 
tin occupied a room in the same building from the same period, as 
a harbor's shop, and within a few years has given up that business, 
and been succeeded by others in the same room. 

While Capt. Young owned the first of these building, he erected 
the building in the rear of it, and extending further over the creek. 
The rooms below the level of the bridge have been generally used 
for confectionary, provision and refreshment shops, and the whole 

msTOBY OF middleduhy. 281 

are now oecnpied by Mr. Shaw, for that use. The rooms above it 
were, for manj years, occupied by Dea. Harrey Wilcox, for the 
manufacture of boots and shoes. He has also removed to Daven- 
port's new building, and has extensively enlarged his business. 

About the year 1801, Samuel D. Coe, the architect mentioned 
elsewhere, purchasetl the lot on the comer east of the old stone jail. 
It was some years after sold by his heirs, and in 1815, was purchased 
by Dr. Elisha Brewster. There was a small house on the lot, to 
which Dr. Brewster added a two story front, which was his family 
residence while he lived, and is now the residence of his widow. 
He came to Middlebury from Hartford, Conn., a young man, just 
from his apprenticeship, and entered into partnership with Dr. Wil- 
liam G. Hooker in the druggist business, in the large centre store 
built by Levi Hooker, on the ground occupieil by Davenport's 
block. Dr. Hooker had commenced business in that store as early 
as 1804. After he removed to his farm he surrendered it to Dr. 
Brewster, who continued it for some years in the same place. Not 
many years before his death. Dr. Brewster erected on the north side 
of the common, the brick building, with the wooden addition at the 
east end, lately occupied for the ix)st-office, now known as Brew- 
ster's block. To this building he removed his business. He died 
in July 1838, at the age of forty-seven. Dr. Brewster was a pi^om- 
inet citizen, and an active and useful member and deacon of the 
congregational church, and a liberal patron, by his labor and con- 
tributions, of all religious and other useful institutions From 1884 
to 1836 inclusive, he represented the town in the legislature. 

Daniel L. Potter removed his family from Litchfield, Conn., to 
this village in 1811, and in 1817 purchased the lot on the south side 
on the street leading eastwardly from the court house, which Ben- 
jamin James, a Oooper, in 1813 had purchased of Judge Painter, 
and on which he had built a small house. Mr. Potter erected the 
present upright front, and has since occupied it as a residence for 
bis family. Ho first engaged in the tailoring business, which he 
prosecuted for several years with success ; but finding it injurious 
to bis health, ho has since directed his attention to fiuming. He 
had been • member of Dr. Beecher's Church in Litchfield, and im- 


mediately united with the Congregational Chui-cli here; of w hick 
he waa an exemplary and active member. But he was most distin- 
guished as a free mason. IIo had risen to the highest grade in that 
institution ; had been employed in delivering lectures to masonic 
lodges in many parts of the ^tato ; and had for several years been 
Grand Master of the Grand Encampment of the Knights Templars 
of the State, and had the rank of Past Grand Commander at the 
time of his death. He died of a disease of the heart. Juno 8, 1851>, 
at the ago of 69 years. His funeral was on the 11th of June, 
when he was buried with masonic honors and ceremonies, attended 
by a very long procession of masons. 

The fii*st lot, on the street leading south from the coui-t house, 
was purchased by David Wells, a blacksmith, who about the year 
1808, built the dwelling house and shop, on the lot next South of 
Capt. Allen's. He continued the prosecution of his trade at this 
place until his death, which occurred in 1825, at the age of forty- 
seven. The premises belong to the heirs of Mrs. Wells. 

As early as 1810 or 1811, Paul Reed, from New Haven, on the 
lot on the east side of that street, erected the largo house which ho 
opened for a tavern, and which is now used for the same purpose by 
IJarry Moore. Mr. Reed died in 1830, when seventy years of age. 

Cxipt. Ira Allen, from Lebanon, N. IL, having just closed his 
apprenticeship w ith Col. Howe, of Shoreham, purchased the lot on 
the west side of the same street, where he still resides, and in 1814 
erected his shop, and commenced the prosecution of his trade, as a 
waggon and carriage maker, and soon after erected his house, in 
which he has since resided with his family. 

In the fell of 1807, David Page, Jun., purchased twelve acres 
on the corner formed by the road last mentioned, and the street run- 
ning into it from Pleasant Street, and extending to the creek. He 
then opened a road running north and south, between this lot and 
the depot ground, and thence west to the creek. On this lot he first 
built the house now owned and occupied by Cyrus Morton, long 
known as a carpenter and joiner in the village. Mr. Page resided 
in this several years, and built a two story house wheire Mr. Asa 
Chapman's present dwelling house stands. This house was burnt, 





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iflSToKY 01- MlDLLtiriRY. • 28S 

wkI was rebuilt by Mr. Chapman. Mr. Pago also built, on the same 
lot, the house which was the residence of the late R. L. Fuller.* 
On this lot also are the other houses on the rood leading to the creek ; 
the house on the corner occupied in his lifetime by the late E. W. 
Lyon, arid now by Mr. Humphrey Smith; the residence of tholato 
•David S. Church, Escj.,! Sheriff of the County, and others south 
of it as fur as, and including the residence of Mr. Horace Crane, 
long known as a citizen and leading mechanic in the village. 

We here close our account, as far as our design and limits will 
allow, of all the settlements on land purchased of Judge Painter. 

Any person, who has had the patience to run through the tire- 
some details of this sketch, will perceive, that the life and labors of 
the lion. (iA>iALiEL Paixteu are intimately associated with the 
history of the town, and will accord to him his common designation 
of " Father of the town,'' and especially of the village. He was 
not a learned man, having had only a common school education. 

*Reubca L. Fuller first establittlKMl himself in the villagOfOii a tailor, and after- 
wards engaged in the mercanlilc business In the later years of his life, he reduced 
his mercantile business, and prosecut d both branches in connection. The SteWart 
store was his place of business. In all his employments and stations in life, he was 
a very respectable and useful citizen, and died greatly lamented &iarch 0, 1857, at 
the agu of 43 yeirs. Mis wi low and family still occupy the same house as a residence. 

tDrtvid S. Church, Ej^q., was elected sheriff of the County fifteen successive years. 
On the 17th day of June 1856, he had a warrant agarnst an Irishman, who was 
charged with some oficnee, and in the pursuit to arrest him, found he had retreated 
to tlte upper room of a house ; and iji attempting to ascend the stairway to arrest 
him, he was met by the accused, with a large club, with which he gave Church a 
blow on the head, with a violence which prostrated him. He was taken by his 
friends in a very doubtful .-tate and carried home. After a few days he so for re- 
covcretl, as to attend to his business ; but was never entirely well, or able to pros- 
ecute his ofllcial duties with his former energy. Me soon began to decline, and 
became less able to attend to his business ; and after suffering long with Tarious 
ditttrcssing symptoms, he died on the 18th day of January 1859, aged 44 years. 
On a post moi'Um examination, it was found that the frontal bone, on which the 
blow fell, was diseased externally across the whole forehead ; under the wound the 
membrane of the brain exhibited evidence of chronic inflammation, and the brain 
was softened to the contre, of the size of an egg, to the consistence of cream. He 
was a respectable and much esteemed citizen, and capable officer, and his death is 
fi'lt and luou'rncd by the "whole community; and ii an irreparable Iocs to his widow 
anW three diu^jhtw*. 


He was a plaiuf nrfan, slow of speech and of few words, ai^ not elo- 
quent in public addresses or private conversation. But h« had sound 
judgment and common sense, on which his friends placied implicit 
and safe reliance. He had great wisdom, — some would say cunning 
— in forming his plans and in adopting the means to execute them. 
Thus he became a leader in all important enterprises. He was amon^ 
the earliest settlers, and from the beginning devoted what powers 
he had to the prosperity of the town. He personally surveyed and 
laid out lands and public roads. He Was early called to this service 
in the neighboring towns, and in later yeArs was employed in lay- 
ing out some of the most important roads in this region. He early 
enlisted in measures, designed to prepare the way to establish and 
maintain the independence and organization of Veimont as a State. 
He was the fn-st delegate who ever represented the town in any pub- 
lic body, and was a member of the convention at Dorset in Septem- 
l>er, 1776, at which incipient measures were adopted to make a dec- 
laration of independence ; also a member of the convention held at 
Windsor, July 2, 1777, which formed the first constitution. He' 
was the first representlitive of the tow^ after its organization in 1788, 
in the legislature of the stat^, and was annually elected the four suc- 
ceeding, and several subsequent years, until 1810, after which he 
was several years a member of the old council. In 1785, at the 
time of the organization of the county, he was elected one of the 
first judges of the county court. Before the end of the year he re- 
signed this office, for the purpose of being a candidate for the ofiBce 
of sheriff, which for some reason he preferred, and to which he was 
elected. But in 1787 and the seven succeeding ycai*s he was re-elected 
to the oflSce of judge. 

After he removed to the village in the fall of 1787, he adopted 
his plans with appropriate measures to make it a respectable place 
of business, and the seat of the courts in the County. He early 
built mills and sold building lots to all worthy immigrants. As early 
as 1791, when the village was little else than a wilderness, standing 
on the lot he had deeded to the County, he said to the bystanders, 
** this is the place for the court house.'' Through his agency, as a 
member of the legislature, his plans were accomplished and his 









prediction fulfilled. In the town ho often officiated as moderator of 
the meetings, and in other offices and trusts. When the Congrega- 
tional Society finally decided to build a church, he was appointed 
superintendent, to adopt the plan and make the contracts for its 
erection, to which also he largely contributed. He was also appointed 
by the corporation to superintend the erection of the atone college, 
to which he also contributed liberally. He was a prominent promo- 
ter of our other literary institutions. By the charter of the col- 
lege, he was constituted one of the original trustees, and occupied 
that place until his death. In liis last will, all his children having 
died, he gave all his estate, except an annuity to his widow, during 
her life, to that institution ; from which the college realized about 
thirteien thousand dollars. 

Judge Painter was bom in New Haven, Conn., on the 22d of 
May 1742. His first wife was Abigail Chipman, sister of Col. 
John Chipman, who died April 21 1790.* By her ho had two 
sons, Joseph, who died in 1804, at the age q{ thirty-four, and Sam- 
uel, who was drowned in the creek in June 1797, at the age of 
twenty-five. His second wife was Victoria Ball, of Salisbury, Conn., 
who died in June 180G, at the age of forty-six. By her he had 
one daughter, Abby Victoria, who died in December 1818, at the 
age of twenty-two. His third wife, who survived him, was Mrs. 
Ursula Bull, of Litchfield, Conn.,awidow^ and sister of Mrs. Tracy, 
wife of the distinguished senator from Connecticut. Judge Painter 
died in May 1819, aged seventy-six years. The corporation of 
Middlebury College erected a monument at his grave. 

*yin4 SeTenince, mentioned elsewhere^ who was an inmate in the fkmily of Jadge 
Painter, gives the foUowing acoount of the Itineral of his first wife. A raft was 
mada by lashing together two canoes and spreading boards over them ; on this the 
corpse was placed accompanied bj the mourners and friends and men to manage 
the boats, while a few others walked on the shore. Thus arranged the procession 
moved np the creek, and the body was deposited in the burying ground near Col. 
Chipman*8. The boats, on their way, leaked, and the men, having no pails or 
dishes with them, bailed out the water with their shoes. No clergyman was pl•e^- 
ent on that occasion. 





In addition to the superintendence of his mills, Stillman Fodt 
erected on his mill yard vt small btdlding for a store, and was fur- 
nished with goods by Mr. Daniel Henshaw, then of Albany. These 
he sold as partner of Mr. Hendiaw. His ill success in this busi- 
ness has been said to b^ the occasion of his selling his property here 
and removing out of the State. In the *&11 of 1800, he deeded his 
house and adjoining lands to Mr. Henshaw, and at that time, or af- 
terwards, his saw mill. In December of the following year, he sold 
to John Warren his grist mill and appurtenances. In the spring of 
1801, he went to Canton, N. Y, to examine the country and make 
provisions for his future residence, and in 1802, removed his family 
to that place. 

Mr. Henshaw moved with his family in the year 180S, and took 
possession of the house and property purchased of Foot. He be- 
came interested in some of the works below Appleton Foot's mills, 
and erected a building on the west side of the bridge, opposite 
Nichols' brick building, on land which is now vacant, the diflferent 
apartments of which were rented for various uses. He erected, 
on tho south side of his lot, a building designed for a store, and for 
some time used for that purpose, but which has since been trans- 
formed into a dwelling house, and is occupied by the widow and 
family of Rev. Lucius Clark. He built also the brick building 
north of his house now owned by Miss Thirza Adams. Besides 
superintending his saw mill and other works at the falls, he was, for 


some time, engaged in the manu&cture of paper at the Paper Mill 
Falls. He, and we believe all his &milj, were prominent and ex- 
emplary communicants in the Episcopal Church, and occupied a high 
social position in the community. He left a widow and an interest- 
ing family of children, and among them fiev, John P. K. Henshaw> 
late Bishop of Rhode Island. 

About the year 1794, Jonathan Nichols, Jun., an ingenius me- 
chanic, acquainted with the manufiicture of iron and the various 
forms of working it, purchased of Appleton Foot land and a water 
power, and erected below Foot's mills, successively, a forge, tripr 
hammer and gun factory. lie was not very successful in the pros- 
ecution of these establishments, and they fell into the hands of dif- 
ferent persons, and were kept in operation partially for several years, 
but fell into decay and were finally consumed with the other works 
in that location. Josiah Nichols, a brother of Jonathan, also an 
iQgenious mechanic, joined him in 1796, and continued to work in 
iron, in all required forms and at different places, until his death in 
1836, at the age of sixty-five years. He left a widow, Mrs. Bath- 
sfaeba Nichols, who is still living. 

On the land purchased by Nichols was a small house, of one story, 
between the dwelling house of Appleton Foot and his mill house, 
to which John Atwater, in 1801, added a second story. This after- 
wards became the property of Capt. Moses Leonard, ^id was occu- 
pied, by him as a residence until his death, and is still occupied by 
his widow. Andrew Rutherford, a son-in-law of Capt Leonard, 
afterwards erected the addition on the north end, and resided in it 
until he lefl town. Capt. Leonard was largely concerned in the 
works on the &lls, and owned the Appleton Foot mills when they 
were burnt. Mr. Rutherford, after his marriage, was connected with 
him in business, and being a woolen manufiicturer, built and occu- 
pied the woolen factory south of the passage to the creek. Capt 
Leonard died in 1853, aged 79 years. 

Appleton Foot sold his mills in 1807, and removed with his fitm- 
ily to Malone, N. Y., where he died in 1831, at the age of sixty- 
four years. 

Among the earliest sett -era on the west side of the falls, was Har- 

288 niSTORV of middleburt. 

vey Bdl, a fuller and dresser of cloth. He established his businoss 
liare as ekrly as 1791. lie built a »inall house and shop on a lot 
which he purchased of Stillman and Appleton Foot, and on whioh 
now stand the brick house owned by John Yallette, Yallette's store 
and the large brick building, erected by the late Jonathan Hagar. 
He afterwards made an addition to his shop, and, in company with 
his brotlier, added to his other business that of a merchant In 
February, 1797, he sold his premises to John Warren, of Marlbor- 
ough, Mass., also a clothier, and removed to New Haven, and there, 
for two or three years, prosecuted his cloth dressing and merchan- 
dise. But the latter was unsuccessful, and terminated in the dis- 
continuance of both. He then returned to Middlebury and pur- 
chased the lot, on Weybridge street, formerly owned by the late Ad- 
na Smith, for some years sheriiT of the county, and now belonging 
to his widow. This lot had been sold by Nehemiab Lawrence to 
Jonathan Nichols, Jun., previous to his sale to Rhodes, and before 
that part of Cornwall was added to Middlebury. On this lot Bell 
built the present dwelling house, and resided in it for a time. Id 
1805 he purchased Amasa Stowell's tavern lot and opened and kept 
a public house, and in 1812 took a lease from Artemas Nixon of 
the Mattocks tavern house. While occupying this house, in De- 
cember, 1814, he died, in the fiftieth year of bis age. 

John Warren, after his purchase, went into possesion and prose- 
cuted his trade with great success and profit, and accumulated a large 
estate. Encouraged by his great success, in 1801 he purchased of 
Stillman Foot his grist mill lot, and its appurtenances, including 
all his land and privileges, which he bad not deeded to Daniel Hen- 
shaw. Warren also, as early as 1804 or 1805, erected his large 
brick house on the Bell lot. About the commencement of the war 
of 1812, Mr. Warren, not content with the income which had made 
him independent, undertook to establish a cotton &cU)rj. For this 
purpose he made large additions to his grist mill buildings, and built 
and otherwise procured the requisite machinery. But the business 
was then in its infancy in this country; the machinery was not 
adapted to the successful prosecution of it, and required firequent 
phanges to keep up with the improvements made. Although the 


goods sold at high prices daring the war, they fell after its termin^ 
ation, the factory and mill and accompanying buildings were bnmt, 
and being left with no great abundance, Mr. Warren sold out his 
premises and returned to Massachusetts. 

Capt Ebenezer Markham had been in mercantile business in 
Canada, and was detained there a prisoner during the war of the 
revolution, but after its close returned to the States. In the mean-> 
time, through some connection with others, he became involved in 
large debts. While in Shoreham, the debts were prosecuted, and 
he was committed to the liberties of the jail in Middlebury in tho 
spring of 1795. The first year he lived here without his family 
and tended bar for Mr. Mattocks. In the spring of 1796, he estab- 
lished a nail factory in a room at the end of Stillman Foot*s saw 
mill, which was said to be the first nail factory in the State. The 
same year he moved his family here, and resided with them in the 
nail fisictory through that year. The following spring he took a 
lease of Foot for four years, which was extended from time to 
time, of a small lot, north of Foot's house and extending to the 
creek. The lease contemplated that the lot should be fitted and 
used for a garden, but gave the right to erect buildings, which were 
to belong to Markham and paid for by Foot at the terminaticm of 
the lease. Under this lease Capt. Markham, in 1797 built the 
north half of the house now occupied by Mrs. McLeod his daugh- 
ter. While doing this he put up some posts on the premises, cov- 
ered them with boards, and occupied this shanty with his fiunily. 
In the year 1800, in anticipation of the session of the legislature to 
be held here the fall following, he erected the south half of the 
house. In this building he opened a public house, which he con- 
tinued until his death. He died in February 1813, of the prevail- 
ing epidemic, at the age of 64 years. The property has since con- 
tinued in the fiunily and is owned by his daughter Mrs. McLeod, 
who has furnished most of the foregoing details. Mrs. Markham, 
his widow, who was the daughter of Benjamin Kellogg, one of the 
earliest settlers on the lake shore in Addison, survived him and died 
in January 1850, at the age of 85 years. 

Skunuel Sargeant, a goldsmith firom Worcester, Mass., purchased 


the lot on the Wejrbridge street, on ^hich Harmon A. Sheliloi 
rosides. He also purchased the lot next north of it then owned bj 
Elias Wilder. On the lot first mentioned he built a house of one 
story, in which he resided several years. This house he removed 
to the Wilder lot, and built the present two story house. In this 
he resided until the year 1847, when he died at the age of eighty 
years. He continued his business until the infirmities of age in* 
duced him to retire from it. James McDonald, Esq., who married 
his daughter, purchased and, for several years, occupied the one 
stoi7 house, which had been removed. William Flagg, a carpenter 
and joiner, and a respectable citizen, afterwards purchased and resi* 
ded in it until his death. Mr. Flagg was engaged in finishing a 
contract for building a church in West Rutland, which was nearly 
completed, when the scaffolding on which he stood gave way^ and he 
fell to the ground ; from which he received a fatal injury and died 
August 24, 1854, aged 49 years. His family still occupy the house* 

Mr. McDonald, on leaving this house, ^purchased the lot where he 
now resides. An old house standing on it he removed and built his 
present brick house. Mr. McDonald had been successfully engaged 
in the mercantile business, for several years, in the room in Sar- 
geant's building now in possession of Mr. W. H. Remsen. He re- 
tired from this business some years ago, satisfied with his previous 
accumulations, and is now the accomplished town clerk of Middle* 
bury. Mr. McDonald was succeeded in his mercantile business, by 
Harmon A. Sheldon, who occupied the same room until the com- 
pletion of Davenport's block. Since which he has occupied a room 
in that building, with greatly enlarged business. The old house, 
on the lot where Mr. McDonald now lesides, was built as early as 
1801, by David Dickinson, and used by him for a store. It was 
afterwards fitted up for a dwelling house, and was br several years 
the residence of Hon. Joel Doolittle, previous to his purchase of the 
house of Erastus Hawley, as elsewhere stated. 

Thomas Hagar, before mentioned, in 1818, purchased the lot and 
small house from which Dr. Willard removed, and erected a large 
house now standing there. He resided in it several years with his 
fiunily, and was succeeded by Hon. Samuel S. Phelps, who resi* 

HISTlXICY Of MibDLiHtKt. fol 

ded in it until hiii <icatli. It is still the lesiddnce of his fionilj. 

Samuel Sheatlier Phelps,^ was bom at Litchfield, Conn., May 
18, 1798^ Uia father, John Phelps, was a wealthy and respectable 
fiurmer of that place, and a soldier of the revolution. Samuel was 
graduated at Yale College in 1811, with credit to himself, although 
ooDsiderably younger than most of his class, — among whom were 
Hon. John M. Clayton of Delaware, and Hon. Boger S. Sherman 
of Connecticut The following winter he spent at the Litchfield 
kw school, and attended the lectures of Judge Reeve and Judge 
Gould. Li the following spring he came to Middlebury, and con- 
tinued his studies in the oflBce of Hon. Horatio Seymour. At the 
time of the declaration of war in 1812, he was a decided supporter 
of the administration. Soon after hostilities commenced, he was 
drafted as one of 100,000 men,, who were to hold themselves in 
readiness. During the summer he was ordered to the Canadian 
fironticr, and served in the ranks at Burlington and Plattsburgh. 
In the fall he received the appointment of paymaster in the United 
States service. In this capacity he remained while his services were 

On his return to Middlebury he resumed his law studies, and was 
admitted to practice at the December Term 1814. He continued 
in extensive and successful practice in this and other Counties until 
1881. In the meantime, in 1827, he was elected one of the Coun- 
cil of Censors. The address to the people, put forth by this Coun- 
cil, was written by him. In 1831 he was chosen a member of the 
legislative council, and during the session of the legislature that 
year he was elected a judge of the Supreme Court This office he 
held by successive elections until 1838. In the autumn of that 
year he was elected to the senate of the United States, his term to 
commence on the 4th of March following. In the &11 of 1844 he 
was re-elected for a second term, which expired on the 3d of 
March 1851. 

Judge Phelps was distinguished, as a judge, by his clear, discrim- 

*[n the Whig Royiew July 1850, is a biographiosl sketch of Jadge Phelps, writ- 
ten bj J. H. Barrett, Esq., then editor of the Middlebury Register. We use some 
of it« mitcriiU, and suob others aa are within onr reach, in forming this notice. 


inating and comprehensive views, and thoroi^gli mastery of hig sub- 
ject ; and his decisions, as thej appear in the reports from 1881 to 
1888, were distinguished by clear, forcible and convincing argu- 
ments and language. He left the bench with a prominent reputa- 
tion. He was distinguished by similar traits as an advocate. In 
diis character his reputation was not confined to his own state or to 
New England. His arguments, before the Supreme Court of the 
United States, hare fnade him known generally as a cogent and pow- 
erful reasoner. and bis talents were reicognized by distinguished men, 
capable of judging. 

As a senator, Jodge Phelps was cautious and conservative, and 
did not incline to take a leading position, as some of his fnenda 
thought he oughts Ho did not make himself common as. a speaker, 
but reserved his efibrts for the more important questions and occa- 
sions. But his influence, though silent, was felt, and his reputation 
recognized through the senate as a statesman of sound, discrimina- 
ting and practical talents. Several of his speeches, which were pub- 
lished, gave him a prominent reputation through the country. His 
labors on the committees of claims and Indian affidrs were highly 
appreciated, and it is said that the recommendation of his reports, 
fortified as they were by a clear, definite statement of the case, wore 
seldom, if ever, rejected. 

After the close of his second term in the senate, Judge Phelps 
retired to private life in hits own home, and employed himself, aa far 
as he had leisure from other avocations, in the superintendence of 
his farm. But he was frequently called from his retirement for 
counsel and professional aid in the trial of important causes, in dif- 
ferent parts of the state, and beyond its limits. 

While Judge Phelps was thus situated, Daniel Webster died, Oc- 
tober 24, 1852, and his friends in Middlebury decided to take some 
notice of so important an event, appointed a meeting to be held on 
the 11th of November, and requested Judge Phelps to deliver an 
address on the occasion. He was well qualified to perform this ser- 
vice, for he had been long personally acquainted with Webster in 
all the positions in which his talents as a statesman and advocate 
had been exhibited. On the day appointed, a large audience assem- 

Med in the Congitegational church, and Judge Phelps delivered an 
limwritten address, for nearly two hours, to a quiet and interested 
assembly. He took advantage of his text, — the life and character 
of Daniel Webster, — to impress upon his audience his own views on 
many important political subjects, and on the true character of a 
statesman. Application was made to him, numerously signed, re- 
questing a copy for publication. But for some reason it was never 
furnished. Being an unwritten address, he probably found no suf- 
ficient leisure to write it out. 

One of the deci^cst convictions, which seemetl to occupy the mind 
of Judge Phelps, in the later years of his* life, was, that the con- 
tinuance of our civil nnd political institutions depends wholly on 
the influence of Christian principle among the people. In his eulogy 
On Daniel Webster, there was no topic, which he more earnestly 
pressed, and no trait in his cliarac1!er, which he more earnestly com- 
mended, than that, being a descendant of the purit'ms, he was an 
inheritor of their principles. 

In January l^od. occurred the death of Mr. Upham, then United 
States ^'enator from this State. Judge Phelps l)eing in Washing- 
ton on other business, Governor Fairbanks sent him an appointment 
to supply the vacancy. He remained in discharge of the duties of 
that position through that session. At the *' next meeting,'^ in the 
ensuing fall, the legislature failed to make an appointment, and it 
was a mooted question whether a senator appointed by the executive 
would not continue to fill the vacancy, while it should last By 
the solicitation of his friends, he went on, at the next session, to 
claim his seat, but a majority of the senate decided against his claim. 

Judge Phelps died at his residence on the 25th of March 1855, 
in the sixty-second year of his aire. 

Jonathan Hagar, brother of Thomas Hagai", had also been in 
business in Montreal, and at the commencement of the war of 1812, 
retreated from Canada and settled in Middlebury. He' entered ex- 
tensively into the mercantile business, and for its accommodation 
erected the large brick building next west of the brick house built 
by John Warren. He also soon after built the two dwelling houses, 
on the east side of the Weybridge road, next north of his late resi- 

294 IlISTOllV OF MlI>ULEBllir. 

dencc, flow severally owned by Chester Elmer and Orin Abby. OH 
the lot where he resided was a small house built by David H. 
Griswold, who, at an early day, commenced and for a few years 
continued the practice ot law. Here Mr. Hagar built the two story 
front, and resided in it with his family until his decease. It is now 
owned by Rev. Joseph Steele and is the residence of his family. 
After a few years, Mr. Hagar exchanged his former business for 
book selling, which he continued until his infirmities forced him 
to retire from it. He was employed in various offices and trusts, 
and among them w^as treasurer of the County, and treasurer of the 
Middlebury Savings Bank for many years preceding his death. 
He was also representative of the town in the legislature for three 
or four years. He died in April 1855. at the age of seventy-seven. 
The lot now owned and occupied by Russell Vallett Esq., between 
Mt. Steele's residence above mentioned, and the Wilder lot occupied 
by the family of the late William Flagg, was owned, by a title derived 
from Appleton Foot, by Gen. Hastings Warren, who built a small 
house on it, and, on the 6th of March 1815, sold it to Nichols and 
Pierpoint, cabinet makers from Litchfield Conn. They built a shop 
on it for the use of their business, and occupied it for several years. 
The present house was built by Mr. Vallett. 

Mr. James Jewett commenced his apprenticeship, in the cloth 
dressing business, with John Warren in 1797. In 1806 he entered 
into partnership with Warren, and they together purchased the card- 
ing machines of Artemas Nixon, which he established here in 1801, 
and which were the first brought into the county, and added them 
to their other business. Mr. Jewett soon after purchased of Ellas 
Hall part of a lot, wliich he had a few years before purchased of 
Col. Storrs, and erected the dwelling house, in wliich he has ever 
since resided. On the other part of the lot, owned and lately occu- 
pied by Jason Davenport, Hall drew a blacksmith shop and fitted 
it up, which,* he says, is the same dwelling house now there. 

The lands in this neighborhood were purchased of Col. StoiTS 
and occupied at an early day, but the original settlers and their suc- 
cessors were mostly temporary residents. The first house on the 
lot, where George Cleveland Es-^. resided for many years before his 


death, and now occupied by Professor Parker, was built by Nathan 
Hubbard. From him Cleveland purchased it, and about the year 
1814, enlarged the old house or built a new one for his residence. 
He came to Middlcbur^' as early as 1805 or 1806, and pursued the 
mercantile business for several years. He was appointed collector 
of the direct tax under the administration of Mr. Sladison, and held 
the ofiSce of postmaster for twenty years from 1809. lie died in 
February 1851, aged eighty-two years, and his widow, who sur- 
vived him, in May 185-], at the age of eighty-seven years. 

Soon after the present road was laid out to Cornwall in 1803, 
Ethan Andrus Esq. from Cornwall, owning a fann on that road, 
built the house now occupied by the family of the late Dca. Cyrus 
Porter,* until he exchanged his fann in Cornwall with Dr. Matthews 
as elsewhere stated. After this he resided in the Matthews house* 
«ntil his death in 1841 at the age of eighty-five yeai^s. 

In 1810, Jonathan Blin from Orwell, purchased the house above 
mentioned, built by Andrus, and after residing in it a few years 
sold it to William G . Hooker, and purchased the lot on the comer, 
made by the Cornwall road and the street running south, on which 
had been erected a small house still standing, and built the present 
two story house. He resided here while he lived. He died in 
1832, at the age of seventy-one years. 

We here close our minute details of the settlement of the village. 
In a few instances we have gone beyond our original design. There 
are still many other cases, especially on streets more recently opened, 
which our limits do not permit us to notice. Witli these wc include 
the residences on the Grammar School Common. 

♦Dea. Cyrus Porter from Farmington, Conn., purchased this farm of Dr. Wil- 
liam O. Hooker, in February 1823, and about time moved on to it, with his 
fiimily and resided on it until the time of his death, which took place April 1, 1857, 
at the age of 62 years. He was an active and efficient member anl deacon of the 
Congregational Chnrch, and a respectiblc citizen. Tlis death was a very sore 
affliction to liis widow and numerous family, as wcil as serious loss to the church. 

29(5 ursToiiy of MiriT»Li:BrKy, 



To our more detailed account we add here some statements re- 
specting the general condition of the village, at different periods. 

None but an enterprising and persevering population would have 
mndertaken to build up a village where this stands. The thick 
hemlock and pine forest, which covered it, as well as the soil, was 
uncommonly forbidding. The first settlements were made only with 
reference to the establishment of mills and the necessary dwellings 
for that purpose. The settlers were poor, and were induced to 
open, in the forest, only a suflScient space for the erection of their 
buildings, and perhaps gardens. The trees on the common on the 
cast side of the creek were probably cut down in 1789, two years 
after Judge Painter moved here ; and it is stated by Asaph Drake 
Esq. of Weybridge, that they were still lying on the ground in 
1793, when he first came into the country. 

Mr. Abram Williamson of Cornwall, then fourteen years of age, 
came into the country in March 1790, and drove an ox team loaded 
with the goods of the family, while the snow was melting. He 
states, that the trees on the common were cut down and Iving on 
the ground ; that a passage for a team was opened thro^igh them ; 
that when driving through, his sled was several times fastened on 
the ends of the logs, and that he was obliged to get help to disen- 
gage it ; and that there was very little clearing about the village. 
At that time, he says, there were six or eight pine trees about Still- 
man Foot's house, near enough to fall on it, if falling in that direc- 
tion. There was no framed house at that time on the west side of 
the creek but Stillman Foot's, and no other on either side, unless 


Jjadgc Painter's was such. Samuel Miller had the year before built 
his office, which probably was a framed building. Mrs. William- 
son, his wife, daughter of Samuel Blodget. and grand-daughter of 
Asa Blodget, says that the elder James Bentley lived on the ridge 
south of Davenport's new house, with his daughter Mrs. Johnson, 
\rife of Hop Johnson, who had then left the country, and she recol- 
lects no other dwelling house on that side of the creek except Foot's. 
Mr. Williamson states further, that the stumps of the pine trees 
remained on the common many years after ; that the young men in 
the neighborhood associated together and had a **play day-' on 
Saturday afternoon, and one of their by-laws was that every man, 
who got drunk should be subjected to the penalty of digging up a 
stump. By this means many of them were removed. But we can 
testify that several years after the commencement of the pres- 
ent century many remained. Mr. Williamson says also, that sev- 
eral years after he came into the country, probably in 1794, he 
was hired with his team, by Anthony Rhodes, to draw oflf and roll 
into the creek the logs on the land where Rhodes built his house, 
near Mr. Starr's office. 

Horace Loorais Esq. of Burlington, in the spring of 1790, then 
fifteen years old, on his way to Burlington, where his father was 
beginning a settlement, passed through this village, with a drove of 
sheep, cattle and horses. He states, that the timber on the common 
was cut down, and that John Doming was then getting out timber 
for his new house, and he was told there was no frame house in the 

Mrs. Simmons, widow of John Simmons Esq., and daughter of 
Harvey Bell, senior, was only four or five years old, when her 
&ther came to Middlebury, which she thinks was in 1791. She 
says there was then a grist mill where Stillman Foot's mills were, 
and that Appleton's mills were built afterwards ; that there was 
little clearing where her father built his house, or on the opposite 
side of the road to the creek, and that there were no buildings or 
clearing on the Wey bridge street. The first school on the east side 
of the creek was kept by Samuel Southworth, the young man who 
was drowned in the creek, in company with Samuel Painter, in 

208 HIST RY Of MrDM.l.DUUY, 

June 1797, in the south part of the liouse now owned by M^, 
Jackson, that part only being then built. This, she thinks, was a 
district school. Lyman Pierce set up an opposition school, because 
Southworth taught the Assembly's catechism. Pierce succeede<l 
Southworth and kept in the same place. Salmon Bell kept a school 
two summers in her father's shop, on the west side, previous to the 
schools above mentioned. Miss Huntington kept a school in the 
court house before Miss Strong came ; and Mrs. Simmons attended 
Miss Strong's school there in 1800. She kejit also, probably in 
the winter, in Dr. Campbell's south chamber. In 1802 and part 
of the year following, her school was in the south room of Dr. 
Campbeirs house, which had been used for a store. 

In the Vermont Mirror, September 15 1813, we find the foUow- 
article : 
** To the editor of the \Wmont Minor : — 

In April, 1793, I came to Middlebury, and I counteil every 
building in tlie village of Middlebury Falls, and found the number 
to be 62 ; and in the year 1813, I have counted them again, and 
find the number to be 316, of which 146 are dwelling houses, 14 
ware stores. The dwelling houses, which stood here in 1793, were 
chiefly log houses, and almost wholly mere temporary buildings, 
built with small expense. There are now twenty dwelling houses 
in this village, either of which cost more than every building stand- 
ing in 1793. Jabez Rogers. 

Middlebury, 28th August, 1813.'' 

Mrs. McLeod, who came to the village with her father's family 
in 1796, states that at that time there were nine families besides her 
father^s on the west side of the creek, and thirty on the east side ; 
that Stillman Foot had a gi-ist mill where the north part of the wool- 
en factory stands, and a saw mill further up the stream, on the rocks 
back of the factory dry house ; below these Appleton Foot had 
a stone grist mill and saw mill ; and below these Jonathan Nichols, 
Jun. had built and then carried on a forge and gun factory, which 
afterwards fell into the hands of Anthony Rhodes, who carried them 
on. Stillman Foot then lived in the house which he had built, and 
Appleton in the house built by bin;, Dr. Harris lives, and 

NicLok in a small house, where Capt. Leonard died. Appleton*8 
mill house was built in 1738 ; Col. Irtorrs lived in his gambrel roof 
house, and Harvejr Bell in the old house where John Warren after- 
wards built his brick house. Mrs. McLeod further states, that 
when she came here, the Grammar school common was a hemlock 
swamp, and the academy was built in 1798; that the native forest 
still covered the land from the mills westward to Weybridge street, 
and that her father's house was exposed from the fire in those woods. 
John H. Sherrill then had a store, erected by Jabes Rogers, and af- 
terwards occupied by Benjamin Seymour. She also states that the 
bridge, first built by Daniel Foot and covered with poles, was then 
standing, and was supjx^rted in the middle by a trestle; that sho 
used to teuter on it and call it rldm^. The bridge, she says, was 
about fourteen feet wide, and has been widened wholly by extending 
further up stream. 

Benjamin Lawrence, who came to Middlebury in 1797, states 
that there was no house then on the Weybridge street, and the land 
was covered with woods; that Anthony Rhodes' was the only two 
story house on the west side of the bridge, and there were only five 
on the cast, including the old jail house, lie and Mrs. McLeod say 
that the first school they had knowledge of, was kept by Lyman 
Pierce in tlie south part of the Jackson house. 

Capt. Thomas M. Fitch* came to Middlebury, fiom Windham, 
Conn., in December, 1794, then about 14 years of age. Mattock's 
tavern house was then built, and Jfamuel Foot kept a tavern in the 
Doming house. These were the only two story houses in the vil- 
lage. Samuel Miller resided in his back kitchen. Stumps and logs 
were still remaining on the common, and there was a muddy hollow 
just north of the bridge, running down to the watering place, over 

♦Capt. Fitch served his npprcnticeship, at the carpenter's trade, with Col. Na- 
thaniel Aiplcy, and after he came of age, established himself in New Haven. Ho 
afterwards i*eturned to M iddlcbuiy and purchased the lot and built the house now 
occupied by the family of the late Martin S. Dorrance on the Papermill road. Hero 
he resided until within two or three years he went to reside with his son-in-law 
David E. Boyce. Martin S. Dorrance referred to above, after a long and distrefis- 
ing sickness, in ^hicb he gradually declined, died on the 2!9t August 185S, it the 

ag2 of fiftr.^-j 


Vi'hich Iherc was a bridge for persons on foot, and it was very miry 
to near the Congregational church, where there has been generally 
in the spring a spot of deep mire. Only about an acre was cleared 
on the lot where Mr. Chipman afterwards built his large house. 
The woods on the hill came down near the present brick house ; and 
except the clearing Freeman Foot had made near his house, the 
woods extended to the creek. There was an old school house ou 
Dr. Bass's land, on the rising ground beyond his house, and a duel- 
ling house opposite, and a road open from tliere south to the Sellcck 
lot, on which Ilezekiah Wadsworth had a house. Capt. FitcH is 
able to reckon up only about thirty-two dwelling houses, Of all de- 
scriptions, in the village. 

Rev. Timothy D wight, D. D., then president of Yale Colfcge, 
among his several visits, to wliich we shall again refer, was in Mid- 
dlebury in 1798. The following is a part of his record of this vi^t. 
**The township of Middlebury began to be settled about the year 
1783. About 1794, the inhabitants began to build a village on both 
sides of the river, at the falls in the north-west part of the town- 
ship. The number of houses when we were on the spot was per- 
haps thirty. Several of them were pretty buildings." *' Several 
mills had been erected at this place in 1798. A brewery had been 
established, several stores had been built, a considerable number of 
mechanics and several gentlemen in the liberal professions had cho- 
sen this spot as their residence. An academy was also nearly com- 
pleted, which was intended to be the germ of a future college. Up- 
on the whole the seeds of future respectability were already sown." 

Notwithstanding such was the condition of the village at the pe- 
riods above mentioned, the iehabitants had the courage in 1799 to 
invite the legislature to hold its session here the following year, and 
the invitation was accepted. The anticipation of this great event 
produced a universal stir among the population to make the requi- 
site preparations for it. Some built new houses ; others enlarged 
and repaired their old ones, and all were made ready for the reception 
of boarders. The legislature, whose session was held here in 1806, 
were provided with still better accommodations. 



Tab inducement for esUblishing the village was of course the 
"Water power furnished by the falls. But its growth and prosperity 
are not a little owing to the character of the first settlera. They 
Mere almost universally enterprising, industrious and devoted to its 
reputation. The population of the whold town in 1791 was only 
895. From this time it began gradually to increase, in the village 
as well as in the town. But the immigrants were poor, as those of 
fill new countries then were. Their first object was to obtain the 
ilecessaries of life. At an eal*ly period the houses ><'erc almost uni- 
veisally small. Many more kitchens were built than parlors, and 
the surroundings corresponded. But the tenements were gradually 
enlarged and improved, as the means were provided. Soon after 
the commencement of the present century, some of the old houses 
were replaced by larger and more commodious dwellings. Dr. 
Dwight says. — "In both these journics, (in 1806 and 1810) and 
particularly in the latter, I h\i\\d Middlebury changcil into a beau- 
tiful town, consisting of about one hundred and fifty houses. The 
inhabitants had finished a large and handsome church. The private 
dwellings are generally neat, and in several instances handsome. 
The town contains a book store, a printing oflice, twelve or fifteen 
stores, belonging to merchants and druggists, and a great number 
of Mechanics' shops.'' ^* At the same time, religion had prevailed 
in this town more than any other in the state ; and controls very 
obviously the manners and the character of the inhabitants, in a de- 
gree uncommon and delightful." '' On the whole Middlebury is one 
of the most prosperous and most virtuous towns in New England." 

From 1800 to 1820, and especially from 1810 to the latter peri- 
od, the business of the village rapidly increased. During this pe- 
riod, it T^as the centre of mechanical and mercantile business, to d 
much larger extent than afterwards. In no place were the mechan- 
ics especially more prosperous, and several were ruined by their 
prosperity. Their rapid accumulations induced a thirst for still lar- 
ger incomes, and they exchanged the business with w^hich they were 
acquainted, for that of which they had no knowledge. In the mean- 
time, mechanics and some merchants had established themselves in 

302 nistoRY o^ MiDiiLEDuny. 

the neighboring towns, from which much of the busiiiess of tho vil- 
lage had been derived. The opening of the Northern Canal by the 
State of New York, not long previous to the last mentioned period, 
created a heavy draft upon the business of the place. Previous to 
that, a large share of the business from the north-eastern towns in 
the county centred here, which was afterwards drawn to Vergennes, 
where they met navigable water, which connected them with New 
York. The business of the western towns was also drawn to the 
shores of the lake for the same reason. The businiess since that 
time has scarcely increased, and has, in some branches, diminished. 
The population and number of buildings have, in the meantime,^in- 
creased slowly. As the census of the village has never been takcn- 
separately from the town, wc arc not able to ascertain the progress' 
correctly. In the year 1840, according to the census taken in that 
year, the population of the town appeared to have diminished, in- 
the preceding ten years, about three hundred, and it was supposed 
to be owing to a. large emigration, and extended to the village, as* 
well as other parts* of the town. But it was understood at the time 
that the census that year was carelessly and incorre:jtly taken. As 
an evidence that it was so, it ai)pcared by the census of 1850, thati 
the population had increased much more for the previous ten years; 
than it had diminished in the same period previous to 1840. At 
our rec[uest, David S. Church, Esq., who made the last enumera- 
tion, as deputy marshall, has separated the number in the village 
from the rest of the town, and makes the population in that year 2070. 

The effect of the rail road passing through the vilkge, on -the 
business and population, is not yet very obvious. But our opinion 
is that both have increased, and we anticipate that the next census 
will show it. This road, connecting us directly with the great mar-* 
kets, will give our business men an advantage which will, we tliink, 
draw back mueh of the business which has been lost. The road, 
we expect, will also bring into market a large amount of water pow- 
er now unemployed. Besides, as the farming country is obviously 
enriched by the road, this also will increase the business and wealth 
of the village. 

If wo cannot boast of any rapid increase of population and busi- 


8, for some past years, we tliink we can safely claim that the \dl- 
]age has improved in its appearance. A few old houses have been 
^replaced by better, and more have been enlarged and improved by 
internal as well as external alterations. The yards, out houses 
and other surroundings have been put into better taste. Our eflForts, 
at planting ornamental trees, were commenced with Lombardy pop- 
lars, which soon became unpopular and were cut down. These 
were succeeded by locust trees, ))ut the borers soon began their dep- 
redations pn tliese, and they too were given up. Since that we have 
planted, as successfully as our stiff soil will permit, our native for- 
est, with some exotic, trees and shrubs, in our yards and commona 
and along our streets. The same expense uever added greater imr 
provemcnt to a village, than the sum. expended in inclosing and 
ornamenting ithe principal park on die east side of the creek. The 
ground, l)efore that, was uneven, gullied and an almost naked mass 
of clay. Since that the two smali parks east of it, the 3wall park wesit 
of the creek, and jnore recently the large park on the Gramma^r 
School Common, and the ornamented college grounds, have added 
fitill further improvements. So that, with all our obstacles, the ap- 
pearance of our village passes, ajnong strangers, as quite respectable. 


Among the objects, which seemed to demand some eflScient organ- 
ization, the meaijis of preventing and extinguishing fire had been 
long regarded as most pressing. Its destructive efiects had been 
experienced over almost the whole surface of the village, and swept 
away a vast amount of property, as our history shows^ As early 
as 1808, the legislature on application, parsed an act, incorporating 
a Fire Society, with ample powers, by the appointment of fire- 
wardens and otherwise to extinguish fires. A company was formed, 
and a large engine obtained. The engine, through neglect, went 
out of repair, and for want of suflScient interest in the subject, the 
company went to decay ; the corporation was left with a small debt, 
for which the engine was sold on execution for a nominal sum. 
Thus ended the efibrts and the existence of the Fire Society. This 
failure was attributed, we suppose correctly, to the fact, that the 

104 Hi.n'uur of middlkbcrt. 

purpose of the association, he'mcr limited to a single object, could 
not keep up interest enough to sustain it. 

Accordingly in 1816, on application for that purpose, the legis- 
lature paased an act incorporating the *' Borough of Middlebury/' 
with power to hold property for the use of the borough, erect public 
buildings, levy and collect taxes, make bylaws, appoint fire-wardena 
and organize a fire company. Under this act the borough was 
organized, by-laws and ordinances were established, t>xes assessed, 
and some new measures adopted for the prevention of fire. But 
the taxes were unpopular, the organization came into diwepute, and 
ran down and died. The act of incorporation was revived by the 
legislature in 1832, the name was changed to the *' Village of Mid- 
dlebury," and provision was made for the election of seven trustees 
instead of five bailifl&, provided for in the original act, and with the 
same powers. An amendment of this act, by the legislature in 
1845, provides that the highways and streets in the village should 
be regarded as '* village highways and streets,'' and gives the trus- 
tees the exclusive control of the streets, " with the grounds and 
walks of the same,'' and authorizes them to " receive and expend 
for the purposes aforesaid, such portion of the ordinary highway 
tax, assessed upon the inhabitants of said village and property 
therein, as may be assigned them by the selectmen of the town," 
which shall not be less than one third." These acts have been 
hitherto efficient in accomplishing the objects for which they were 
designed. The streets and walks and commons have been improved, 
and what is more important perhaps, an efficient fire company has 
been formed and kept alive, engines have been provided and pre- 
served in a new and substantial building erected for that purpose^ 
and a vast amount of property has been saved from the destructive 
effects of fire. 




Some facts belonging to the history of the town may be best un- 
derstood by the proceedings of their meetings. We therefore copy 
a few of their records, with some explanations. 

The town was organized, and the first meeting held, * Sit the 
hotfee of Mr. Daniel Foot, March 29, 178G," and the following is 
the record of their proceedings : 

•* Voted 1st, Benjamin Risley. Moderator. 

•• Voted 2dly. Joshua Hjdc, town clerk, and sworn. 

•'Voted 3dly, Thomas Hinman, Constable, and sworn. 

•• Voted 4thly, To dissolve the meeting. 

At the annual meeting, March 29, 1787, .lohn Chipman was chosen modemtor; 
Eobert Huston, Town Clerk; Martin Foot, Constable, At a special meeting, Jan- 
uary 1, 1788, Jonathan Chipman and Robert Huston were chosen listers No oth- 
er officers at this time had been chos n in town. 

At the annual meeting, March 24, 1788, "^ Capt. Stephen Goodrich, Joshua 
Hyde and John Chipman, Esq.,*' were chosen selectmen; and all the other usual 
tovn oflficers, as they were at all subsequent annual meetings. At this meeting it 
was '* voted, that we will lay a ttx ot one shilling on a pound, on the grand list 
of 1788, to be worked out on the roads at 4s. per day, and six pence on the pound, 
to be paid in wheat at 48. 6d. per bushel." 

At a special meeting, September 2, 1788, it was 

«• Voted, that Gamaliel Painter, Esq. bo directed to forward a petition to the 
General Assembly, in October next, petitioning that honorable body to grant a lot* 
tery in order to procure pay for building the bridge across Otter Creek, under such 
regulations as they, in their wisdom, shall think proper." 

** Voted, to recommend Elijah Foot, Esq , of New Haven, Hiland Hall, Esq , of 
Cornwall, and Mr. Daniel Foot, of Middlebury, managers of said lottery.** 

Daniel Foot had, the previous year, with some voluntary aid from 
the neighbors, built a bridge across the creek where the present 
bridge stands. The object of this vote was to raise funds to defray 
the expense. Instead of the lottery, the legislature granted a tax 


from the neighboring forest, which Had probably much defcrtyed; iiM 
the oak plank were designed to supply their places. 

At a meeting at the houde of Joliu Foot, on the Otli day of December 1794, noti- 
fied on the application of twelve free holders. 

** li, to see if the iuhabitints of aaiil town will reconsider the former vote of 
building a meeting house, where the stake was pitched. 3, to agree upon a place to 
* build a meeting hoitse •!, if no place can be agreed on, to choose a committee to 
fix on a place to build said house f), to see if th6 inhabitants will agree to lay a 
tax for the purpose of building said house. 6, to agree on a place or places for 
holding mectmgs this winter;" the following is the i-ecord of the proceedings : 

•* llie 2d article with regard to r.j- considering the former vote of building a 
meeting house, at tlie place w[ioi*c the stake was pitched, was tried and passed ih 
the negative, and of course the 3rd and 4th articles fell. The fifth article was then 
taken up and passed in the negative.'* 

'• Voted to meet at S.imuel Mattocks', till such time as the seloctmen shall notiijr 
4^6 town, that Mr. Daniel Foot's house is convenient, and then at such place aa' 
they shall direct, for public worship on Sundays." 

Previous to the meeting hold in December 1791, the town and 
religious meetings had been uniformly held at Daniel Foot's. He 
had built a large barn, just south of the place, where his large 
house was afterwards built, for the express purpose of accommoda- 
ting the meetings ; and m this building Mr. Barnett had been or- 
dained. During this time Mr. Foot had declined further to accom- 
modate the meeting. For two or three yeai-s the town meetings 
had been for some reason, held at Philip Foot's and Appleton Foot's, 
in the same neighborhood, and the religious meetings, in the sum- 
mer of 1793, were held in Dca. ?umiier's barn. During this time 
much excitement had arisen, in relation to the place for the centre 
of town business. The people, in the neighborhood ot Mr. Foot, 
and in the south part of the town, were anxious to have the ques- 
tion settled, by fixing on the place for erecting a meeting house ; 
while the people of the village, and the inhabitants north of it 
" played off," to use a familiar expression. 

The village had the advantage of an excellent w'ater power, witH 
mills on both sides. Mechanics and merchants had begun to crowd 
into it; the only lawyer and the only physicians in town had located 
themselves there ; the legislature at their session in 1791, had di- 
rected the courts of the county to be held there, and the population 
and business of the place were fast increasing. The inhabitants of 


the village therefore looked forward with confidence to the time when 
they would have such a decided majority of the votes as to control the 
decision of the question, and were not in a hurry to have it then set- 
tled. This will be readily perceived by tlie proceedings we have copied 
above. They were willing to take a lease of land *'for the use of 
a green, as long as they shall want it for that purpose. They 
would pay the ^* interest of the sum that " the meeting house to be 
built at the expense of Daniel Foot ** is worth in cash/' **as long 
as said town makes use of said house." And when it was voted to 
hold meetings at Mattocks' in the village, with an apparent inten- 
tion to return, it was on such conditions as to render that event 
hopeless. On the other hand, it is said Mr. Foot being dissatisfied 
with the delay in settling the question, declined further to accommo- 
date the meetings, for the purpose of pressing the to^vn to a decis- 
ion. Mr. Barhett also, having purchased a lot directly opposite the 
place where the meeting house was expected to be built, began to 
be uneasy. But the decision was virtually made. The religious 
meetings were never afterwards held out of the village. The town 
meetings were, for a time, held at Philip Foot's and Appleton Foot's. 
But at the annual meeting in 1796, as will be seen, the question 
was finally settled, and the meetings were ordered to be held in the 
village " in future." 

March meeting, 1705, '* Voted that there be five selectmen for the year ensuing; 
that they shall not have any compensation for their services." The selectmen cho- 
sen were Joshoa Hyde, Stephen Goodrich, Nathaniel Manger, Ebenezer Severanoe 
and Daniel Chipman, who were also appointed *' a committee to examine the bridge 
at the &ll8 and repair it, if it wants." 

*• March, 1796, "Voted to receive that part of the town of Comwall,and petition 
the legislature to have the same annexed to the tovm of Middlebury, which said 
town of Ck)rnwall have voted should be annexed to said Middlebury." 

*' Voted not to set off the westerly part of Middlebury to Cornwall. " 

' * Voted that the house of Samuel Mattooks be the place of holding town and 
freemen's meetings in future." 

The annual March meeting in 1798, was notified to be held at 

Samuel Mattocks', but was immediately adjourned to the Court 

House, that building having been finished about this time. At this 

meeting it was '' Voted to divide the town into three pound districte, 

to wit : one pound to be erected at the comer of the rood by Capt. 


Goodrich*^ ; one at the corner of the road south of Abel Case's, and 
one at the corner of the roads south of Martin Everts', and north 
of Martin Foot's." " Voted, each district to build their own pounds 
at their own expense.'' 

x\t the annual meeting in 1825, on the application of the Epis- 
copal Society, it was voted to grant that society the privilege of erect- 
ing their church on the public common, provided it should be built 
of bricks or stone ; and a committee was appointed to fix the loca- 
tion. The present church was accordingly erected, at the place rec- 
ommended by the committee. A similar privilege was afterwards 
granted to the Methodist and Baptist societies. But neither of these 
has taken advantage of the privilege. 

At the time the court house was divided into two stories, it was 
proposed that the town should have the exclusive use of the lower 
room, provided they should pay towards the exi>enHe two hundred 
iind fifty dollars. This proposition was acceptcl by tlie town meet- 
ing held on the 2d day of Septeuiber, 1828, and the amount was 
.'.ccordingly paid. Previous to this, the town and freemen's meet- 
ings had been held in the court room, from the time of its erection. 
The town also paid $'137 towards the altviration and repairs of tho 
bailding in 1844. 




The first settlers made their way to their neighbors by marked 
trees, or by puths cut through the forest by themselves, as their 
necessities required. The first highways laid out by any authori- 
ty, so far as we can learn, were surveyed in April, 1786, by a com- 
mittee appointed by the proprietors, consisting of Benjamin Risley, 
John Chipman, Robert Huston and Jonathan Chipman. The FIRST 
was a road eight rods wide, commencing on the south line of the 
town, near '^the north-west corner of the dwelling house of Capt. 
Painter,*' and running north on the west line of the west tier of 
home lots, to New Ilavcn line. This wide road, running through 
what was intended as the centre of the town, was designed as a trunk 
road, with which the cross roads were to be connected as branches. 
It was re-surveyed by the selectmen in 1788, as far as Philip Foot's 
farm, where the road to the falls leaves it. In September, l7Si\ 
the remainder was resurveyed to the New Haven line, but was never 
opened further north than Nichols and Wheeler's mill, where Phil- 
ip Foot, about that time, built a saw-milL The second was a six 
rods road, from the south line of the town, near Capt. Boardraan's, 
northerly until it unites with the first highway, near Allen Foot's. 
This road, passing by the dwelling houses of the late Martin Foot and 
Martin Everts, was designed to connect the Hyde and Torrance 
neighborhood with the centre. The third road surveyed at that 
time was four rods wide, and commenced in the west line of the last 
mentioned, where "that crosses the river" near the poor house, and 
ran westerly, by Jonathan Seoley's, to the bank of the creek near 


the three mile bridge. The fourth commenced where the last ter- 
minated, and ran along the east bank of the creek, through where 
the village now is, to New Haven line. This highway, from 
where it leaves the creek northerly, was six rods wide, an d south of 
it, four rods. The fifth was four rods wide, commencing at the 
Salisbury line, and running^by ** the now dwelling house of Thom- 
as Chipman,'' near Lochlin Wainwright's present house, and cross- 
es the river near Jonathan Seeley's, and unites with the third of 
the above mentioned roads. The sixth is a six rods road, and be- 
gins *' in the west line of an eight rods highway and on a public lot,'* 
(probably the glebe lot,) next east of the town plat, and north of 
Philip Foot's farm, and runs westerly by Eli Matthews', * 'to the west 
line of the highway running from the falls to New Ha ven,'' near the 
falls. The selectmen, in 1788, laid out a road from Philip Foot's, 
and running into this near Milieu StowelFs. In November of that 
year, the selectmen also laid a highway, called -'Preston's road,'' 
six rods wide, running southerly through Munger Street, thence 
easterly by Abel Case's to the line between the two tiers of home 
lots, and on that line to Torrance's. This line, south of the late 
Samuel Severance's, has been discontinued. Other highways have 
been, from time to time, located and altered by the selectmen. For 
an account of these, we commend the study of the town clerk's rec- 
ords to those who are interested in such studies. 

All highways in a new country, especially in a stiff clay soil, like 
that of Middlebury, after they are opened, are suflBciently diflScult 
to travel, especially in a wet season. Persons who are accustomed 
only to our present conveniences for travel, and have no experience 
of travelling through a region in the process of being cleared of a 
dense forest, have little conception of the state of the roads in the 
early settlement of the town. Something may be learned on that 
subject by the representations stated elsewhere. . 

The opening and repairing roads and building bridges is one of 
the first necessities of a new country. At the first town meeting 
when any business was done, except the appointment of officers nec- 
essary for the nominal organization of the town, a tax was laid '^ to 
l>e worked out on the road ;'' and a similar tax was laid, at every 


subsequent town meeting, for several years. At an eai*Iy day also, 
when the inhabitants were few, and the lands were owned mostly by 
absent proprietors, the legislature, in several instances, impo3e<l 
taxes on all the lands for this purpose. ^ According to the general 
laws of the State subsequently adopted, the selectmen in each town 
were required to assess a tax, prescribed in the statute, to be paid 
in labor on the highways. The town annually appointed the requi- 
site number of surveyors, to each of whom the selectmen assigned 
an appropriate district ; and the inhabitants in each assembled, un- 
der the order and notice of the surveyor, with suitable tools and 
teams, and were set to work. For the building of expensive bridges, 
or when other extraordinary expenses were required, the towns were 
authorized to lay an extra tax. This system was adapted to the 
early settlement of the country, when labor was more abundant 
than money, and every one felt an urgent necessity to have the 
roads improved. But in time it became less efficient, and the inhab- 
itants became more and more inclined to pay their taxes, with as 
little labor as possible. To encourage the payment of money insteail 
of labor, the legislature enacted, that every tax payer should have 
the right to pay his tax in money, at a discount of twenty-five per 
cent. This was an improvement of the system, but in this town it 
has not provided such roads as we ought to have. The responsi- 
bility is divided among too many surveyors, and little care is taken 
of the roads, except at the general gathering in the spring. The 
expenses of the ordinary small bridges have generally been paid 
from the ordinary highway tax. But the expense of bridges, over 
the creek and Middlebury River, have been paid from the funds of 
the town. 

The first bridge over the creek at the faUs, subsequent to that 
built by Daniel Foot m 1787, was erected in 1799. The first 
bridge over the creek near Mr. Piper's, called the Three Mile 
Bridge, of which we have any knowledge, was built in 1801, 
although probably some cheap bridge had been built before. It ap- 
pears by the proceedings of the town in November 1800, that meas- 
ures were adopted for that purpose ; it was then called the ^' bridge 
at Mr. Henshaw's fiurm," — Joshua Henshaw then owning the fiurm 

314 HI;?'TORY 01" Mll>i.l-i:iirjlT. 

now belonging to Mr. Piper. The bridge at the fulls was next re- 
built in 1811 ; and again in 182^, it was still more thorougly re- 
built, from a tax of five cents on a dollar, and made payable in 
materials, beef cattle, or money at a discount of 12 1-2 per cent. The 
old wooden abutments were replaced witli stone, and extended far- 
ther into the river. One stone pier was built, but the committee 
supposed a wooden trestle would be sufficient for the other part of 
the bridge. The result was. that in the spi-ing frcshot in 1882. the 
trestle was swept away, and that part of tlie bridgi* fell. The otlier 
stone pier was then built, and that part of the l>ndge rebuilt, and 
the timbera^on the north part replaced a few years after. Besides 
some incidental repairs and some new timbei*s, the whole bridge has 
not been built anew since 1828, until tl)c summer of 1855. At 
that time a more firm and commodious bridge, than ever before, was 
erecteii under the superintendance of Mr. Calvin Hill, first select- 
man, and Mr. David Piper, architect. The abutments, piers and 
bridge were raised two feet, with a broad side walk on ejich side, 
extending their width beyond the whole width of the former bridge. 

The Three Mile Bridge, across the creek, and the road leading 
from it to Cornwall, were not so mudi used by the people of Mid- 
dlebury as by other travellers, and the town, desiring to get rid of 
the expense of supporting tliem, at their meeting in March, 1815, 
voted to discontinue both. At the term of the County Coui*t in 
December, 1822, on the report of a committee appointed on the 
petition of some of the inhabitants west of the creek, the court or- 
dered a new highway to be established, somewhat varying from the 
old one. At the next March meeting, in 1823, the selectmen were 
ordered to build the bridge and *' repair the road to Cornwall, or 
build a new one." The selectmen not promptly obeying the order, 
the town was indicted for the delay, and at the December term, 
1824, were fined $284, with costs. At the next March meeting, 
in 1825, the town laid a tax to pay the judgment, with which the 
bridge and road were built. Since that time the town has sup- 
ported both. The present covered bridge was built in 1836. 

At the commencement of the present century, there was about as 
much enthusiasm for turnpikes, to supply the deficiency of common 


iroaus. as there has been recently for rail roads, and with about the 
same rcsuUs. Tiie inhabitants of Middlebury, desirous of having 
a more commodious connection with towns east of the mountain:, the 
legislature, at their session in this place in 1800, with half a dozen 
other charters, incorporated the Centre Turnpike Company, with 
the privilege of making a turnpike from tho Court House in Middle- 
bury to Woodstock, tv'ith a branch to Royal ton. This was a great 
undertaking at the time, and the road was not wholly completed un- 
til 1808. The toll on the road has never l)ecn sufficient to keep the 
road in good repair, and has since, aftci" a long struggle, been sur- 
rendered to the several towns, except a short piece in Hancock, in- 
cluding the steep descent on the east slope of the mountain, which 
that town will not consent to take. The road in Middlebury, from 
the Court House to the foot of the mountain, was surrendered to the 
town by act of the legislature in 1817. From the foot of the moun- 
tain east, more recently surrendered, the town has paid $300. 
Daniel Chipman and Judge Keyes, of iStockbridgc, were the prin- 
cipal superintendants and contributors, and the road has passed froirf 
them with little remuneration for their labor and contributions. 

Tho Waltham Turnpike Conipany was incorporated, in 1805, to 
construct a road from the termination of the Centre Turnpike to the 
Court House in Vergcnncs. Only that part of it which extends from 
the village to the i>aper mill bridge was located in ^liddlebury. Gen. 
Samuel ^^trong was the principal manager, and most of the stock 
fell into his hands. After struggling for many years with various 
opposing interests, the legislature, in 1828, passed an act declaring 
the turnpike to bo ^' a free public road,'^ on condition the corpora- 
tion should relinquish their claim. This they readily did. 

We add, in this connection, a few alterations of roads about the 
village. Previous to the year 1799, the highway running south 
from the village, passed through Pleasant Street, and in that direc- 
tion to the creek, and thence southerly on its bank. That year the 
present road was opened, from the Court House south, and extended, 
through what was called the Middle Road, to Bethuel Goodrich's, 
and connected with the creek road near the mile bridge. In the 
year 1799 the present road to the paper aiill was opened, and the 


year previous, the road from the Court House to Dr. Bass's. Until 
about the year 1811, the commonly travelled road from the village 
to Cornwall passed over the hill north of the college, by the pres- 
ent residence of Abraham L. Williamson, to a road running south 
by Samuel Blodget's, which is now closed. In 1803 the present 
road was surveyed to the line of Cornwall, but was not opened for 
(ravel beyond the residence of the late Dea. Porter until 1811. 

ItliiTOUY OF MlM'LLBURl'. 817 


SUPPORT OF thp: poor. 

The laws of the state make ample provision for the relief of the 
poor in tlie several towns ; permanently, if they have a settlement, 
temporarily, when they have no settlement, at the expense of the 
town where they belong, or at the expense of the state, if they have 
no settlement in any town in the state. The town of Middlebury, 
from its organization, has made provision as required by law, for 
the poor within its limits. But previous to 1822, no poor houso 
had been provided. The necessities of the poor were relieved at 
their residences, if they had any, and houses were rented for fami- 
lies who had none. In case of individuals, without families, who 
needed permanent support, they were boarded, at the expense of the 
town, in private families. Not unfrec|uently such persons, at pub- 
lic auction, were committed to the care of the lowest bidder. The 
following are among the records of the town meetings : 

March 1, 1804, ** Voted that Mrs. Frank, a pauper, be set up to 
be boarded by the week, to the lowest bidder. She was struck off 
to James Crane for a dollar a week." 

March 24 1817, '' Voted to set up some of the town poor to bo 
struck off to the person or persons, who will keep them at the 
lowest price. Widow Frank bid off by Martin Everts, to be 
kept for a year at one dollar, ninety-nine cents. Thomas Clark 
bid off by Joshua Hyde, to be kept for three months, at one dollar 
a week.'' 

This may not seem to be a very christian mwle of disposing of 
the poor. But we believe they were always committed to respecta- 
ble families, who provided sufficiently for their comfort. Besides, 
this Mrs. Frank was looked upon with little favor, and most people 
thought her inability to support herself arose only from an indolent 


and obstinate disposition. At any rate, with all her infirmities, she^ 
contrived to outlive, by many years, the patience of the people.'' 

At the annual meeting in 1822, tlie overseer of the poor was 
authorized by vote *^ to rent a poor house under the direction of the 
selectmen." At the annual meeting in 1823, the town authorized 
the selectmen to " provide a poor house and furnish employment for 
the paupers ;" and the same vote was repeated at the next annual 
meeting. Under the authority of this vote, the selectmen had, 
previous to the annual meeting in 1825, purchased and used for s^ 
poor house, the house and lot now owned by Cyrus Morton, on th6 
street leading to the creek, south of the rail road depot. For some 
reason the town seemed not to have been fully satisfied with this* 
arrangement, and the subject was agitated at several meetings until 
in March 1829, when it was voted to sell the whole establishment, 
and it was sold. Other plans were afterwards proposed, and in 
1881, a committee was appointed to confer with the other towns in 
the county, as to the expediency of establishing a county poor 
house, and petitioning the legislature to authorize it. 

At an adjourned meeting in April 183{>, it was ** Voted to pur- 
chase a farm for the accommodation and support of such persons, 
as are or hereafter may become charageable to the town, and to pro- 
vide such buildings and furnish the faim with such stock, as will be 
necessary for the purpose said fann is intended for." A committee 
was appointed, with full pov/er to make, the purchase and bind the 
town for the payment, — '* provided the aiiiount does not exceed the 
sum of ^6000.'' The committee were also authorized to borrow of 
the trustees the money belonging to the United States deposit fund, 
as it shall, from time to time, be paid, and deposit the same with 
the treasurer, to meet the orders they may draw for the purchase of 
the farm ; and the trustees were directed to collect, within two 
years, such part of said fund as may be needed for that purpose. 

The committee purchased of Dan Dike the farm now occupied for 
that use, in the south part of the town, containing one hundrcd 
acres, with commodious buildings, being the south half of the orig- 
inal Slasson pitch. 

At the March meeting in 1342, the selectmen were instructed to 



borrow, of thrf trusteoB of the deposit fund, '* all said fund not 
already borrowed,'' except the amount due the State treasurer to 
meet the claim required to be refunded, after the census of 1840, 
as elsewhere explained. At the annual meeting in 1844, the 
selectmen were authorized to purchase an additional tract of land, 
for the use of the poor establishment, not exceeding in amount the 
balance of the deposit fund; and they purchased about sixty acres. 
There has been expended for the farm, buildings, stock, farming 
tools and furniture the sum of $7,013.33. Of the whole fund 
there has been lost, in small balances, the sum of $176, by the 
failure of the securities, and the loss of the notes by fire. As we 
have stated elsewhere, the sum for which the town is responsible is 

Expended on farm, 7,018,83 

Lost, 176,00—7,189,33 

On hand in the treasury, $312,43 

5i20 ni.'^TOBY OP MIDbLKBUny. 



Few places, we think, have been more healthful than Midjllebury, 
with few exceptions, through its whole history. At the time of it^ 
first settlement, the fevei-s and chills, which are so common in new 
countries, prevailed here to a very limited extent, and were scarcely 
known. There have been occasional epidemics, to which we shall 
refer. But the general healthtulness of the town is proved, as well 
by the protracted ages of many of the first settlers, who remained 
in town, and whose ages we have recorded, as by the bills of mor- 
tality. A very destructive epidemic commenced in the fiiU of 1812, 
and continued to rage fearfully through the year 1813. and exten- 
ded into 1814. It was a fever, which conunenced and rapidly pro- 
gressed, with symptoms new to the physicians, and beyond their 
control. It is commonly designated as the fever of 1813. It was 
confined principally to persons of adult age, and an unusual number 
of heads of families were removed by it. The number of deaths, 
in proportion to the population, was greater than in any other epi- 
demic in Middlebury. In some of the neighboring towns it was 
still greater. Some have supposed, that the disease originated from 
the troops, employed in the war, while stationed here or passing 
through the country. There is however reason to doubt this sup- 
position. There was a recruiting station here, but the number of 
troops collected here, at any one time, was small, and there were 
none, so far as we know, in the neighboring towns, where the dis- 
ease most prevailed. The troops, which passed through were not 
delayed in this neighborhood. However that may be, the mortality 
was very great for a few months. Dr. Merrill says, **the deaths in 
Middlebury, during the months of January, February and March, 
with a population of about 2300, was forty-seven." 


The eryaipelatous fever prevailed to a fatal extent in 182G. It 
vas particularly destructive by inducing puerperal fever, Avliich 
proved fatal in almost every case, and many of the most respectable 
females were removed by it. Of this epidemic, Dr. Merrill says, 
** The number of deaths, between January Ist, and April 1st, was. 
tliirty-five, nme of them by puerperal fever. Population 3000." 

In the fall of 1841, and winter and spring following, the erysip- 
elatous fever again prevailed very extensively, as an epidemic, as 
the writer of this sketch has painful occasion to recollect. The 
mortality was large in both these years. According to the recoi-d 
of the late Dr. J. A. Allen, the whole number of deaths from 
November 8th to May 9th was fifty ; of the epidemic 34, of other 
diseases 16. In several other years, of which we are not able to 
fix the exact date, the typhus fever has prevailed, so as to increase 
the average mortality, as has also the dysentery, especially among 
children. And in some cases, where no particular disease prevailed 
as an epidemic, the number of deaths from old age and chronic dis- 
eases has been above the average. Such was the fact in 1829. 

A remarkable mortality, among prominent citizens in the village, 
occurred in 1855, when no epidemic prevailed. The following six 
gentlemen died of the diseases mentioned within six months, and 
the first five within less than four months. Hon. Dorastus, Woos- 
ter of '' Fatty degeneration of the heart," January 11 ; Hon. Ira 
Stewart of dropsy in the chest, February 13 ; Hon. Samuel S. 
Phelps, of syncopy, induced by a prostrated condition of his system, 
March 26 ; Rev. Thomaa A. Morrill, D. D., of ossification of the 
valves of the heart, April 29 ; Jonathan Hajgar, Esq., softening of 
the brain, April 20; Hon. Horace Eaton, of inflammation of the 
bowels, July 4 — all except the last of chronic diseases. 

The small pox has several times shown itself here. In January 
1802, it prevailed to such extent, that the town meeting, on the 
first of February, " Voted that the selectmen and civil authority of 
the town of Middlebury be, and they hereby are, authorized to per- 
mit inoculation for the small pox in the town, under such regula- 
tions and restrictions as they may judge prudent, and prohibit at 
their discretion ;'' and a hospital vaa accordingly established, remote 


from the residences and tboroughfarcs of the iniiabitants. In tlie 
spring of 1810, Luke "Wlicelock, a partner of David Page in tho 
mercantile business, and brother of the late Josephus Wheelock, 
haying occasion to visit Montreal in the prosecution of his business, 
took the small pox, at that place, of which he died soon after his 
return. At this time A'accination had been introduced to some 
extent. But so much alarm prevailed, that some of the citizens, 
not quite satisfied of the efficacy of that preventive, made applica- 
tion for a town meeting which was held on the 14th of April, and it 
was ** Voted that the selectmen be authorized to allow, at their dis- 
cretion, persons who have been inoculated for the kind pock, to be 
inoculated for the small pox, under the direction of experienced 
physicians, to be licensed by said selccctmen, and to license houses 
for the purpose, if necessary. In the spring of 1820. some cases 
of small pox occurred, and the patients were removed to a hospital 
provided for that purpose. Tatnai Prince, a^colored man, who had 
bad the smell pox, when young, and had been siccustomed to attend, 
as a nurse, upon persons having that disease, was employed to take 
care of the patients, and from them took the disease and died. 

In January 1882, Miss Church, a young lady in the Female 
Seminary, was attacked with the small pox and died. One or 
more others died of the disease, and several, who had been exposed, 
narrowly escaped, by being \'accinated, in season to anticipate the 
symptoms of the small pox ; and some, who had been previously 
vaccinated, had severe attacks of the varioloid. 

Rev. Dr. Merrill, when pastor of the Congregational Church, 
kept a record of the deaths in town from 1806 to 1842 inclusive, 
and Dr. Charles L. Allen, a similar record from 1849 to 1859 ; 
Dr. Allen, from these, at our request, has furnished us the follow- 
ing estimates of the mortality and diseases during those periods. 


Mortality of Middlebury. 

iticoRDfl from 1806 to 1842 inclusive— -37 years, by T. A. Merrill, D. D. 
•• •* 18i0 " 18j'J ** 10 " •• C. L. Allkk, M. D. 

47 •' 
Total number of deftths recorded, ------ 1660 

Annual average, --------- 86 

Anua&l per cent.. 1 2-10 —one death inr 83 persons. 
Add 25 per cent as the probable numrber omitted — 
Total number of deaths (probably) ------ 2075 

Annual average *• ------ 41 

Annual per cent. 1 17-100 — one death in 70 pci-sqiw. 

The most fatal yc«ar«» wcie — 

I8iy, Spotte«l Fever. >Jurtality ^ per cwit — one in SS/pcrsdh*. 

1820, EryHipclad. *• 2 <io-l00 per cent —one in 42 personi. 

1812, *• •' 1 910 •• — •• 62 

The least mortility occ\trrc<l in the years — 

1817, mortality 54-l<H) per cent. — one in 180 persons. 

1824, *• 05-1 W •♦ — '• 15a •' 

The death:! were distributed nmon;c the months as fulloivs: 

>!aroh ITU February 157 October ir»5 Juno 101 

August 170 Janujiry 144 May 121 July 102 

September 15'J April l;i5 Nov'r 107 December 100 

The ages at death were asccrtainc I in 1573 instances. Of these 660, or 35 66- 
100 per cent, were of chihlrcn under five. 

More females than males died, the ratio being 40 U5 100 males to 50 65-100 

Only during the last ten yoai-s have the causes of death been giv- 
en sufiSciently often to l)e of practical value. 

The epidemic, endemic and contagious diseases, including scarlet 
fever, dysentery, &c., have carried off about one-fifth of the cases, 
more than half of these being under five years of age. The con- 
stitutional diseases, such as consumption, dropsy, cancer, &c., com- 
prise nearly one-third of the deaths. Consumption alone swept off 
more than one-fifth of those dying in the last ton years, more than 
one-half of these being between the ages of fifteen and forty, du- 
ring the periods of development and early adult life. Of those thus 
taken away at the commencement of active life, there were more 
than twice as many males as females. 

Not quite four per cent of the deaths were from accidents. 


About eight per cent of the deaths were from old age, or the nat- 
ural decay of the body.* 

The remaining deaths were mainly of local origin, such as dis- 
eases of the brain and heart, pneumonia, ic. Pneumoniaj compri- 
sing about seven per cent of the deaths, has been fatal mainly at 
the two extremes of life, among young children and the aged. 

♦Between one-fifth anil onc-quurtcr of the deaths wcic of persona ovtfr 8<JTcnty 
years of age. 

lll.ST(>Kr <Jl' AlfDDLEDl'Rt. S25 



The legislatuve, at tlieir session in Middlebury in 1806, estab- 
lished a State Bank, ivith two bi-anches, one at Middlebury and the 
other at Woodstock, and appointed directors for each, although con- 
stituting but one board. The directors for this branch were Daniel 
Chipman, Horatio Seymour and John Willard. Titus Hutchinson, 
of Woodstock, was clioson President. No capital was furnished to 
sustain its credit. The business was done on the credit of the state. 
The pecuniary condition and habits of the people were hardly adap- 
ted to the long continuance of a bank on such principles. It was 
an agricultural country, and too remote from market for readily con- 
verting its produce into money, which of course was scarce. 
The country was in debt, and punctuality was not to bo expected 
from the habits of the people. The traflRc was generally conducted, 
among farmers and mechanics, by an exchange of their respective 
productions, and the foreign goods were generally paid for in the 
same articles. These were transported by the merchants to market 
twice a year, to pay for their goods. Notes were generally made 
payable in cattle or grain, or other specific articles ; and, when pay- 
able in money, they were not generally construed according to their 
tenor, but according to the convenience of the makers, if the patience 
of the creditor was not sooner exhausted. Notes taken to the bank, 
for loans, too generally received the same construction. But the 
legislature, at their next session, established two new branches, at 
Burlington and Westminster. 

Dr. William G. Hooker, whom we have mentioned elsewhere, as 

an early resident and merchant, was the first cashier of this branch, 

and continued, for some years, the principal manager of its internal 


operatious. Being accurate, attentive and courteous in stiij branch 
of business in which he engaged, and having made himself acquainted 
with banking, he afiorded efficient and valuable aid in getting the 
branch into operation, and, for a time, keeping it alive. "^ 

The directors did what they could to supply their vaults with spe- 
cie, to meet the pressing demands upon them, by exchanging theit 
bills for gold and silver, and by inducing persons wanting accommo^ 
dations to refund their loans in specie. The legislature also adopted 
various measures to keep up the credit of the bills and enforce 
greater punctuality. Among others, to promote the former object, 
they passed an act at their session in 1809, and others afterwards, 
making the bills a *• lawful tender " in payment of all land taxes. 
And to promote the latter, at their session in 1810, they passed aA 
act authorizing the cashiers, instead of the regular but slow course 
of law, forthwith to issue extents on all notes unpaid, and on all 
bonds given for the liberty of the jail yard, they wei« to issue *• close 
jail " extents, depriving the debtors and sureties of any further ad- 
mission to the liberties of the iail. In the same act they limilied 
the amount of loans. But all this did not succeed in keeping the 
bank alive. The bills would depreciate, and speculators were so un- 
civil as to buy them up at a discount, and present them for payment. 
One learned director, who happened to be state's attorney, endeii-v- 
ored to induce the grand jury to indict one of these depredators, for 
such ungentlemanly conduct, on the principle that the bank was not 
established for any such purpose, but to accommodate the good peo*- 
pie of Vermont, who needed money. 

The directors of each branch were made personally responsible fdr 
the amount of blank bills signed by the president, and all other 
property delivered to that branch. In the summer of 1812, the 
banking house in Middlebury was entered by a false key, and a large 
amount, in specie and bills in sheets, or filled for circulation, was 
purloined. The burglary was so adroitly and cautiously committed, 

*He was otherwise a respectable and useful citizen, and forward and active in 
promoting every benevolent object. After he left Middlebury, ho resided in New 
Haven, Conn., where he died, leaving h.\H widow and a daughter and son to mouin 
fii^ lo««. 


(that little disturbance was made to tlie internal appearance of the 
bank, and the door was found locked as usual. The directors however 
soon discovered that their money had been purloined,but the discovery 
was not so obvious to others, and they could prove nothing. Daniel 
Ghipman, Horatio Seymour and John Willard were still the direct- 
ors of this branch, and were called on to account tor the missing 
funds« For the purpose of bringing this claim to a speedy deter- 
mination, the legislature, at their session in 1812, appointed the 
judges of the Supreme Court commissioners *' to determine all con- 
troversies between the state and the late or present directors or other 
officers of the bank,'' and authorized them to render judgment and 
issue execution ; and in case the debtors were committed to jail, they 
were not to be allowed the liberties of the yard. Although this law 
was general in its terms, it was designed to apply particularly to 
this case. The parties were summoned, and after the trial, the com- 
missioners rendered judgment against the directors ot the Middle- 
bury branch for $28,826,18, and issued execution for the same. 
The supposed delinquents, not satisfied with this judgment, applied 
to the legislature, at their session in 1818, to remit it The legis- 
lature, after reciting in the preamble the judgment above mentioned, 
and fiurther, that, '' whereas it has been made to appear to the sat- 
isfaction of the Greneral Assembly that the said judgment ought not 
to be paid by said directors, excepting the sum of $1238,84," en- 
acted that the judgment be discharged on the payment of that sum, 
or the execution of a note for the same. 

At the same session, the legislature enacted that, instead of the 
previous number of directors, only three should be chosen, " so long 
as it shall be necessary for closing the concerns " of that institution. 
They also directed the treasurer to bum all the bills in the treasury, 
being the amoxmt received on taxes. But agents were appointed 
from time to time, for several years, to collect the debts and dispose 
of the lands received on debts due the bank. 

It may not be out of place to say that the duplicate key, by which 
the bank was entered, as above stated, was afterwards found in the 
attic story of a house, crowded in above a rafter. 

Soon after the close of the operations of the Vermont State Bankv 

328 UliToKi OF AlIIiULKDlRV. 

applications were ma^le, from different villages, for charters for pri^ 
vato banking corporations. The legislature began rather cautiously, 
at their session in 1818, and incorporated two institutions for bank- 
ing purposes, one at Burlington and the other at Windsor. Others 
were added from year to year. The whole number of banks, at the 
present time, is forty-one, with an aggregate capital of §4,041,500, 
ranging from $oO,000 to ,<sl50,000 each. 

Among others, the charter of tho '• President, Directors and Com- 
pany of the Bank of Middlebury • ' was granted November 10, 1831 , 
with a capital of $100,000, divided into 2000 shares, to be managed 
by seven directors. Only thirty dollars on each share, or $G0,00O 
was called in. Its existence was limited to fifteen years. 

For many years no general system had been established, and the 
establishment of banks was the subject of perpetual controversy, in 
the legislature and among the people. Some were opposed to all 
banks, and others contended for making the individual stockholders 
liable personally for the debts of tho corporation. For some years 
this became the most agitating political question in the State. At 
their session in 1840, the legislature passed a general act to govern 
aU the banks, which should be thereafter chartered or rechartered. 
They did not adopt the principle of making the stockholders respon- 
sible, beyond what they had paid in toward the capital. The re- 
sponsibility was made to rest upon the directors, who alone are at 
fault, if damages should accrue, from the mismanagement of the 
bank. A restraint was also placed upon their transactions, and a 
limit fixed to the amount of individual and aggregate loans, and 
the directors were subjected to forfeiture if they trespassed beyond 
those limits. Bonds were to be given by the directors and cashier, 
to tho satisfaction of the commissioner, whose duty it was made to 
examine their proceedings, and the state of the bank, and make 
report to the governor. This law was so satisfactory to the publio 
as to quiet all further agitation on the subject. 

At the session of the legislature in 1845, the charter of the 
Btok of Middlebury was renewed for fifteen years more, subject to 
the general law of 1840. The capital, by that act and by an act 
passed the following year, was increased to $76,000 by adding 500 


fihares to tlic capital stock, at 30 dollars per share. In 185G the 
charter was again renewed until 1875, and 850 shares, at $30 each 
added to the capital stock, making the whole capital $100,500. 

During the continuance of the original charter, Cren. William 
Nash of New Haven, was annually chosen president of the bank, 
and since that, Paris Fletcher, Esq., has been the president. Joseph 
Warner, Esq., has been the cashier from the beginning. No bank 
has been more judiciously and safely managed, or has been subject 
to fewer losses until recently. The directors were deceived, as every 
one was, as to the responsibility of the Rutland and Burlington 
Hail Road Company. They had extended their accommodations to 
that company to a large amount, for their small capital, and on the 
assignment of the road, they had so large an amount of the paper 
of that and two other corporations unpaid, as to swallow the whole 
of their surplus fund and compel the directors to suspend their div- 
idends for a time ; and on the recent re-charter of the bank, they 
were compelled to provide for the deficiency, which still remained 
of the capital stock, to the amount of five thousand dollars, by an 
assessment on the old shares. The bank, for the first fifteen years, 
was kept in the rooms at the north end of the hotel building. Since 
that the directors have purchased the building adjoining it on the 
north, and fitted it up in a handsome and convenient style, with a 
very substantial vault for the safe keeping of the money and books. 

*' The Middlebury Savings Bank'' was incorporated November 
12, 1836. It was immediately organized by electing the requisite 
oflBcers, and went into operation. The business waa judiciously and 
successfully prosecuted, and it became a very useful institution, for 
persons having small and increasing funds, to invest. But, within 
the last few years, the same agency, which has spread its destructive 
influence over other banks, and over many individuals, has sent, at 
least a temporary rjin into this institution. The treasurer had in- 
vested a considerable amount of the deposits in the preferred stock 
and bonds of the Rutland and Burlington Rail Road Company ; 
through the failure of which the savings bank haa become insolvent. 
Its concerns are now in the hands of a receiver, appointed by the 
Court of Chancery. 




We have already incidentally alluded to some of the manufac- 
tores, and we here notice others more particularly. 

The forge, which we hare mentioned, as established by Jonathan 
Nichols, falling soon into other hands, was not long kept in opera- 
tion. While the manufacture of iron was carried on in it, the ore 
was obtained in part from Monkton, but principally from Crown 
Point, west of the lake. The gun &ctory was established chiefly 
to manufacture guns^or the government Nichols and the owners, 
who succeeded him, had a contract for the manufacture of one 
thousand, which were finished, and inspected by Major Orr of the 
army, and received by the government in 1802. Mr. Elias Hall, 
who had been employed in the works, contined, on a small scale, 
the manufacture and repair of guns for several years afterwards. 

While Josiah Nichols, mentioned elsewhere, was employed in the 
trip hammer shop, in company with Daniel Pettibone and Ezekiel 
Ohapman, ia the year 1799 or 1800, they discovered a process for 
welding cast steel, an operation which, although of great impor- 
tance, it is said, was not previously understood in the country. In 
1802, a patent was taken out in their names. Nichols, we believe, 
nevor obtained any income from the patent, but one or both the 
others, who removed to other parts of the country, used it and prob- 
ably sold it to others ; and it is now in general use in the country. 

In the spring of 1806, Lavius Filhnore, an experienced archi- 
tect, came to this village^ under a contract for erecting the Cpngre* 



,. 0:-'. J. 
■ f: ;■ ■, 

an! i.f 

iu ;• 


gational chtirch. In February following, David Page, Jun, from 
Jaffry, New Hampshire, established himself here in the mercantile 
business. At the last mentioned date. Page and Fillmore purchased 
of Judge Painter his mills and water power, on the east side of the 
falls. Soon ^fter, Mr. Fillmore removed the old mills, and made 
preparation for erecting a flouring and grist mill, on a larger and 
more permanent scale. The r^ult was the completion of the stone 
mill and store rooms recently burnt. 

As early as 1811, Mr. Page commenced the ejection of the stone 
^tton factory, on the grounds tkorth of the mill. The obstructions 
to the commerce of the country, during the European wars, by the 
decrees of the French emperor, and the orders in council of the 
British government, and the action of our own government in their 
defence, had directed the attention of the etiterprising people of this 
country to the eistablishment of manufactories of our own. But the 
machinery for mtottufacturing cotton in this country was very im- 
perfect and not easily obtained. Mr. Page set up such machinery 
as he could obtain, started his works on a small scale, and manufiic- 
tured some cloth before the close of the war, which he sold for fifty 
cents a yard, and which might now sell for six or eight cents. 

Mr. John Hoiigfclon, from New Ipswich N. H., who had been 
employed in erecting machinery in the cottoft mills in that place, 
was first employed for that purpose in this factory. In the year 
1817, Mr. Joseph Gordon, who had been employed in the manu- 
facture of machinery, and had set up several fikrtories in Scotland, 
and is still living in this place, with his daughter, principal of the 
Female Seminary, imtnigrated to this country and brought with him 
ditowings of machinery used there. Mr. Gordcm b«ilt for Mr. Pago 
twenty power looms at that time. These, Mr. Gordoa informs us, 
Were the €^t power looms ever built in the United States, except 
six in Rhode Island, which were built by a Scotchnum, who came 
to this country the year before. Isaac Markham, an ingenious young 
mechanic, who had worked under Houghton, was set to work and 
manufactured the iron part of the machinery. He died, aftier estab- 
lishing a distinguished reputation as a machinist, in 1825, at the 
early age of thirty. 


After these works were completed, Page and FilliliO^e dhidcd 
their property, Fillmore taking the mill and Page the factdry. 
During the war, and subsequently, while large crops of wheat were 
raised in the country, the manufacture of flour was prosecuted with 
great success and profit. 

In the year 1821, Professor Frederic Hall published a '' Statis- 
tical Account of the Town of Middlebury," from which we propose 
to quote largely, as we can thus more easily obtain the facts cor- 
rectly, than from any other source. *' The first," he says, ** is a 
grist mill, owned by Nathan Wood & Co. It is of stone, and the* 
form of its base is that of an L. Its lewgth on the side next to 
the water is forty-five feet, on the east side seventy-six, on* the 
street forty-five, and it contains five set^ of stones, with screens 
and apparatus, moving with sufficient power to manufacture into 
flour eighty thousand bushels of grain annually. The situation of 
this mill is singular ; and the plan, in part new, was formad by an 
ingenious archetect, Mr. Lavius Fillmore, to whom I am indebted 
for tbe following particular relating to it It stands on a' solid 
rock, projecting into the creek about thirty feet up stream from the 
falls. After leveling the rock sufficiently for the foundation of the 
building, a vault was cut in it, 43 feet long, 25 feet deep and 18 
feet wide, which brought it neai-ly even with the surface of the* 
water, aA the foot of tlie cataract. Then an inlet was formed, 26' 
feet in length, through the solid rock, from the bed of the stream 
to the vault, through which water, in sufficient quantity to carry 
all the stones and other machinery, flows into a flume, 48 feet long, 
six wide and eighteen^ deep, fortified by solid rock, on all sides, ex- 
cept one, where the water, in the ordinary manner, is- thrown inta 
six tub wheels, built on an improved construction, and placed in 
the bottom of the vault.'' The water is discharged *^ through a 
subterranean outlet'* into the creek below the fistUs. The mill can- 
not be endangered by the highest floods. " The inlet and outlet of 
the floom, being formed in solid rock, is subject to no decay, and 
the wheels are entirely secured from the frost. 

Mr. Hall says of the cotton factory : " The next establishment is 
a large cotton manufactory, erected by Major David Page, who has 

HijjtoilY uf MIDDLEBURT. ' 338 

jK)litely furnished Dfic ^villl a description of it. It is constructed 
of grej and white lime stone or marble, and its walls are thick and 
very substantial. It is one hundred and fifty leet in length, thirty- 
seven feet wide, six stories high at one end. /md three at the other. 
The present proprietor, Mr. Joseph Hough, informs me that the 
building contains at this time (December, 1820.) eight hundred and 
forty spindles for cotton, fifteen power looms, together with two wool- 
len carding machines. The spindles produce a suflScient quantity of 
yarn daily for five hundred yards of sheeting.'' This factory, not 
long afterwards, became the property of the late Benjamin Marshall, 
of Troy, N. Y., a large manufacturer, who by his will conveyed it 
to Mrs Julia Carville, wife of Mr. Charles Carville, of New York, 
who now has the title. Mr. Marshall added a large quantity of 
machinery, and among others, increased tlie number of looms to about 
one hundred. It has since been managed by different persons, as 
agents or lessees. In 1849, Mr H. W. Pitts, an experienced man- 
ufacturer, took a lease of it, and has since carried it on prudently 
and judiciously, and with success and profit to himself. It has ex- 
changed much of the old, for new and improved machinery. Ho still 
has one hundred looms, but has only sixty in running order. He 
manufactures daily sixteen hundred yards of heavy sheeting, and from 
one to eight hunch'cd pounds of yarn, according to circumstances. 

The mill, after the time mentioned by Mr. Hall, became the 
property of Aaron and Timothy Hall, of Keene, N. II., both of 
whom died and it was carried on by different persons under them 
and their administrators, until the 16th of September, 1854, when 
it was destroyed by fire, together with the store in front, occupied 
by Nathan Wood, and the brick store of Gen. Nash adjoining, oc- 
cupied by W. S. Lane for a clothing and furnishing store, and the 
shop attached, occupied by L. Bertrand as a tailor. In the fall of 
1855, the site and privileges of the mill, with its partially standing 
walls, were purchased by Mr. H. W. Pitts and Mr. Harmon Shel- 
don, who have rebuilt it and set it in operation, with four runs of 
stones and improved machinery, which is capable of manufacturing 
one hundred barrels of flour daily. 

We quote again from Professor Hall. ** On the opposite side of 


the river is another cotton manufactory, owned by Mr. John War- 
ren, who communicated the following facts. The building is of 
stone, fifty-eight feet in length, thirty-two in width, and forty in 
height, containing six hundred spindles, with all the necessary appa- 
ratus. They yield yarn enough daily for two hundred yards of 
sheeting. Adjoining 'this is a stone building in which are eight 
power looms, weaving, on an average, one thousand yards of cloth 
a week. Under the same roof is a double fulling mill, or two stocks 
on one wheel, which for twenty years past has fulled twelve thou- 
sand yards annually, also a double carding machine, which cards 
from six to twelve thousand pounds of wool in a year." 

This is the factory into which John Warren converted his grist 
mill, about the year 1813. He enlarged the building, and among 
others erected, at the north end a stone buildings mentioned by Mr. 
Hall as containing his looms, and a wooden building over the shed 
at the south end, which was occupied as a tenement for his employ- 
ees. In the summer of 1825, this whole establishment was con- 
sumed by fire. It was rebuilt by Mr. Warren, Stephen Hinsdill of 
Bennington furnishing a portion of the macliinery. In 1835 the 
'i^holo establishmeut became the property of Hinsdill, and he put in 
the requisite machinery, and converted it into a manufactory of sat- 
inet. In February, 1836, the factory took fire again, and the roof 
and upper part of the building, to the floor of the second story, and 
the wooden building at the south end, were consumed. Not far • 
from the same time, the stone building at the- north end tumbled 
down, for want of a substantial foundation. The damage done by the 
fire was soon after repaired. 

In November, 1835, the *'Middlebury Manufacturing Company " 
was incorporated by the legislature, ** for manufacturing cotton and 
woolen goods,'' with a capital of .$200,000. In the summer fol- 
lowing, sufficient stock was subscribed and the company organized. 
In the fall of that year, the company purchased of Hinsdill his fac- 
tory, added new machinery, purchased a large quantity of wool, 
and prosecuted, with all their means, the manufacture of satinet ; 
intending, in tlie spring, to enlarge their establishment for the man- 
ufoeturc of \^ oolcn gooils. As thcixi was no means of trans«porting 


their goods to market in the winter, a very large quantity had ac- 
cumulated by the spring of 18o7* By the time the goods could be 
conveyed to market in that fatal spring, there was no market to be 
found for them. Many of them were sold at half their cost, and the 
sacrifice was so great and the market continued so much depressed, 
that the stockholders were di8Courafi;ed from further prosecuting the 
business. The corporation still own the works, and have since purr 
chased the works formerly owned by Capt. Moses Leonard and his 
son-in-law, Andrew Rutherford. The grist mill in the basement, 
and the saw mill, west of it, continued in operation, but the factory 
reuLiined idle until 1840. At tliis time, Mr. Jason Davenport and 
Mr. Oliver P. Turner, two young practical manufiicturers, took a 
lease of the factory, and part of the machinery, and prosecuted the 
manufacture of woolen goods, with great success and profit. Tur- 
ner died in 1847, and the business was continued by Davenport and 
Charles D. Nash, and by the latter until 1851. The factory re- 
mained idle again until 1854, when it was leasal to Mr. Daven- 
port and Valentine Y, C^ay, as paitners, who are still successfully 
prosecuting the business. 

We quote again from Professor Hall. '* Proceeding down the 
creek, on the westeni side, after passing two saw mills, two grist 
mills, a clothier's works and some other establishments of minot 
importance, you come to the Marble Factory. The marble in this 
• village, which is now wrought on a large scale, and extensively dif- 
fused over the country, was discovered by Eben W. Judd, the pres- 
ent principal proprietor, as early as the year 1802. A building on 
a limited plan was erected, and machinery for sawing the marble 
(the idea of which had its origin in the inventive mind of the pro- 
prietor) was then first put in operation. In 1806, a new and com- 
modious building, two stories high, and destined to comprise sixty 
saws, to be moved by -water, was erected. In 1 808, this enlarged estab- 
lishment went into operation, and has continued to the present day." 

•' The saws are made of soft iron, without teeth, and are similar 
in form to those, which are used i^ sawing marble by hand, in the 
large cities in Europe. The softer they are the longer they last." 
'* The marble until lately has been obtained chiefly from a quarry, 


situated within a fow feet of the mill. During throe or four of the 
last years, much has been procured, at the time of low water, at 
the bottom of the creek, immcdiatclj above the falls. It is raised 
from its bed, partly by means of wedges, but principally by blast- 
ing.'' *' I'he marble, after being sawed into slabs, is manufactured 
into tomb stones, currier's tables, jambs, mantle pieces, hearths, 
window and door caps and sills, side boards, tables, sinks and vari- 
ous other kinds of furniture. These articles arc transported to Mon- 
treal, Quebec, Boston, New York and even Georgia. — The machinery 
has sawn annually,from five to ten thousand feet since the year 1 808." 
This was the first manufacture of marble upon an extensive scale 
established in this state, and the machinery for sawing on this plan 
was first put in operation by Dr. Judd,* and has since been exten- 

«There is no doubt, wc tbink, that Dr Judd was the first to put in operation the 
machinery for sawing marble by waler on this plan, now so extensively used through 
the country; and it i3 the general understanding that he invented the machinery. 
Bat it is now said that Isaac Markham, who was afterwards known as a very inge^ 
nious mechanic, and then only ten years of age, first conceievd the plan, and exhilv- 
ited a model to Dr. Judd, who built his first experimenUl factoryfor the purpose of 
trying it This is now understood to be the fiictby the family connections of Mark- 
ham, and his mother, who was an observing and intelligent woman, often so stated 
in her life time. And it is thought, that was the rcoBon Dr. Judd did not then 
take out a patent for the invention. In 1822, he obtained a patent for machinery, 
which he invented for raising and lowering the saws, as required in their operation. 
It is stated also on the same authority, that about the same time, two men were 
engaged secretly in contriving and building a picking machine. No persons wero 
admitted to a sight of the machine, lest the secret should be discovered, before a 
patent was obtained. But Isaac, beings boy, was admitted without suspicion. 
When he went home he said he could contrive a better machine, and, with such 
tools and materials as he had, formed a model, which, it is said, was adopted by 
the men, instead of their own. Dr. William McLeod, of Poultney, a son of Mrs. 
McLeod, mentioned elsewhere, and a nephew of Isaac Markham, in a letter to his 
brother Thomas H. McLeod of this place, dated March 11, 1859, says — "In the 
year 1806 or 1807, when I first came to Middlebury, or s^^ortly after, while uncle 
Isaac Markham was living at his father's house, I frequently saw a model of what 
was called a stone saw mill, in a room he occupied as a shop. I also very weU 
recollect of hearing the subject conversed upon in the &mi]y , and I feel confident 
by others also, for some time after, in reference to the machine or its principle 
having been taken or borrowed from his model and applied to a factory erected by 
Mr. Judd for sawing marble." '* I recollect hearing the subject of the invention of 
the picking machine converfled about at the time referred to." " On another oe^ 


sively aJopteJ elsewhere. lie was an ingenious and somewhat 
scientific man, and having been committed to the liberties of tho 
jail here, on a judgment of tho United States court, he set himself 
to contrive some mode of employing his faculties, and obtaining the 
means of subsistanco. In anticipation of establishing the manu- 
facture of marble, in the spring of 1803, he obtained from Apple- 
ton Foot a lease for 999 years of the right to dig marble on any 
part of his lot, between his house and the creek, the foundation of 
which was marblo throughout, and the privilege of erecting a mill. 
He afterwards obtained a title to the land in fee, and occupied the 
house on it, until he built, on the same site, the large brick house, 
now owned by Dr. Nathaniel Harris. 

Dr. Dwight, on his visit in 1810, says of this marble and its 
manufacture, ^' A quarry of marble hjis been discovered in tho 
bank of the river just below tluj bridge, a continuation of the ledge, 
which forms the falls. It is both white and dove-colored, elegantly 
variegated, and of finer texture than any other, which has been 
wrought hitherto in the United States. It is sawn, ground and 
polished by water machinery ; and is cut and carved, with an ele- 
gance not surpassed on this side of the Atlantic' ' 

After Professor Hall's account above quoted. Dr. Judd purchased 
the quarry of beautiful block marble, on the lake shore in Shoie- 
hara, which he transportc-d by teams and extensively manufactured 
at his mill hero. In the year 1820, he received into partnership 
his son-in-law, Lebbeus Harris, son of Lebbeus Harris, Senior. By 
them the business was largely prosecuted, and agencies for the sale 
established in some of the large cities, and in Western New York. 
In 183T, the whole establishment was brought to a close by the 
death of both the partners. Mr. Harris died in April, at the age 
of forty-five, and Dr. Judd, in September, at the age of seventy- 
six. The mill has never been in operation since. Dr. Nathaniel 
Harris, a brother of Lebbeus, who had also been engaged in the 

casion. when uncle was employed in Waltliam, Mass., he, in showing me the 
machinery of the fisustory, referred to the picker, and remarked to me, that he was 
the inventor, and also referred to his being the inyentor of the machine for sawing 


business in various ways, continued tiie manufacture on a small 
scale for a few years, but has now, for many years been in the prac- 
tice of dentistry. Mr. Daniel Judd, son of Dr. Judd, still prose- 
cutes the business on a small scale in a shop near the former factor3^ 

At an early day, Rufus Wainwright and Jonathan Wainwright, 
Jun., sons of Jonathan Wainwright, Esq., of Salisbury, established 
themselves in the tin and iron business, on a small sc«ale, and having 
cnterprizo and energy, they enlarged their business from time to 
time. Not long after the close of the war of 1812, they erected a 
furnance below the mills, built bj Appleton Foot, on the site of the 
former forge, for casting stoves and other articles. Tliey purchased 
the store now occupied by Mr. Davenport, for their place of busi- 
ness, and greatly enlarged it, as their business increased. In the 
summer of 1826, their furnace was consumed by foe, with the 
neighboring grist mill and trip hammer shop. They then purchased 
the water power on the east side of the paper mill falls, and erected 
there a new furnace and machine shop on an extensive scale. Their 
principal business was the manufacture of stoves, which then went 
into all parts of the state and into Canada, where they had agencies 
for the sale of them. Rufus Wainwright, some years l^efore his 
death, withdrew from the concern, and devoted himself to his farm, 
and by his labor and counsel, and liberal contribution from his large 
estate, to the promotion of every important interest; our literary 
and religious institutions and every important enterprise exhibit 
the effects of his large liberality. 

The business was continued by Jonathan Wainwright until his 
death. In the meantime, after the death of Judge Painter, they 
purchased his beautiful residence, together with a part of his lands. 
Rufus occupied this house with his family until his death, and fit- 
t^ it up in an improved style. They also built, for a residence for 
Jonathan, the large brick house, now owned by Hon. Joseph War- 
ner. In this his family resided until his death. In their business 
they were not only enterprising and judicious, in all their transac- 
tions, but liberal with their employees and others with whom they 
dealt. Jonathan Wauiwright died in September 1845, aged fifty- 
nine, and Rufus in March 1853, at the age of sixty-seven. 

388 niSTOKY OF middi.i.burt. 
huMiUMM in varinna reaw *-''-- "» '' 

1 A^ 

£Srv%»ti»r. ijih. M^rfwr 



After the ileiith of Jonathan Wainwrigbt, Jason Davenport pur- 
iliased tlie furnace and machine shop, and the store which had been 
fhe place of business of the partners, as well as of Jonathan, and 
became their successors in the iron and tin business, which he still 
prosecutes. His stove liusinesa is principally confined to sales at 
home, but his other business has been greatly extended, so as to em- 
brace every department of iron, hardware and agricultural tools. 

In the fall of 185 1, Mr. N. 11. Hand established a pail factory, 
and for tliat purpose purchased the building erected by Dr. Judd 
for his marble factory. In this he has established an extensive man- 
ufacture, not only of pails, but of butter tubs, keelers and other 
articles in that department. The timber which he uses is sapling 
pines and white cedar, ll'is works, when in full operation, are ca- 
pable of manufacturing &ix hundred pails daily. lie has added 
recently a mulay saw mill, on a new and ingenious plan, which he 
thinks will saw double the quantity of lumber sawed by common 

In addition to the fires, already mentioned, which have destroyed 
fiictories and mills in this neighborhood, we notice one or two more, 
which completed the entire destruction of all the buildings originally 
erected there. At an early period of the present century, — the ex- 
act date we have not ascertained,— the forge and gun factory were 
consumed. In March, 1831, at midnight, a fire broke out at the 
Bbuth end of the bridge, which consumed the saw mill, then owned 
by Daniel llenshaW, the building built by him on the lower side of 
the bridge, in which Gen. H. Warren and Timothy Harris had a 
dry goods and grocery store, Jared W. Copeland his printing office, 
and John Vallett his shoe shop, and on the opposite side of tho 
bridge, the building erected by Joshua Henshaw, and then owned 
by David Nichols,t in which Mi*. Nichols had his leather store, and 
Ephraim R. Smith his dry goods aiid grocery store, and a part of 
which Was occupied as a tenement 

*Since the above was written, the establishment has faUcn into the hands of J. 
M. Slade & Co. 

tMr. David Nichols, mentioned above, was a tanner and currier, on an extensive 
pcale He owned a small dwelling hou.«<«. in which he resided, and a tannerv c»u 





T^IIK first printing office w«is* established in MiJdlebury by Josepi' 
D. Huntington and John Fitch, young men from Windham, Conn., 
in 1801. They commenced the publication of the Middlebury Mer- 
cury, tlie first newspaper, on the l6th day of Pecember of that 
year! Their business was' commenced in the building at the south 
I end of the bridge, where Nichols' brick building nOw stands, and 
was afterwards, in February, 1804, removed to the building erected 
by Jabcz Rogei-s for a dwelling house, which was removed for the 
i^ail road track. In 1806 the partnership was dissolved, and the 
business was continued by Huntington, and the Mercury waa pub- 
lished by him until 1810*. To their establishment was soon added 
the business of book bindmg. They al3o kept for sale at their office 
a few books, such as were more generally needed in the country ; 
especially school books, blank books and aUnanacs. In the fall of 
1802, Huntington and Fitch published the first Vermont Register, 
and the publication was continued by them and by Huntington until 
1810. They published numerous pamphlets, and a few other books, 
and among them the *^ Law Magazine/' by John Simmons, Esq., 
in 1804, t'he first book of fbnns published in the state, and *^ Dis-' 
courses on Religious subjects, by the late Rev. Job Jwift, D. D., 
to which are prefixed sketches of his life and character," in 1805! 

Weybridgo Street He had purcfiased the building above mentioned for his leath- 
er store. After its destruction, he built the large brick building, which bears his 
name, on the same ground. He also, a few years before his death, built the large 
dwelling house on Wey bridge street, now occupied by Professor Boardman. Hav- 
ing occasion to visit New York at a time when the Asiatic Cholera prevailed there', 
he was seized with that disease on his return heme, and dM in October, IW» in 
. the iixty-third year of his age. 


Since 1812. Weekly Newspapers have been published, without 
interruption, and frequently two and some times three, and occa- 
sionally other periodicals. But the changes of the names and pub- 
lishers have been too frec^uent to authorize a detailed history of 
them. We therefore take the liberty to copy from Dr. Merrill's 
account the following table with the addition of such as have been 
since published. 

"««• r-i ri CJ >^ 

t 2^ rt 5 o 
— ^ c: r. ci -£ ..-D 

Ct CC Ct O I— Q\ 

« C vt OT 'j[ < < O O >-, C -. -< -^ * 

•-^ ::;s • - - • - ' = 3 ? ? § 

■C *-5 — 





r- C-l 




c'j — ri 

c't ?5 '^ 


•: ;J 




X X ""* 


z J 





The colons (:) in the above table, indicate a change in the pub- 
lishers and names of the papers. Only six numbers of the Chris- 


tian Herald were published, when the name was altered to Christian 
Messeliger. The Axgas and Free Press were continued, when the 
table was published in 1841, but was discontinued not long after. 
The People's Press, in the spring of 1841, was purchased by H- 
Bell Esq., who commenced the publication on the 11th of May of 
that year, and the paper was continued in his name until April 
1849, some months after his death. The name waa changed in' 
November 1843 to the Northern Galaxy, and in January 1848 to 
Middlebury Galaxy. J. H. Barrett and Justus Cobb, Esqrs., had 
contracted for the purchase of the cstablishmet previous to Mr. 
BelPs death, and commenced the publication in theii^ names at the 
close of the year, in April 1849. They continued the publication 
until Mr. Barrett withdrew from it in April 1856. The following 
year it was published by Cobb and Fuller, and has since been pub- 
lished by Justus Cobb and Rufus Mead.* The name was changed 
in January 1850 to Middlebury Register, which is still retained. 
The oflSce haff been recently removed to the new building, erected 
by Mr. Cobb, at the north end of the bridge. 

The following table of original books published here we copy also 
from Dr. Mcmirs history. 





. BllX, 


Vermont State Papers, 

William Slade, 


8 vo. 


Fall of Palmyra. 

N. U. Wright, 


24 mo. 


Reftuirkable Events, 

Leonard Dcming, 


12 mo. 


Christian Instructor, 

Josiah Hopkins, 


12 mo. 


Youth's Etherial Instructor, 

Uzziah C. Bumap, 


8 vo. 


The Christian Instructor Instructed 

, Noah Lovings, 


12 mo. 


Essay on Contracts, 

Daniel Chipman, 




Vermont Reports, 

Daniel Giipman, 



8 vo. 


Vermont Reports, 

Supreme Court, 



8 vo. 


The following have since been published : Life of Hon. Nathan- 
iel Chipman, LL. D., by his brother Daniel Chipman, 1846. Me- 
moir of Soth Warner, by Daniel Chipman, L. W. Chirk, Pub- 
lisher 1848. Memoir of Tliomas Chittenden,and History of the Con- 
stitution, by Daniel Chipman, le?49. Catalogues of the Principal 

♦Rocently— AprillSjO -Mr. Cobb has sold his interest in the establishment to .1. Fuller, and it is now coniuctad bj Mead and Fuller as partners. 


Officers of Vermont, 1778 to 1851, by Leortard Deming. Cata- 
logue of the Graduates of Middlebury College, embracing a Bio- 
graphical Begister and Directory, by Thomas Scott Pearson, A. B. 
Several Pamphlets have also been published. 

Previous to the year 1810, a limited assortment of books had 
been kept by printers, different merchants and by Olcutt White a 
book binder. In that year the writer of this sketch, believing the 
interest of the community required a more ready access to useful 
books for general reading, established a bookstore with a more gen- 
eral assortment ; and about the year 1813, Hon. William Slade es- 
tablished another. Several religious and other books were pub- 
lished by each of these establishments. Jonathan Hagar, Esq., 
succeeded and for many years continued an extensive bookstore es-- 
tablishment. Not long before his death in 1855, he relinquished 
the business ; and Lucius W. Clark, who had previously opened a 
bookstore, continued it until his death in 1852. It was afterwards 
continued by his son Lucius Clark, and is now kept by Solomon 
Parker, in what is called Allen's Block. In the meantime Albert 
H. Copeland has, within a few years, opened an establishment for 
the sale of the periodical literature of the day, — newspapers and 
magazines, — with a general assortment of new publications and 
stationery, which has increased to an extensive establishment, and 
has lately been removed to Brewster's Block. 


From a communication from the General Post Office, obtained at 
our request by Mr. II. L. Sheldon, it appears that the post office 
was first established in this place in July 1793, and that Robert 
Huston was appointed the first postmaster. The first three bpoks 
in the post office department, havmg been burnt, in the destruction 
of the building belonging to that department, the exact date of the 
appointment of postmasters cannot be ascertained, but are suffici- 
ently learned by the accounts in the auditor's office. The following 
is the list of appointments, as furnished by the department. 

** Post Office at Middlebury establishmed in the month of Jolj, 1798 

Robert Huston appointed postmaster do 1793 





Samuel Foot iippoInttHl 




Horatio Seymour 




George Cleveland 




Calvin C. Waller 





Erastus W. Drury 





Charles Bowen 





Edward D. Barber 





Emerson B. Wright 





Asa Chapman 





Emerson B. Wright 





William P. Bussel 





We regret that we have not obtained the dates of the changes, in 
the frequency of the mails and Uie income of the office, from time 
to time, that we might the better ascertain the progress of the bus- 
'iness in this department from its small beginnmgs. The office when 
first established was kept a mile from the village, and the mail was 
not probably received oftencr than once in two weeks. The popu- 
lation^ then scattered over the whole town, could not have been over 
five hundred ; there was little business which required the use of 
the mail for its transaction ; the newspapers, which penetrated into 
the wilderness were few and the whole mail matter was small. Now 
crowds besiege the post office on the arrival of the mail every day, 
impatient for its distribution. 

In the fall of 1793, the year in which the post office was estab- 
lished in Middlebury, the legislature passed an act, granting to 
Nathan Bellows of Poultney, •' and his heirs and assigns the sole 
and exclusive right and privilege of running a stage or stages on 
the route from Rutland to Burlington,'' '^ for and during the term 
of ten years." *^ After the expiration of two years from the pass- 
ing" of the act, he was required ** to run his stage from Rutland 
to Burlington and back again to Rutland in every two weeks for 
the term of four years," and after the explication of six years, dur- 
ing the remainder of the term, he was required to perform the ser- 
vice every week, and he had the " liberty to suspend the running of 
the stage eight weeks in every spring and four weeks in every fall " 
during his whole term. 

Mr. Bellows had probably, at the time, the contract for carrying 
the mail on this route, and the act was probably passed with refer- 


crence to the then present and prospective arrangement for carrjriug 
the mail, as well as to the condition of the roads, and the travel oii 
them. For the first four years, we suppose, the mail w^as carried 
through the route once in two weeks, and for the last six years to 
1803 once a week. When the stage did not run, the mail was car- 
ried on liorse back. In the fall of 1801, when the writer first came 
to Middlebury. and some time after, a two horse waggon for a stage 
"was run by Mr. Wheelock of Rutland, who also carried the mail, 
once a week, starting from Rutland, on Monday morning, and 
reaching Middlebury the same day ; Tuesday it reached Burlington, 
Wednesday St. Albans, and the three following days returned to 
Rutland. Afterwards the mail was carrid twice and then thrice a. 
week, and now for many years daily. 


The post oflSce in East Middlebury, was established January 29, 
1834 ; and tho following is a list of the postmasters since that time, 
with the dates when they entered on the duties of their office. 

Timothy Mathews, Jun., 




Levi Need ham 




Orleins P. Torrance 




Levi Neelham 




Royal D. Farr 




246 niSTOllT 07 JlIDDLSBrRT. 



In the course of our history, we have had occasion to mention 
several of our professional men. We here add short notices of 
others, who have been or are in the practice of law in town. 

Beaumont Parks Esq. was admitted to the bar in 1811, con- 
tinued in the practice some years, and removed to Indiana, where 
he was employed in teaching. 

Robert B. Bates Esq., originally from Connecticut, had been 
in practice a short time in the State of Delaware, and was admitted 
here in June 1813. He was in the practice here fifteen or twenty 
years. During that time he was elected a representative of the 
town six years, three of which he was Speaker of the House of 
Representatives. He afterwards removed to Albany and thence to 
New York, where he died a short time after. Mr. Bates was a 
man of talents and vivid imagination; and of considerable attain- 
ments in literature as well as in law. He was also an eloquent and 
popular advocate ; and in short was like a splendid, but short lived 

Rev. Joel H. Linsley D. D., son of Hon. Joel Linsley of 
Cornwall, and brother of Charles Linsley Esq., was licensed as a 
lawyer in December 1815. He commenced practice as a partner 
of Hon. Peter Starr. But after a few years, he thought it his duty 
to leave the profession for the ministry. He was successively ;5et- 
tled as a pastor in Hartford Conn, and in Boston ; for several years 
afterwards he was president of Marietta College in Ohio, and for 
the last few years has been settled as a pastor in Greenwich Conn. 

Hon. Dorastus Wooster, son of Moses Wooster of Cornwall, 
was licensed in December 1816. He pursued the study of law in 

HisfoRt OF MiddLebVry. 847 

die office of Judge Doolittle. lie opened an office and continued 
hia practice mote or less until the time of his death. His practice 
was interrupted for some time by his appointment as Judge of the 
County Co\irt. Under the old judiciary system he was appointed 
chief Judge in 1824, and Assistant Judge from 1825 to 1831, and 
from 1844 to 1846. He was also assistant Judge at the time of 
his death, having been elected the fall previous. He was also a 
member of the State Senate in 1840 and 1841. He died suddenly 
in Jtotiary 1855, m his sixty-eighth year. 

Hon. Gborge Chipman, son of Hon. Daniel Chipman, was ad- 
mitted to the bar in June 1821. He commenced practice as junior 
partner of his father, and continued in practice here twelve or fif- 
teen years, and during the time held the appointment of State's 
Attorney from 1827 to 1830 inclusive. Business of a different 
character called him to Canada, where he resided several years. 
After his return from Canada, he resided a few years in Ripton, 
and during the time was assistant Judge of the County Court from 
1846 to 1849. He has since been employed in the State Depart- 
ment in Washmgton, until recently he has been removed, and has 
resumed the practice of law in that place. 

Charles Linslky Esq., brother of Joel H. Linsley mentioned 
above, was licensed in Franklin County in 1823, and immediately 
established himself in the practice in this village. He has contin- 
ued the practice, as counsellor and advocate, here and in the neigh- 
boring counties until the present time. He has recently opened an 
office in Rutland and removed his family there, but has not relin- 
quished his business in this county. His practice was partially in- 
terrupted by being engaged six or seven years as a director and so- 
licitor of the Rutland and Burlington Railroad Company, and lis 
railroad commissioner under the act of 1855, for 'two years. 

Edward D. Barber Esq. was graduated al Middlebury College 
in 1829. He had interested himself in politics before he lefl col- 
lege. Immediately after, he became the editor of the Antimasonio 
Republican, which was started through his influence, and he contin- 
ued its editor until 1832. From 1882 to 1886 he was editor of the 
Middlebury Free Press. While having charge of these papers, he 


prosecuted, as Lis engagements would permit, the study of the law. 
He was licensed in Juno, 1834. In 1831, he was appointed sec- 
retary to the Governor and Council : in 1832 and 1833, he rcpre- 
senteil the town in the House of Representatives, and oflSciated as 
clerk of that body in 1634. He remained an active politician through 
life, and was always an aidcnt advocate of reform and every meas- 
ure which he thought adapted to juneliorate the evils of society. 
He was frequently called on to deliver orations and address public 
assemblies, aiKl was successful in such efforts. But his party being 
generally in the minority, his political influence and distinction did 
not increase according to the promise of his early political precocity. 
His tivlcnts and scholarship were much above the ordinary i*ank. 
For a man as fond as he was of stirring out door service, he attained 
a good knowledge of the law, and was a successful advocate. The 
property of the GlassFactory Company, at Lake Dunmore, having 
fallen into his hands, he wished to convert it to some productive use, 
and procui'cd the incorjjoration of a Hotel Company, which erected, 
principally under his direction, the splendid establishment there, for 
the accommodation of summer visitors, and winter parties. He was 
there temporarily with his family, when he was taken sick and died 
on the 23d day of August 1855, at the age of forty-nine. 

Philip Battell Esq., son-in-law of Hon. Horatio Seymour, 
who had been for some time in the practice of law in Cleveland, 
Ohio, returned with his wife in declining health to Middlebury, and 
was admitted to the bar in this county in December 1839. But he 
chose to devote himself to literary pui-suits and the education of his 
children, and did not engage in the practice of his profession. He 
was graduated at Middlebury College in the class of 1820. 

Julius Augustus Beck with, a son of Zechariah and Julia 
(Smith) Beckwith', was bom at Monkton in this county, where his 
father then resided, on the 10th day of February 1821. In May 
1827, the family removed to Middlebury, and have since resided in 
this village. The subject of this notice was graduated at Middle- 
bury College in 1840. He was a good scholar and excelled espe- 
cially in literature, and bore a prominent and honorable part in the 
public exercises of his class, at the time of their graduation. He 


He I, 
life, f 
ure \i 
not in 
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For a 
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on the 


who h 


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"Was or- 

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bury I 

XMrezeltrt: IMtJoftim 


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^ fSrozettet-JdOi^oftim. 


pforsaed his professional studies in the office of Hon. Horatio Sey- 
mour, and was admitted to the bar in 1843. He commenced and 
for a few years continued the practice as a partner of Charles Lins- 
ley Esq., and has since continued it alone. His practice was always 
extensive and increasing, and he left numerous clients to mourn his 
decease. He was laborious in the discharge of his professional 
duties, punctual in all his engagements, diligent as a student, and 
made himself thorougly acquainted with the points and law of the 
cases, in which he was employed. He excelled especially as an ad- 
tocate from the commencement of his career. He was a ready and 
popular speaker, his stylo was classical and his arguments well 
arranged, clear and forcible. He was elected a member of the House 
of Representatives in the year 1854 and 1855 ; and his prospects 
were prominent for still further advancement, in public life, when 
arrested in his career. 

Mr. Beck with was also distinguished as a citizen^ companion and 
friend. Full of life and animation himself, he imparted animation 
and good feeling to all circles in which he moved. He made him- 
self particularly interesting to all young persons, who came in con- 
tact with him. Always companionable, he drew to himself many 
warm and attached friends. He devoted much attention to literature, 
and possessed, for a professional man, more than ordinary literary 

Mr. Beckwith, when about fourteen years of age, had deep relig- 
ious impressions ; and his friends entertained strong confidence that 
he was a christian. When, in the midst of his classical and pro- 
fessional studies and rivalships, he looked forward to the scenes^ 
which were before him, and in which he was to bear a part, his ar- 
dent temperament and hopeful disposition invested the wide world 
and its pursuits with a bright and cheerful coloring, and inspired 
him with an ardor and ambition, which, for a time, took the place 
of his religious impressions. He was not chargeable with immoral- 
ity, and he was ever a friend and supporter of the instiutions of re- 
ligion, in the church and society, with which his associations more 
immediately connected him. But otherwise he appeared to the 

world regardless of the higher claims of religion, and, with his con- 


Btitutional ardor and undivided devotion, he engaged in the btisine» 
of his profession, and in tho amusements and gaieties of life. 

But two or three years before his death, he was brought' to a 
more serious consideration of the subject of religion, as he after- 
wards stated, and felt deep sorrow for his neglect of its claims, and 
especially for his ingratitude to his Savior, who, he thought, had 
followed him in all his wayward course. It was his intention them 
to show himself more decidedly and publicly on the side of religion, 
by uniting with the church. But the pressure of his professional 
duties, for which he afterwards expressed regret, delayed the execu- 
tion of his purpose. When ho was fii-st attacked with the disease of 
which he diod,and some months before its termination, and when others 
had no apprehension of a fatal result, his religious impressions re- 
vived, and he conversed freely with his friends on the subject, Afl 
he drew near the close of his life, in the full possession of his mental 
powers, he expressed still deeper sorrow for his neglect of the pro- 
fession and duties of religion, but expressed a satisfactory reliance 
on the mercy of his Savior, of whom he always spoke with the most 
ardent adoration and gratitude. And when, two or three days be- 
fore his death, he was told that his disease was incurable and ho 
would soon die, he received the announcement with calm resignation. 
He continued to the close in a similar frame of mind, and expressed 
no desire to live except to convice the world of the sincerity of his 
faith. The closing scene was triumphant, although peaceful, and his 
last words were— '^Thanks be to God, who givcth us the victory,- 
through our Lord Jesus Christ." He died on the morning of Thanks- 
giving, December 3, 1^7, in the thirty-seventh year of his age. 

Mr. Beck with was married on the 28th day of June 1847, to Miss 
Abby M. Wainwright, daughter of Rufus Wainwright Esq., and Mrs. 
Abby (Sargeant) Wainwright. Being an only daughter, her parents 
were unwilling that they should leave them, and they remained to 
constitute a part of Mr. Wainwright' s family. Besides the dis- 
tressing bereavement of Mr. Beckwith's widow, his death brought 
deep affliction and sorrow alike u^x^n the parents and inmates of two 
mourning families for the loss of a beloved son and brother. 

Edward J. Phelps Esq., son of Hon. Samuel S. Phelps, was 


graduated at Middlebury College in 1840, pursued the study of law 
at the law school of Yale College, and in the oflSce of his father in 
Middlebury. He was licensed in 1843, and commenced the prac- 
tice here in partnership with E. D. Barber Esq., and after an ex- 
tensive and increasing practice for two or three years, removed to 
Burlington, where he continued his practice until 1855, with an inr 
terruption of two or three years, while he held the office of second 
controller in the treasury department in Washington. In 1855 he 
removed to New York, but continued his practice also in the coun- 
ties of Addison and Chittenden ; and haa recently returned to Ver- 
mont and fixed on Burlington for a residence. 

DuGALD Stewart Esq., son of Hon. Ira Stewart, was graduated 
at Middlebury College in 1842, and was admitted to the bar in De- 
cember 1847, but was immediately employed in the financial de- 
partment of the Rutland and Burlington Railroad Company, and 
now holds the office of County Clerk for this county. 

Erastus W. Drury Esq. was admitted to the bar at the June 
term of the County Court in 1836. When he came to Middle- 
bury, a few years before, he was employed as the editor and pub- 
lisher of a newspaper, and, in the meantime, pursued the study of 
law preparatory to his admission. In December following he was 
appointed postmaster, and continued in that office about six years, 
so that he ctid not enter actively on the profession of law. After- 
wards he remained in practice a few years, — principally in partner- 
ship with Charles Aiken Esq., who removed here from Springfield 
in this State, where he had been in practice, — and removed to Fond 
du Lac, Wisconsin, where "he resides. Mr> Aiken also removed to 

The following are the present resident lawyers. 

Hon. Peter Starr, son of a clergyman of the same name in 
Warren Conn., was graduated at Williams College in 1799, and de- 
voted the following year to the business of instruction, as the first 
preceptor of an academy then just established in Westfield Mass. 
The succeeding year he officiated as tutor in Williams College. Ho 
pursued his professional studies partly in Williamstown Mass. and 
partly in the office of Samuel Miller in this place. He was ad- 


mitted to tho bar in tliis county in February 1805, and immediately 
opened ah office with an extensive and increasing practice. He baa 
been several times called by the suffrages of the people to represent 
the town in the House of Representatives, and the county in the 
Senate. He was chosen a member of tho Council of Censors in 
1841, and has filled numerous offices and trusts in town. Except 
these partial interruptions, he has continued an extensive practice, 
— as counsellor and advocate — until within a few years past, the 
infirmities of increasing age have induced him to relinquish its ac- 
tive duties. In 1819 he was elected a member of the corporation 
of Middlebury College, and has since been a prominent and influen- 
tial member of that body. He is also a member of the corporation 
of Addison County Grammar School, and has always afibrded effi- 
cient aid in the promotion of our literary institutions. 

OziAS Seymour Esq., son of Hon. Horatio Seymour, was grad- 
uated at Middlebury College in the year 1820. He pursued his 
professional studies at the Litchfield Law School, and was admitted 
to the bar in this county at the June term 1824. Since that time 
he has continued in extensive practice in this village, a part of the 
time in partnership with his father, and part of the time separately. 
He was chosen and officiated as State's Attorney for the county for 
six years from 1839, and was a member of the Constitutional Con- 
vention in 1850. 

Jedidiah S. BusnxELL Escj., son of Rev. Jedidiah Bushnell of 
Cornwall, was graduated at Middlebury College in 1826, and was 
admitted to the bar in June 1830, after having pursued his profes- 
sional studies in the office of Hon. Peter Starr. He immediately 
entered into partnership with Mr. Starr, and afterwards with Mr. 
Barber. He had afterwards a separate office ; and until recently 
has held the office of Register of the Probate Court since 1841. 

Emerson R. Wright Esq. was graduated at Middlebury Col- 
lege in 1838, studied law with Edward D. Barber Esq. and was li- 
censed to practice in June 1842. He immediately commenced the 
practice in partnership with Mr. Barber, which was continued a 
short time, and he has since continued the practice separately until 
the present time. He held tlie office of postmaster during the ad- 


ministration of Mr. Pierce, and for a short time ander the adminis- 
tration of Mr. Polk. 

John W. Stewart Esq., son of Hon. Lra Stewart, was gradu- 
ated at Middlebury College in 1847, and immediately entered upon 
the study of law in the oflSce of Hon. Horatio Seymour. He was 
licensed in December 1849, and immediately opened an office for 
the practice of his profession, and still continues in extensive prac- 
tice. He was elected State's Attorney three successive years, com- 
mencing in 1851, and has represented the town in the House of 
Representives in the years 1856 and 1857. Since 1851 he has of- 
ficiated as secretary of the corporation of Middlebury College. 

William F. Bascom Esq., after his graduation at Middlebury 
College in 1838, entered on the business of teaching, and was for 
five or six years a tutor in Middlebury College. He was afterwards 
principal of several literary institutions. He had also been for 
several years principal of the Female Seminary in this village, 
and in the meantime pursued the study of law, and was admitted to 
the bar in December 1855. He opened an office in the village, but 
continued, for a short time, his connection with the seminary, so 
far as to superintend its general interests. In the spring of 1857, 
he removed to Minnesota, and afterwards to Lasalle in Illinois. He 
has since returned to the east, and has recently — May 1859 — 
opened an office in this village. During his former residence in 
Middlebury, he was elected to represent the town in the Constitu- 
tional Convention of 1856. 

RuFUS Wainwright Esq., son of the late Rufus Wainwright, 
was graduated at Middlebury College in 1852, having pursued his 
preparatory studies at the Addison County Grammar School, He 
was admitted to the bar in December 1856, and has his office in the 
rooms occupied by his brother-in-law, Julius A. Beckwith Esq. 


Dr. William Bass, from Windham Conn., pursued the studies of 
his profession at Westfield Mass., when there were no medical 
schools in the country, but the honorary degree of Doctor of Med- 
icine was conferred on him by the corporation of Middlebury Col- 
lege in 1825. He settled in Middlebury as a physician in 1797, 


when a yonng man. Soon after ho purchased, as before stated, 
the dwelling house and part of the farm formerly owned by Capt^ 
Stephen Gk)odrich, east of the village. In this place he continued 
to reside until the time of his death. In the meantime he built the 
large house on the premises, and otherwise enlarged and improved 
the hojnestead. Immediately on his settlement here, he entered into 
an extensive and increasing practice, which was enlarged by the 
removal of Drs. Willard and Matthews to other spheres. He was 
not only a skilful and faithful physician, but, by his social disposir 
tion and manners, became popular and a favorite in many families, 
in this and the neighboring towns. His practice was laborious and 
profitable, until near the close of his life, the infirmities of age and 
disease forced him to retire from it. He possessed sound judgment 
and practical common sense, and was popular as a man, as well as 
physician, and had an extensive influence in town and was often ap- 
pointed to places of trust. He was distinguished for his benevo- 
lence in all his relations, and for his liberality to all our literary, 
religious and benevolent institutions. He was also a prominent and 
influential member and deacon of the Congregational Church. His 
death occurred in March 1851, at the age of seventy-five. 

Dr. Jonathan Adams Allen died at his residence in this vil- 
lage on the 2J of February, 1848, at the age of sixty. At a meet- 
ing of Addison County Medical Society in the same month, his death 
was announced, appropriate and highly commendatory resolutions 
were adopted, and Dr. S. Pearl Lathrop, of Middlebury, was ap- 
pointed to prepare a biographical sketch of him, which was after- 
wards ordered to be published in the Boston Medical and Surgical 
Journal. This sketch we have before us. Our limits will allow 
us to use only a part of its materials,with such others as we possess. 

The subject of this sketch *' was of poor but respectable parent- 
age." His father was Amos Allen, son of Seth Allen, who was an 
immigrant to this country from Wales. His mother was daughter 
of Abel Smith, and grand-daughter of Jonathan Adams of Medway, 
fix)m whom he received his name. The mother of Jonathan Adams 
was killed by the Indians, and he, after his head was dashed against 
a stone, was left as dead, but was afterwards found alive, and be- 


6am6 distinguished in various departments of public life. Through 
him Dr. Allen's geneology is traced to the origin of the family of 
John Adams and his son John Quincj Adams. 

Dr. Allen was bom at Holliston, Mass., on the 17th day of No- 
yember, 1787. His father at an early day removed with his fam- 
ily to Newfane, Vt. Here he labored with his fother on the farm. 
During this period he had only the advantages of a common school 
education. But having a thirst for learning, he purchased books for 
himself by trapping and selling furs. By this means he was able 
to store his mind with much useful knowledge. On the 17th of 
November, 1808, his 21st birth day, he started with a bundle con- 
taining his wardrobe, to "seek his fortune.'' He engaged in the 
duties of a school teacher, in the West Village of Townshcnd, in 
this state, and immediately made arrangements with the minister of 
the parish to be instructed in Latin. In this position he remained 
for several years, and afterwards gave his attention more directly to 
studies preparatory to the practice of medicine under the tuition of 
Dr. Paul Wheeled of Wardsborough. He also attended the lec- 
tures at Dartmouth College, under Dr. Nathan Smith, and there he 
received his degree of Doctor of Medicine, August 24, 1814. Af- 
ter a practice of two years at Wardsborough, in partnership with Dr. 
Wheeler his instructor, he removed toBrattleboro in August, 1816. 

In October, 1820, he was appointed to deliver lectures oti Chem- 
istry in Middlebury College, which he continued until 1826. He 
removed his family to Middlebury in the spring of 1822, and com- 
menced practice here; and at the same time, he was appointed Pro- 
fessor of Materia Medica and Pharmacy in the Vermont Academy 
of Medicine, then in connection with Middlebury College. In this 
office he continued until 1829. He continued the practice ot his 
profession in Middlebury until his death. liis practice as a surgeon 
and physician was always extensive and increasing from year to 
year, and was not confined to the town or county in which he resi- 
ded ; but in cases of surgery and difficult cases of disease, he was 
often called beyond the limits of the state. Notwithstanding his 
great labors in his practice, he was always persevering in his stud- 
ie0) and employed all his leisure hours in the diligent pursuit of 

856 niSTORT ot hiddleburt. 

knowledge. He not only became a learned phjrsician, but directed 
his studies to other sciences, and especially to those branches of nat- 
ural history morci immediately connected with his profession. Among 
other specimens of Natural History, he made a handsome collection 
of minerals, which were purchased by Middlebury College, and con- 
fltitute an important part of their cabinet. Several scientific arti- 
cles which he wrote were published in Silliman's Journal of Sci- 
ence. He also published & still greater number of articles, on ym- 
rious branches of medical science, and the laws of nature, as appli- 
cable to the practice of medicine, in the Medical Journals. He was 
a prominent member of the Stiite Medical Society, and an active 
and much respected member and officer of Addison County Medical 
Society, up to the time of his death. 

Dr. Allen had many traits of character, besides his learnings 
which endeared him to his friends, professional associates, and espe- 
cially to his patients. He was always amiable, una^uming and 
conscientious ; always prompt in his attention to his patients, wha 
were never neglected, whatever sacrifice it cost him. He wore him- 
self out in their service. Even after ho was enfeebled by disease, 
he continued his labors, until they induced or aggravated diseases 
which prematurely terminated his life. His usefulness was not con- 
fined to his professional duties, but as a citizen he was prompt by 
his aid and influence in promoting every good object. 

Dr. Lathrop, in the sketch to which we have referred, says, "The' . 
crowning trait of character of Dr. Allen, and one which harmon- 
ized and rendered most valuable all his other qualities, was decided 
and stable Christian principle. He was a firm believer and sup- 
porter of the Christian religion, and for many years a member of 
the Congregational church. He first became connected with the 
church in Brattleborough, in 1818, then under the pastoral charge 
of Rev. Caleb Burge. Religion with him was not a matter of pro- 
fession alone, but of principle. It exerted its benign influence on 
the affections of his heart, and exhibited itself, in its power and ex- 
cellency, in the moulding of his thoughts, and generating of his 

For many years previous to his death, he resided in the hoase next 


north of the Congregational church, on the paper mill road, now 
occupied by his son, Dr. Charles L. Allen. 

Dr. Oliver Barber Norton was bom in Easton Washington 
County, New York, December 19, 1799. His mother having died 
If hen he was three months old, he was adopted as a child by Rev. 
Edward Barber, of Greenwich, N. Y., father of Edward D. Barber, 
with whose family he lived as a son, until he left it to engage in 
business for himself. To those most intimate, he exhibited, from 
his earliest boyhood, proofs of no ordinary talents and force of 
character, and manifested a great thirst for learning, and extended 
his researches into many branches beyond the routine of a common 
English education. At the age of twenty-three, he selected for his 
profession the practice of medicine ; and continued his professional 
studies for two years under Dr. Cornelius Holmes. In the fall of 
1822, he attended a course of lectures at the medical institution at 
Castleton, Vt. The summer following he became a member of Dr. 
J. A. Allen's summer school in Middlebury. He attended a sec- 
ond course of lectures the next fall, and, during the winter, he at- 
tended the anat<5mical lectures of Dr. Alden Marsh, in Albany. 
The following summer he again became a member of Dr. Allen's 
school, and '' was chosen by the principal and students to give a 
course of lectures on Botany.'' The fall of 1824, he attended his 
third course of lectures at Castleton, and was admitted to the degree 
. of Doctor of Medicine, which was conferred upon him at the next 
commencement of Middlebury College. He left the institution with 
a high reputation as a scholar, in the various branches of his profession. 
The two following years, he assisted Dr. Allen in his practice, 
and in his school as a lecturer on Botany, Anatomy and Physiology ; 
and the year following was a partner of Dr. Allen, and afterwards, 
until his death, he continued his practice separately in Middlebury. 
In the fall of 1829, he was threatened with a pulmonary consump- 
tion, but by the aid of a short journey to the south, recovered his 
health, so that he resumed his practice in the spring. During the 
fall of 1830, he was attacked 'with a disease which terminated in 
ulceration of the cartilage of his left knee joint, and ended his life 

on the 26th of April, 1831, at the early age of thirty-one. 



Dr. Norton's death was universally lamented. His talentSj aad 
his professional learning were of a superior order. He had what 
we may call a tact, which few possess to the same degree, in detect- 
ing diseases and applying the lemedy ; and he never prescribed for 
a disease until, after a patient examination, he thought he fully un- 
derstood it.' He was fast increasing in reputation and practice in 
his profession, and had already become a favorite in many families. 
His disposition was amiable and kind, and his manners unassuming 
and courteous, and he had become popular as a man as well as a 

Dr. Balpu Gowdey was the son of Mrs Lucretia Gowdey, a 
widow who resided in Middlebury, much respected for many years. 
He graduated at Middlebury College in 1819. From that time to 
1822, he was employed as a teacher in the State of Georgia. The 
climate not proving favorable to his health, he returned to Vermont, 
and entered upon the study of medicine. In the year 1825, he re- 
ceived the degree of Doctor of Medicine at the Vermont Academy 
of Medicine at Castleton. He immediately commenced the practice 
of his profession at Rutland^ and in 182j removed to Middlebury, 
his native place. From this time until his death ho continued the 
practice with growing reputation, And with the increasing confidence 
of the people. He was unassuming in his disposition and manners, 
but his talents and learning were of an order to give him a high 
rank in his profession, and were soon duly appreciated in the com- 

Dr. Jonathan A. Allen, who knew him well as a physician and 
personal friend, published in the Boston Medical and Surgical Jour- 
nal a sketch of Dr. Gowdey's life and character. We knew him 
well also in both characters, and respected and loved him ; but Dr. 
Allen, from his position, was a more competent judge. We therefore 
make some quotations from his sketch. He says, ''As a scholar 
Dr. Gowdey ranked high. His mind was well cultivated and prop- 
erly balanced. In his deportment he was gentlemanly, unassuming 
and unofficious. He read much, reflected much, and remembered 
what he read. In ordinary conversation, he was affable, intelligent 
and interesting, so that a person could rarely be in his society for 


anj eonsiderable time without becoming interested and delighted. 
For public speaking and debate, he had no relish." 

'* Uis professional opinions were based on sound pathological prin« 
ciples. He was strictly a pathological, not a routine practitioner. 
He was well acquainted with modern pathology, and with the gen- 
eral circle of Medical sciences. And if the inscrutable hand of 
Providence had not prevented, he would unquestionably have given 
full assurance that his recent appointment to an important profes- 
sorship in the Vermont Academy of Medicine had been judiciously 
made. He possessed more than ordinary taste for the study of In- 
tellectual Philosophy. To this science he devoted considerable at- 
tention, and upon this subject he left several essays unpublished." 

'' In his intercourse with his medical brethren, he was frank and 
honorable. This secured for him the universal respect of the pro- 
fession. The estimation in which he was held by the public was 
evinced by his being twice elected a member of the General Assem- 
bly of the State/' in 1838 and 1839. Many of the most inport- 
ant reports of committees, especially one on the geological survey 
of the State, were written by him. At this time ho was laboring 
under the fatal disease of the lungs, which extended also to other 
organs, and had for some years rendered him incapable of perform- 
ing the more laborious duties, and which finally terminated bis life. 

Dr. Allen further says, — " In his personal appearance. Dr. Gow- 
dey was quite prepossessing, his stature being rather tall and slen- 
der, his countenance remarkably pleasant, his dark eye beaming with 
intelligence, while his hair, neither too black nor too light, spread 
agreeably over his well proportioned head. His constitution was 
not robust, nor had it been inured to hardship ; yet he had, with 
temporary exceptions, possessed tolerable health till about four or 
five years since, when he was arrested, without any obvious cause, 
with pulmonary hemorrhage." " Some years since Dr. Gowdey 
became a hopeful convert of Christianity, and made a public profes- 
sion of his faith by uniting with the Congregational Church. It is 
said, of the great and solemn realities of religion he never doubted. 
As a Christian, he was uniform and consistent. With him the prac- 
tical exhibition of the cross was an every day concern. This se- 


cured to liim an uncommon degree of calmness and cquinimitj. 
His confident assurance of the goodness and mercy of God sustained 
him, when, some time since, a beloved wife and a dear child were 
taken from him by death • These influences rendered him calm and 
composed through a trying, painful and protracted illness. When, 
in full view of an immediate death, lie was addressed by a warm 
hearted visitant, in the pure language of compassion and sympathy, 

* Doctor, I am sorry to sec you in such trouble,' he coolly replied. 

* I am not in trouble, but happy.' These were his last words." 
His death occurred on the 13th of June, 1840, at the age of tliirty- 

Dr. Stepiiejj Peabl Lathrop was graduated at Middlebury 
College in 1849. The year following he spent in teaching, as pre- 
ceptor of Black River Academy, at Ludlowi^ in this State. He af- 
terwards pursued the study of medicine at Middlebury, and in the 
meantime attended the lectures at the Vermont Medical College at 
Woodstock, an<l received his diploma, as Doctor of Medicine, at that 
institution in 1843. He then established himself in the practice in 
this place, which he continued until 1846. During this short period, 
his practice was not extensive, but he industriously pui-sued scien- 
tific studies, and was regarded as a distinguished scholar, in several 
departments of science, especially in Natural History. In this pe- 
riod he was appointed by the late Professor Charles B. Adams, his 
assistant in the department of Chemistry and Natural History, and 
in the geological survey of the State. From 1846 to 1849, he of- 
ficiated, under appointment, as principal of the Female Seminary 
in Middlebury. In the latter year, he was elected Professor of 
Chemistry and Natural History in the College at Beloit, Wisconsin, 
and removed to that place, and continued a teacher in tliat college 
until the latter part of tlie year 1852, when he was elected a pro- 
tessor in the State University at Madison, Wisconsin. In this oflSce 
he continued until his death, which occurred on the 25th of Octo- 
ber, 1854. 

Dr. Charles C. P. Clark, from Tinmouth, was graduated at 
Middlebury College in 1843, and received his medical diploma- at tho 
College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York in 1847, and imme- 


diately settled in the practice in Middlebury. He practiced a few 
years with increasing success and reputation, went to Paris to per- 
fect himself in his profession, and on his return removed to Oswego, 
New York. 

Dr. J. Gerry Ross, who practiced on the Thompsonian sys- 
tem, established himself here about the year 1840. He continued 
his practice in this and the neighboring towns, much respected as a 
citizen, and patronized by many until the summer of 1856, when 
he removed to Shaftsbury, and has since removed to Brandon, where 
he now resides. He resided, while here, in the house next south of 
Moore's hotel, now owned and occupied by Mr. Valentine V. Clay, 
of the firm of Davenport and Clay. 

Dr. Edward Tudor was born in East Windsor, Conn., January 
16, 1771. His father was *' an eminent surgeon," who had resided 
*' for some time in England for the completion of his medical edu- 
cation." Edward, who was his eldest son, had been fitteil to enter 
college, and his father gave him his choice to enter Yale College 
and go through a regular classical course in that institution^ or 
enter immediately on the study of Medicine. He chose the latter, 
and immediately commenced his professional studies, under the tuition 
of his father. In the course of his preparatory studies, he was sent 
to Philadelphia, under the more immediate direction of Dr. Rush, 
to whom he formed and retained, through life, a strong attachment. 
He there attended two courses of lectures, which was quite uncom- 
mon at that day, and received his medical degree. He continued to 
practice for some years, in connection with his father in East 
Windsor. He afterwards established himself in the practice in 
Orford, New Hampshire, where he waa married. In 1804 he re- 
moved his family to Middlebury. Hero he has practiced with suc- 
cess and high reputation, until the infirmities of age forced him to 
withdraw from active service. He waa a diligent student, and 
through life sustained the reputation of a learned physician, and 
was an active and prominent member of Addison County Medical 
Society. He was a man of quiet habits and retiring disposition, 
and never intruded himself upon patients, or upon public notice. 
He left his patients to find him, instead of looking up them. Bat 


he was a favorite physician in many of the most respectable families. 

At the age of 87 years, while walking along the side walk, on 
the 8d of March 1858, he stepped upon a piece of ice, slipped, fell 
and broke his leg ; from which he never recovered, but died of the 
injury on the 8th day of May following, and was 87 years of age 
the proceeding January. For some years ho resided in the house 
on Pleasant Street, now occupied by Mr- David Piper. He after- 
wards purchased the lot and built the house now occupied by Mrs. 
Bell. For many of his last years, he has resided in the house 
where he died, next north of the Catholic Church on the Wey- 
bridge Street. 

The following are the present resident physicians. 

Dr. Zaccheus Bass, brother of the late Dr. William Bass, put- 
sued his professional studies with his brother, and in the meantime 
attended two courses of lectures at the Medical School in New 
Haven, Conn , in the winters of 1813-14 and 1814-15. In 1829, 
the Corporation of Middlebury College conferred upon him the de- 
gree of Doctor of Medicine. He commenced practice in Middle- 
bury in 1815, and has since been in a large and successful practice 
in this and the neighboring towns. 

Dr. William P. Russell partly under the tuition of the late Dr. 
Jonathan A. Allen, and in part at the Berkshire Medical Institu- 
tion, in Pittsfield, where he attended the lectures of that institution 
and received his medical diploma in 1830. lie established himself 
here in practice in 1831, and has coh tinned in the active and suc- 
cessful practice in this and the adjoining towns to the present time. 
He conducts also a large establishment of drugs, medicines and 

Dr. Russell was appointed postmaster on the 20th day of May 
1857, and still holds that office. The office is kept in his store in 
the Brewster block. His residence is in the large brick house, 
built by Jabez Rogers, next north of Mr. Seymour's late residence. 

Dr. William M. Bass, son of Dr. William Bass, was graduated 
at Middlebury College in 1832. He pursued his professional stud- 
ies under different physicians, and at the Berkshire Medical Institu- 
tion, at Pittsfield, Mass. He commenced practice at Grand Detour, 

niSTOnxl Ot M1DDLEBU£T. 263 

niinois, from 1837 to 1846. At the latter period he returned to 
Middlcbury, at the earnest solicitations of his father, whose increas- 
ing infirmities required his aid. Here he has continued the prac- 
tice of medicine, and in addition to his professional duties, resides 
at the homestead, and has charge of an extensive farm. 

Dr. Charles L. Allen, son of the late Dr. Jonathan A. Allen, 
was graduated at Middleburj College in 1842. After teaching for 
a year or two in North Carolina, he pursued his prosessional studies 
under the tuition of his father, and was a part of his time at the 
Vermont Academy of Medicine at Castlcton, where he attended the 
lectures and received his degree of Doctor of Medicine in 1846. 
lie has since been in active and successful practice in this and the 
neighboring towns. In addition to his practice, he was appointed 
and officiated as professor in the Medical Institution for a year or 
two ; and has delivered lectures, on appointment for that purpose, 
in Chemistry and Physiology in Middlebury College. 

Dr. H[RAM MtEKER was originaly educated for the medical pro- 
fession, but relinquished it for the ministry in the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church. He was stationed here in that capacity for two 
years, and at the close of this period, in the spring of 1853, he re- 
turned to his profession as a physician, on account of the health of 
his family, and has since continued in active practice. 

Dr. Norman D. Ross, son of Reuben Ross of this village, afler 
completing his professional studies, commenced practice in Roy- 
dlton, Vt Here he continued two or three years, and in January 
1854, removed and established himself in the practice in the village 
of East Middlebury, and has continued in active practice in that 
part of the town and in some neighboring towns. 

Dr. Kathaniel Harris, son of Lebbeus Harris and brother of 
Lebbeus Harris Jun., mentioned elsewhere, and a native of Middle- 
bury, as early as July 1838, established himself here as a surgeon 
dentist, and has ever since been in the successful practice in this 
place, — ^longer, we believe, than any other dentist 4n the State. He 
has also occasionally extended his practice to other towns. In the 
meantime he attended the lectures at the Vermont Medical College 
at Woodstock, and received at that instituti(m, in June 1842, the 


degree of Doctor of Medicine. His office is at his residence, in tlio 
brick house built by Dr. Judd, on the west side of the creek. 

Dr. IIenuy Kinsley was graduated at Middlebury College in 
183S, and studied theology at the Andovcr Seminary, and entered 
upon the duties of that profession. But his health foiling, ho was 
obliged to relinquish it and direct his attention to other pursuits. 
After pursuing the study of dentristry, under Dr. Prime at Bran- 
don and under several distinguished dentists in Massachusetts, he 
received fronk Dr. Prime what was called a diploma ; and in August 
1857, he established himself as a dentist in this place, and lias 
since been in successful practice. II is office is in the Brewster 
blo;;k, in the rooms formerly occupied for the postoffice. 

As we have not been able, on account of the frequent changes, 
to give any history, or even sketches, of the merchants, mechanics, 
and those engaged in other employments, as we have of professional 
men, we have intended to print a list of those who are at present 
engaged in such employments, and the date of their establishment, 
but neglected to procure the list until so late a period, that our list 
will not be as perfect as we desire. We are obliged for that reason, 
to omit those belonging to East Middlebury ; of which we have 
elsewhere given a rather general account. The dates following the 
names designate the time of their establishment. 


Zechariah Bcckwitk» Dry Goods, Groceries, Furniture &c. 

S Moody, now S. & W. S. Moody, Drugs, Medicines, Groceries &c. 

Dr. Wni P. Kusdcl, Drugs, Medicines and Groceries, 

II. A. Sheldon, " S '* and Dry Goods, 

James M Slade & Co., Dry Goods, Groceries, 4c. 

Harry Langwortliy, **^ " 

Edwin Vallette. " •' 

Simeon Holton, Jewelry, Clocks and Fancy Goods, 

James E. Negus, Merchant Tailor, Furnishing Goods &c. 

Jason Davenport, Tin, Iron, Hardware, and Agricultural Tools, 

A. H. Copeliind, Books, Stationary and Periodicals, 

Wm. II. Kemsen, Groceries, Provisions &c. 

Solo. Parker, successor to L. W. Clark,Book3 and Stationery, 

A. Magovem, Merchant Tailor, 

Chapman & Barbour, Dry Goods, Groceries &o. 
































B. R Clay, Millinery and Fancy Goods, SapL 1857 
H. C. Wilcox, successor to H. Wilcox, Boots and Shoc3, March 1S59 
lilrs. A. A. Forbes, Millinery, April 1859 


A. Dustin, now Dustin & Kenworthy, Sept. 1814, G. W. Dustin, 1849. 
U. C. Chapman, at Rail Road Station 1840, Lucius Shaw, April 1851. 
Frank Fletcher, May 1857, George Langworthy, A. M. Williamson, August 1857. 


William T. Porter, Succsssor to C. Tick nor. 
A. M. Williamson. 

II. W. Pitts, Cotton Clotli and Yarn. May 1849 

Davenport & Clay, Woolen Cloths. '* 1864 

Jason Davenport, Stoves, Machinery, Tin Ware &c. 1861 

Amon Wilcox, Tin Ware &.c. 
L. W . Huntington, Spring Beds. Matresscs &c. 
(Miarlei Hose, Pails &c., at J. M. Sladc & Co*8 Factory. 
Simeon Powers, and Mr. AV hite, Axe Helves &c. 
J M. Slade & Co. Potash. 

C. Wheeler. Chair.s Furniture &c. F. Falcs Chain. 


Ira Allen, Carriage Maker, 1814. 

John Jackson, H.itttr. 

O. M. Brown. 1832, J. Caffrey, Tailor i, 

Jf. C Wilcox, L. Uarvey, Siocmakcrs. 

Mrs. E. R. Clay, Mrs. P. Cleveland, Miss Thiria Adams, Mrs. A. A. Forbes, Mil- 

Simeon IIoHon, H. W. Brewster, Goldsmith. ' 

Horace Crane 1821, Ira Allen, Louis Hope, J. Donahue, Blacksmiths, 

^K Phinney, N. BrusjK), Sadlcrs, 

L. W. Huntington, Upholsterer, 

A. D. Stearns, Samuel Brooks, William Kingsley, T. 0. Flanegan, C. Rose, D. M. 
Q«ldrich. Painte/s. 

John ScUick, Cabinet Maker and Turner. 

Cyrus Morton, John II. Simmons, Caleb Morton, 0. Severance £. B. Parker, David 
Piper, J. F. Bolton, W. C. Langworthy, A. S. Tracy, L. Stearns, George Eawyer, 
S. Pinney, H. Dean, W. Bisbee, W. Latimer, J. King ,Carpefft€rs and Joiners. 

Oliver Wellington, J. Bamaby, J. Morcomb, Grin Abby, Masons. 

J. P. Huntington, Dyar, • 

A. Dustin. G.W, Dustin, i?arA^r5. 

Mead & Fuller, Printers, 

U. Richardson, Book Binder. 

John H. Simmons, Machinery for Plaining and Joine^^ Work. 



DanielJadd. 1868, Mr. Bowe, Marble Cutters, 
Edward McCIure, June 1837, Baker. 


H.L. Sheldon, Station Ageut, R, cf> B, Rail Road, 

John B. Copeland, Express Agent,* 

A, H. Copeland, and II. W. Brewster, Telegraphists A 

0. Af-Taft, Ambrotype Artist, 

James Lenard, Truckman, 1810. 

Ormel Comstock, Proprietor of Stage from Middlebury to Lake Champtaiab* 

Harry Moore, " " ** Bridport 

Stage owned bj Lorenzo Cutler, of Bethel, from Middlebury to BetheL 

Samuel Brooks, Sexton, 

Jacob Dewey, Constable and Jailor. 

L. 8 Orampton, Deputy Sheriff. 

Calvin G. Tildcn, Insurance Agent, 

•Fiske & Go's. Boston Express, and Pullen, Virgil & Co*8. now the National 
Express Company to New York, liave been established ever since the R. &. B. R. 
Bead commenced running. Mr. John B. Copeland has been the agent here of both 
companies since 1852. The office is in Copeland 's bookstore in Brewster's block. 

tThe Troy and Canada Junction Telegraph line was established in 1847. Mr. 
A, H. Copeland was put in charge of the station here in 1852. In 185C, the Amer- 
ican Telegraph Company, which has wires extending from New York to Nova Sco- 
tia, Montreal and to all parts of New England purchased this lino, and communi- 
cate directly from New York to Montreal. This office is also now in Copeland's* 




Tab first school house built and the two first schools opened in 
town for children were those mentioned in the statement of Miss 
Torrance, in the south part of the town, where the principal settle- 
ments then were. The first school in the neighborhood of the vil- 
lage was kept by Mrs. Goodrich, wife of William Goodrich Esq., 
about the year 1791. They then resided in a house on the rising 
ground east of Dr. Bass's, near Mr. Conroc's barn, and her school 
was in a small school house on the opposite side of the road. We 
have no knowledge of other schools established at an early day, ex- 
cept such as are incidentally mentioned in our history. The first 
oflScial act of the town, on the subject of schools, was a vote in De- 
cember 1790, to divide the town into four school districts. Votes 
were afterwards passed, from time to time, increasing the number 
and changing the boundaries of the districts. The present number 
of districts is eleven, known by the names of the numbers attached 
to them. The large districts in the village, one on each side of the 
creek, constitute two of them. The changes have been, and prom- 
ise to be, so frecjuent, that it is more than the object is worth to trace 
here their boundaries. 

The laws of the State require " each organized town to support 
one or more schools, provided with competent teachers, '■ and if more 
than one is needed, the town is required to divide their territory 
" into as many school districts as shall be judged most convenient." 
T hese districts are constituted corporations, for the purpose of main- 
taining schools, and may hold estate and assess taxes for that pur- 
pose. The district clerk is required to ascertain annually the num- 


ber of children in his district, between the ages of four and eighteen, 
and return a list of them to the town clerk, with a certificate of the 
number of weeks a school has been kept the preceding year. Pre- 
vious to the statute of I80O, the districts were authorized, if they 
chose, to raise money for the support of the schools *• by subscrip- 
tion, or by apportioning the same to the scholars, who shall attend 
the school, or otherwise.'' By the statute of that year it was en- 
acted that •' all moneys raised by school districts, for the payment 
of teachers' wages, shall be raised upon the grand list, and moneys, 
raised by a tax upon the scholars, shall be appropriated only to de- 
fray the expenses of fuel and teachers' board." Provision has been 
made also by the legislature, authorizing large districts to establish 
also a higher or central school, or several districts to unite for a 
similar purpose ; but no such provisions have been adopted in this 

Previous to 183G, a largo amount of funds had accumulated in 
the United States treasury, beyond the wants of the government, 
and Congress, by an act approved June 23d of that year, ordered 
that *' the money, which shall be in the treasury on the first of Jan- 
uary 1837, reserving the sum of five millions of dollars, shall be 
deposited with the several States, in proportion to their respective 
representation, in the Senate and House of Representatives, as 
shall by law authorize their treasurer, or other competent authori- 
ties to receive " and give the required certificate for the same. The 
certificate was required to pledge the faith of the State to return 
the money, when called for. The deposits were to be made in four 
instalments, on the first of January, April, July and October 1837. 
After having delivered three instalments, on the 2d of October, 
Congress enacted that *' the transfer of the fourth instalment be 
postponed till the first day of January 1839," and it has never 
been paid. 

The legislature, by their act passed November 17th 1836, agreed 
to accept their share of the deposit, according to the terms pro- 
posed, and authorized the treasurer to receive it and give the re- 
quired receipt. The amount they directed the treasurer to distrib- 
ute among the several towns, according to their population, as as- 


certained by the census of 1830, and to make a new apportionment 
at each succeeding census. The act required also, that the several 
towns should ** choose by ballot three trustees, who should receive, 
take care of and manage the moneys deposited with the respective 
towns.'' And they directed the trustees to loan the money on good 
security, at six per cent, interest, *' for a term not exceeding one 
year at a time,'' and pay the income annually into the town treas- 
ury to *^be distributed by the selectmen to the several school dis- 
tricts.^^ This town, at a meeting called for that purpose on the 26th 
of December 1836, voted to receive their share of the fund depos- 
ited, and elected by ballot Elisha Brewster, Paul Champlin and 
Edwin Hammond trustees of the fund. The trustees, at the annual 
March meeting in 1838, reported. *' that they have received in 
three instalments the sum of $;8,278 89, and had loaned it, on good 
security, to individuals at six per cent, in sums of $100, or less." 
And the meetmg by vote directed them to pay the interest into the 
town treasury by the loth day of July next. And this has been 
done from year to year, so long as the fund was loaned to individuals. 
The amount of the above fund and the small amount ot the rents 
received from school lands, in most of the towns, constitute all the 
permanent funds, appropriated for the support of schools. The re- 
mainder it is necessary to raise by direct taxation. It is therefore 
provided by statute, that the selectmen shall annually ^'assess a tax 
of nine cents on the dollar of the list of the town," for the use of 
schools. In case the town has other funds, which, after deducting 
one half of the United States deposit money, will amount to the 
sum raised by the tax or a part of it, the tax or a proportion of it 
may be omitted. The tax in this town is five per cent. If the 
funds provided by law are insuflScient, the deficiency is to be raised 
by taxes on the district. 

- The selectmen by law have the charge and management of all the 
real and personal estate, appropriated for the use of schools, and 
they are required annually, on the first day of March, to divide the 
proceeds of the tax, with the income of all the funds, appropriated 
for schools, between the several districts, one fourth part equally, 
for the relief of small districts, and the remainder in proportion to 


the number of children between the ages of four and eigfateeH;. 

Such is substantially the system, under which the schools in this 
town, have been maintained. School houses of more or less com- 
fort and convenience have been built, and teachers, more or less 
qualified have been employed in the several districts. In the large 
districts in the village, separate rooms are provided in the same 
building, with separate teachers, and the children have been classi- 
fied, somewhat according to age, sex and studies. 

At an early day, the legislature directed tlie selectmen, in the 
several towns, where there were lands, under the New Hampshire 
charters, belonging to the glebe right, or rights for the Propagation 
of the Gospel, to lease them, and appropriate the rents for the use 
of schools. This appropriation of the glebe rights was regarded as 
valid, by the decision of the United States Courts. But the lands 
belonging to the Propagation rights, were, by the same authority, 
retained for their original purpose. The first and second division of 
the school right, and the glebe right had been leased, and previous 
to the decision, the first division of the Propagation right had been 
leased for the use of schools, but has since been surrendered. The 
first and second hundred acre divisions of the school right and of 
the glebe right are the only lands leased for the use of schools. 
No. 2 is the first hundred acre division of tlie school right, of which 
Andrew Bain owns the lease. The second hundred acre division of 
this right was surveyed by Judge Painter in 1775, lying on the 
Salisbury line and east of Nathaniel Everts' lot of that division, 
and the lease is owned by Capt. Joel Boardman. The first hundred 
acre division of the glebe right is No. 49, and the lease of the west 
half is owned by William Carr Jr., and the oast half by Abel 
Abbey ; and the second hundred acre division of that right lies 
within the limits of the first division between the town plot on the 
west, and the east tier on the east ; and the lease is owned by 
Elijah S. Boyce. The rents of these lands, which were entirely 
wild, were so small, that the town adopted the policy of loaning the 
rents, to constitute an accumulating fund, to be divided, when it 
would be of greater benefit This plan was opposed by a part of 
the citizens, and the question was agitated in town meetings for sev- 


<^I years. In the meantime trustees were appointed fix)m the sev- 
eral districts, who had charge of the fund. At the annual meet- 
ing in 1817, the trustees were directed " to deliver all notes and se- 
curities for the school fund to the town clerk," and he was directed 
to collect them. This measure was adopted to make preparation 
for a distribution ; and not long after the fund was divided, Tho 
shares, which belonged to the two districts in the village, were ap- 
propriated for the erection of the brick school houses on each side 
of the creek. 

The amount of the United States deposit money received in 
1837 was $8,278 89. On the new apportionment after the census 
of 1840, there was refunded to the State treasurer the sum of 
$1,032 21; and after the census of 1850 the sum of $255 08 
was returned, leaving now in possession of the town the sum of 
$7,501 76. The fund annually distributed in Middlebury among 
the districts is as follows : 

Interest on the deposit, - - - $450 10 
Amount of rents, - - - - 119 00 
Proceeds of tax in 1856, - - - 387 00 

Amounting in the whole to - - $956 1& 

The common schools in this town are not what they ought to be, 
although the provisions of the law have been generally complied 
with, and they have been gradually improving from the first settle- 
ment. The want of funds has heretofore been an obstacle to their 
improvement. At an early day the expenses of the schools were 
more generally paid by taxes on the scholars, and provisions were 
otherwise so inadequate for mating them respectable, that, espe- 
cially in the village, select schools became common. The doctrine 
that the education of the children is a public interest, and * should 
be supported at the public expense, has been extending and gradu- 
ally coming into practice. When the rich are compelled to pay for 
the support of the public schools, in proportion to their property, 
instead of the number of their children, it is an inducement to 
them to improve those, instead of patronizmg select schools*. The 
friends of education have long felt, that the schools in Vermont 


were altogether below the standard they ought to occupy ; and the 
tendency of the legislature has been to improve them. And there 
is a sanguine expectation, that the plans recently adopter] by the 
legislature, for the general superintendence of the school system, 
through the State, will make them better. 


By an act of the legislature on the 8th of November 1797, a 
Gramunr Sijhool was established in Middlebury, under a corpora- 
tion by the name of the *^ Coporation of Addison County Gram- 
mar Schiwl/' Full powers were granted to the corporation to ac- 
quire and hold the necessary estate, and for other purposes necessary 
for sustaining a permanent school ; and to hold and use all the lands 
in the county, reserved and appropriated for that use, in the char- 
ters granted by this State. The trustees^ appointed by the act, 
were Gamaliel Painter, Scth Storrs, Samuel Miller, Daniel Chip- 
man and Darius Matthews. Tlie trustees are authorized to add to 
their number ; but the whole number is not to exceed twelve. A 
proviso is added to the act, ' that the inhabitants of Middlebury, 
and such others as may voluntarily subscribe therefor, shall build 
and finish a good and suflSviicnt house for said Grammar School, 
of the value of one thousand dollars, by the next stated session of 
the legislature, and shall forever after keep the same in good repair." 
The inhabitants immediately set themselves to work to fulfil the 
condition, but did not limit their expenditures to one thousand dol- 
lars. The design was already formed to establish a college, and 
provide a building, which would accommodate such an institution, 
at least for a time. Accordingly a subscription was raised in this 
and the neighboring towns, and the wooden building since used for 
the college, eighty feet by forty, and three stories high, was com^ 
plcted in 1798, within the time limited by the act. It was divided 
into convenient rooms for students, with a public room for a 
chapel, and other uses, in the centre of the upper story. 

The land on which the building, together with the extensive 
grounds connected with it, was, in July 1800, and previous to the 
charter of the college, deeded to the corporation by Seth Storrs, 



Darius Matthews, Appletou Foot, Stillman Foot and Anthony 
Khodes. Most of the laud was owned by Col. Stons ; but the 
grounds embraced small pieces belonging to the other grantors. 

Rev. Jeremiah Atwater, of New Haven, Conn,, was appointed 
l)rincip:il of the grammar school, in anticipation of his becoming 
president of the college, when established. Until 1805, both insti- 
tutions were coulinued in the same building, and President Atwater 
continued nominally ini.»ici[)al of the academy, although the in- 
struction was given hy a tutor or other olBcer of the college. At 
til It time the prcj)iratory school was removed to the building erecte<l 
for the Feiu:ile Senrnnry, tliat in-stitution being vacant in conse- 
<|uencc of the d-Ailh of Miss Strong. 

Since the s/pai-ation. the following preceptors have had charge of 
tlio academy for the periods designated : 


3>0') Rev. Chester Wright 

l^^)! Ifev. John IVo.-t 

1808 Kev. lliohanl ILill 

1.^..).) Rev. nenjuuia B. Stockton IhlO 

1810 Hon. Ziniri Howe 

1^11 Rev. .Joseph Lab.'irec 

iKia Rev. Otto S. Ilo.vt 

ISU Rev. ReuVen Post 

IHl") Rev. Daniel Ilomenway 

^^^10 Rev. Benson C. BaUlwiu 

1817 Milo Cook, Esq. 

1818 Rev. Bcriali Green 
IS I'.) Rev. George C. Buckwith 
18J0 Rev. OraPierson 

1820 Rev. RosweU Pcttibone 

1821 Rjv. Uzziah C. Burnap 

When more permanent teachei-s have not been engaged, tempora- 
ry teachers have been employed to supply their place. 

Rev. Joseph Steele, in the spring of 1857, was appointed precep- 
tor and principal, and it was hoped it might be sustained until it 
should assume a more permanent character. But from the want of 
adequate funds, he found it diflScult to give it this character, and re- 





182:5 Rev. Aildison Parker 



1>^21 Rev. Lricivs L. Tildcn 



1 82.") Hon Horace Eaton 



1S20 Rov. John Wild 



1827 Rev. John J.Owen 



1828 Rev. Truman M. Post 



1828 Rev. Edwin HaU 



18:i0 0. T. Thomp:?ou, Esq. 



18G4 Henry W. Ellsworth, JEsq 

. 1835 


183') Rev. Merrin Biohardson 



1337 William Warner, Esq. 



1838 Rev. John Bradshaw 



18 il Rev. Azariah Hydo 



1846 Daniel A. Bowo 



1840 Eleazar Sherman 



1851 Thomas S. Pearson 



linquishcd it. The onlj permanent fands are the rents of the Gram- 
mar School lands in the county, which amount to a little over $100 
annually, — hardly suflBcient to keep the building in repair. The 
lands are principally in the mountain towns, where only charters 
were granted by this State. Other charters were granted by the 
Grovemor of New Hampshire, and contained no appropriation for 
that purpose. While similar institutions were less common, popular 
teachers collected large schools, with a liberal income from tuition 
alone. Some of the teachers have received from the treasury, in 
addition to this income, from fifty to one hundred dollars annually. 
But the income has never been sufficient, and sufficiently certain to 
induce competent teachers to make it a permanent business. The 
citizens of Middlebury and vicinity would doubtless, long since, 
have adequately endowed this institution, if their liberality had not 
been exhausted on the college, which they regarded as a more im- 
portant object. AVe hope it will not be long before some efforts will 
be put forth for a thorough endowment, as such an institution, of a 
high order, is greatly needed in this vicinity. 

After Mrs. Willard opened her school at her own residence, the 
building erected for the female seminary was wholly given up to 
the Grammar School. In 1820, the principal proprietors of that 
building transferred their shares to the corporation of that institu- 
tion. In 1843 that building came to be regarded as inconvenient, 
on account of its location and otherwise, and some measures were 
adopted to provide a different place. In 1 844 a negotiation was 
opened with the corporation of the college, for occupying the wooden 
building, originally erected for the grammar school, or a part of it, 
and arrangement was made for that purpose. Accordingly a part 
of the lower story was altered and fitted up for that purpose, and 
the school has since been held there. The land, on which the female 
school building was erected^ was deeded only for the use of such a 
school by Hon. Horatio Seymour, and being deserted by both schools, 
the whole was surrendered to him, on his making some compensa- 
tion for the building, to enable the corporation to fit up the rooms 
in the college building. The corporation have also, with the aid of 
contributions from the citizens, enclosed with a railing the building 


and the extensive common west of it ; and by the liberal donation 
of several hundred dollars., by Charles Starr Esq., of New York, 
the grounds have been prepared and planted with ornamental trees 
and shrubbery. 

37G niSTORY OF middlekuut. 



At an early (lav the lea<"tlng citizens of Middlebury felt the im- 
portance of establishing literary institutions, not only for the advan- 
tage of their own town, but because they were needed in the forma- 
tion of an intelligent community in the state, then just opened for 
settlement, and rapidly filling up with an enterprising population. 
As an explanation of the efforts then made, and the measures 
adopted for the purpose, we commence the hi:?tory of Middlebury 
College with a quotiition from Kev. Timothy D wight, D. D., then 
president of Yale College. In his extensive travels in New Eng- 
land and New York, he visited Middlebury three times, — in 179S, 
ISOG and 1810. Of his first visit, among other things, he states 
as follows. 

** An academy was nearly completed, which -was intended to be 
the germ of a future college.** '-'The evening of the SOth (of 
Septem])er) I spent in company with a number of gentlemen, in a 
consultation concerning this projected seminary, at the house of S. 
Miller Esq. They informed me that a college was already incor- 
porated in the State, the intended scat of which was to I)e lUirling- 
ton ; that it had been incorporated some years and was li])erally en- 
dowed : J)ut that, for various reason, which "were specified, nothing 
material ha«l been done toward carrying it into operation : that al- 
though some indecisive efforts had been made l>y tlie trustees soon 
after their appointment, all its concerns had. for a considerable time 
been at a stand ; that there wa.s now less reason to expect any effi- 
cacious efforts from those gentlemen, than there had been heretofore; 
as they themselves appeared to have relincpiished both exertion and 
hope. The gentlemen then explained to me their own views of tho 


importance of such an institution to their state ; the propriety of 
making this town the scat of it ; their own intentions and the wishes 
of many respectable people in the State, who coincided with them 
in the opinion, which they had expressed to me. When they had 
unfolded their views, I frankly communicated to them my own ; and 
have since had no reason to complain, that they were disregarded. 
I will only add, that the local situation of Middlebury, the sober 
and religious character of the inhabitants, their manners and various 
other circumstances render it a very desirable seat for such a sem- 
inary/' In 1811, after his visits of 1806 and 1810, ho makes the 
following record : 

^' The academy, which I have mentioned above, began to prosper 
from the time when it was opened ; and was in the year 1800 raised 
by an act of incorporation into a collogo. From tliat time to the 
present it has continued to prosper ; altlionirh all its funds have 
been derived from private donations, and chiefly, if not wlioUy, 
from the inhabitant? of this town. The number of students is now^ 
one hundred and ten ; probably as virtuous a collection of youths, 
as can be found in any seminary in the world. The faculty consists 
of a president, a professor of law, a professor of Matliematics and 
Natural Philosophy, who teaches chemistry also, a professor of lan- 
guages and two tutors. The inhabitants of Middlebury have Litely 
subscribed 8,000 dollars for the purpose of erecting another colle- 
giate building. AVhen it is remembered, that tw«nty-five years ago 
this spot was a wilderness, it must be admitted, that these efforts 
have done the authors of them the highest honor." 

These extensive quotations will save the necessity of saying more 
relating to the origin of the institution. On the first day of No- 
vember 1800, an act was passed by the legislature, establishing a 
college under a corporation by the name of the '^ President and 
Fellows of Middlebury College.'' Rev. Jeremiah Atwater, who 
had officiated as principal of Addison County Grammar School, 
was by the act constituted the " present President," and Natlianiel 
Chipman, Ileman Ball, Elijah Paine, Gamaliel Painter, Israel 
Smith, Stephen R. Bradley, Soth Storrs, Stephen Jacob, Daniel 
Chipman, Lot Hall Aaron Leeland, Gershom C. Lyman, Samuel 

878 niSTORT OF middleburt. 

Miller, Jcdidiah P. Buckingham and Darius Matthews, " the prcs* 
ent Fellows." The act contains a proviso, that it should not be 
construed to give the corporation any right to the " property or 
estate, which had been or should be granted for the use of a col- 
lege in this State " or ** granted and oppropriated by this state to 
the University of Vermont.'' The lands reserved for that purpose, 
in the charters granted by this state, had been devoted to the Uni- 
vci-sity of Vermont at Burlington, which was incorporated in 1791. 

Under this charter the college went into immediate operation, and 
two classes were received into the institution the same &11. The 
Grammar School, for about five years, was continued m connection 
with it, under the same superintendence, and the members were in- 
structed by a tutor. The first class in college, consisting of ono 
member. Aaron Petty — was graduated in 1802. The graduating 
classes, from this time continued to increase, and in 1805 consisted 
of sixteen, in 1808 of twenty-three, and in 1811 of nineteen, 
which were the largest classes to this period. Rev. Jeremiah At- 
water resigned the oflSce ot president in 1809, and on the 26th day 
of September of that year was inaugurated as president of Dickin- 
son College at Carlisle, Penn. He continued in this office until 
August 1815, when ho resigned, and established his residence, in 
his native town, New Ilavcn, Conn., where he has since resided.* 

Rev. Henry Davis D. D., as successor of President Atwater, en- 
tered upon the dirties of the office in 1811, and resigned it in 1817. 
The classes under his administration, for several years, had in- 
creased, and in 1812, the graduating class consisted of 26, in 1818 
of 29, in 1814 of 28, and in 1815 of 30. The other classes 
during this period were considerably smaller. President Davis 
had been a professor in Yale College and afterwards in Union 
College at Schenectady. He occupied the latter office, when he 
was chosen president of this institution. Besides his eminent talents, 
he had a commanding person, address and eloquence, which gave him 
great popularity as president. On the death of Dr. Dwight, he 
was elected president of Yale College, but declined the office. Soon 

•President Atwater died at New Hayen, Coim., in Jolj 1858, aged 84 jean. 


after lie was choien president of Hamilton College at Clinton N. Y., 
and accepted the appointment, which was the occasion of his resign- 
ing the same office here in 1817. After a few years he also resigned 
the office of president of Hamilton College ; but continued his resi- 
dence at Clinton until his death, which occurred in 1852. 

Dr. Davis was succeeded in the office of president, by Rev. 
Joshua Bates D. D., who entered upon the duties of that office in 
1818. He was graduated, with distinguished honor, at Harvard 
College in 1800, and was settled as a pastor of the first Congrega- 
tional church in Dedham Mass., in 1803. In this position he re- 
mained until elected president of this institution. He brought to 
his new position an established character, as a scholar and as a man. 
Through the influence of his talents, learning and untiring devotion 
to the interests of the college, it was, during most of his adminis- 
tration in great prosperity, and the average number of tlie classes 
was larger than previously, and the graduating class in 1838 con- 
sisted of forty. "While he was in office the under graduates rose to 
the number of IGO. It had been Dr. Bates' design to return to 
the clerical profession, to which he was greatly attached, several 
years earlier than he did. AVhile president, it was his delight, and 
he was often invited, to preach on public occasions and in destitute 
places, where his ministrations were highly appreciated. He re- 
signed the office of president in 1839, and in the succeeding session 
of Congress, he officiated as chaplain of the Houqe of Ilepresenta- 
tives, and continued to preach in various places, and was finally 
settled as a pastor in Dudley Mass., in which position he continued 
until his death in 1853, at the age of seventy-seven. 

Rev. Benjamin Labaree, D. D., was elected to the office of pres- 
ident, and entered upon its duties in 1840. From various causes 
occurring about the time, the numbers of the classes were some- 
what diminished before and about the time of the close of Dr. Bates' 
administration. From 1838 to 1840, through the resignations and 
deaths of the officers, there was a total change in the faculty. At 
the time of its greatest prosperity, the reputation of Middlebury 
College drew students from nearly all the New England States 
from New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania, and some from as 


far south as Georgia. At tliis time the University of Vermont was 
ill successful operation ; Dartmouth College on the eastern and 
"Williams College on tlie soutlieru border of the state, and Union 
College not far off, had risen on their endowments and standing be- 
fore the public. In a com|>etitiou with such a multitude of well en- 
dowed colleges, this institution could not be expected to sustain its 
rei>utation over so wide a field, without persevering and successful ef- 
forts to enlarge also its endowments. These efforts the corporation 
have been and are making, and the influence is to some extent felt in 
the gradually iiicreai^ing number of its students. 

The collogo, at its c^mimcHcement, was entirely destitute of funds. 
Until the year 181(3, the only building belonging to the institution 
was the wooden buiMing ju'eviously erected for the Addison County 
(jranmiar School. The tutors, for some years, were wholly sup-- 
ported by con tiibut ions of the citizens. Frederick Hall, in 1606, 
was appointed to the profo^isorship of Mathematics and Natural 
Philosophy, which was then established, with a very small salary.and 
in part sustained by a donation from Samuel Miller, Esq. While in 
office he went to Europe to qualify himself more thoroughly for Li& 
department, and on his return claimed a higher compensation. A 
consi'lerable part, if not the whole of the addition, was subscri].>ed and 
guaranteed by the citizens. A similar addition was afterwards made 
to the salary of President Davis, and paid in the same way. The 
citizens, many of whom were young men who had adopted this as 
their home, were early trained to the duty ot sustaining the litera- 
ry institutions ; and it is hardly necessary to say that they entered 
upon their duty with zeal. 

The only funds ever received from the state is about .^1400. The 
University of Vermont had received a loan from the State School 
fund, which had been on interest for several yeai-s. and on applica- 
tion of that institution to be released from the payment, the legisla- 
ture in 185*2, directed the amount to be divided between that corpo- 
ration, Middlebury College and Norwich University. 

"While I'rofessor Ilall was in Paris in 1807, an American gentle- 
man residing there, by the name of Daniel Parker, placed at his 
disposal the sum of one hundred and seventy-eight dollars. To this 

niSTOHY OF MlDDLr.BUlllr. 3i^l 

sura, in 1820, Professor Hall added a sufficient sum to amount to 
$000. This sum he presented to the college as a permanent fund, 
known as the Parkerian fund, the income of which was to be ap- 
pointed to provide premiums for the best speakers selected fi-om the 
lower classes. This exhibition has been held the evening • before 
commencement, and has been attended by large audiences. 

In the year ISIO, not long after Dr. Davis was inaugurated as 
president, the corporation began to feel tlie necessity of a new 
building for the accommodation of the increasing number of students, 
and in October of that year, voted to erect a new college building, 
on the ground deeded l^y Col. Seth Storrs. The citizens had pre- 
viously subscribed §^.000, toward that object. The sum was after- 
wards increased, and soon materials were collected and preparations 
nmde, and the stone college for students' rooms was completed in 
181G; on its present beautiful site. 

The first considerable effort to raise funds was undei-taken by 
President Davi»', in the fall of 1815, to raise the sum of $50,000. 
His first effort for this purpose evinces his great power over the 
minds of others, as well the readiness of the citizens to be controlled 
on such an occasion. He invited a meeting at the hotel, and after 
the citizens had assembled, he addressed them in a most elo(iuent 
and persuasive speech. Before the meeting had dispersed, they had 
subscribed S20,000 in good faith, although some of the subscribers 
were scarcely worth the amount of their subscriptions. He met 
with such success, in other towns, that, by'the following spring, the 
whole fifty thousand dollars Lad been subscribed, and he was en- 
couraged to expect, that it would be raised to $100,000. Accor- 
dingly, in April, the corporation authorized him to proceed, on tho 
condition that the addition should reduce the previous subscriptions 
proportionally, so that all tho subscribers should be held to pay 
only $50,000. Xo great additions however were afterwards made ; 
and many, who had subscribed begun to feel, that they had prom- 
ised more than was convenient for them to pay. Dr. Davis had 
such strong confidence himself and gave such strong assurances re- 
specting the result, that on the prosecution of some of the subscrip- 
tions, resistance was made to the collection on the ground of fraud- 


ulent reprosentations. An*! it was aftcrwanls dcculed, that the sub- 
scriptions were invalid on that ground. This placed the corpora- 
tion in an embarrassed condition. But previous to tlic decision 
about >)14.000 had been paid for principal and interest. Not long after 
also tlie large legacy of Judge Painter, who died in 1819 and the 
legacy of Joseph Burr of Jlanchestcr, of $12,500 came to their 
relief According to the will of Mr. Burr, the income of Lis 
legacy was to be appropriated for the support of a professor, and by 
vote of the corporation, the professorship of chemistry and natural 
history was placed on that foundation and bears the name of the 
donor. In the year 1818. a subscription of several thousand dol- 
lars, principally in the County of Windham, was made for the ben- 
efit of the chemical department, and is known as the chemical fund. 

These sums were received under the administration of Dr. Bates. 
Under his administration also, in 18;!'). Dea. Isiuic Warren, of 
Charleston ]\[as3., be<{ueathed to the college the sum of sS.OOO, tlic 
income of which was to be appropriated for the educ:vtion of young 
men for the ministry. But the principal subscription, under Lis 
administration was raised in l^So of J^*oO,000. Fifteen thousand 
dollars of this was expended in erecting the stone building fur a, 
chapol and other i^.ublic rooms, and aljout ,^2.000 in altering and 
repairing the wooden building, and the remainder ^Yas api,ropriated 
to tlie currerit expenses. About the Siune time a small subscription 
of ,sT40 was raisetl, the income of which is appropriated to pay 
the tuition of distinguished and successful students in need of aid, 
and is called the Literary fund. Five hundred dollars of this fund 
was coutrihuted by AVilliam Bartlett Esq., of Xewburyport Mass. 

JJiuce the inauguration of Dr. Labaree, the finances have as- 
sumed a more settled form. A scattering subscri})tion from 18*40 
to Ib-^S was o]>tjiiiicd for BO.'dOO: in 1848 one of §:25,000, and in 
1832 another of 8r),000. In 1853, a friend of the college olTered 
a donation of .slO.OOO, on condition that a further sum of ^20,000 
should be raised, — the whole amount to constitute permanent and 
temporary scholarships. The condition has been complied with. 
To all tliese later subscriptions the alumni have been liberal contri- 
butors. Among the recent donations, we ought not to omit the 


legacy of tlio late Joseph P. Fairbanks Esq , of St. Jobnsl^uiy, 
for $10,000. 

)^esiilc3 the donations above mentioned, several 4ot3 of land in 
different parts of the state have been deeded to the college, some of 
Avhich to the amount of §700, have been leased. A part of the 
more recent subscriptions have not yet been paid, but the principal 
share has been received and vested for a general fund, besides the 
Burr fund, and the several smaller specific funds. In addition to 
tlie donations already mentioned. Gen. Arad Hunt of Ilinsdill N. II., 
in 1813, deeded to the corporation a large tract of land in Albany, 
Orleans County, estimated at more than five thousand acres. A 
very important portion of the income of the college is derived from 
the rents of these lands. 

The Associated Alumni fii-st met at the ccmmcnccment in 1824 ; 
and have since held their annual meetings at connnoncoment, and 
appointed an orator and poet. Several of the addrcs.^es have been 
puldished. They early adopted measures for the semi-centennial 
celebration of the establisliment of the college in ISoO. On this 
occasion largo numbers assembled, and among thrm, gentlemen of 
distinction in the various professions, together Avitli several of the 
former officers of the college. Among the exercises were interest- 
ing addresses by Ilev. Dr. Bates, late president, and llev. Dr. 
Hough, late professor. The exercises Avere closed by a numerously 
attended dinner, at Avhich several addresses Avere made, and among 
them a characteristic poem by John G. Saxe Esq. A full account of 
the proceedings was published at the time, in a pamphlet of near 200 
pages. At this celebration, the alumni proposed to raise a sub- 
scription of j;j)3o,000 ; and eight subscriptions of soOO each, with 
several smaller ones were made on the spot. This subscription ^Yas 
completed in 1852, as before stated. 

At an early day after the establishment of the college, a literary 
association was formed by the students, by the name of the Philo- 
mathesian Sociuty, and was incorjionited in 1 hV>2. It has its meet- 
ings weekly, for literary improvement, and an aimual celebration at 
commencement, at which an address is delivered I)y some distiug- 

S.';4 nrSTOP.Y of MIDDLEnURY. 

uished gontleinan selected for that purpose. It has a Tvcll selected 
library of 2o00 volumes. 
In 180*4 a religious association was formed, hj the name of the Pbil- 
adelphian Society, consisting of i)rofessoi-s of religion, which "is de- 
signed to promote among its members a knowledge of divine things." 
It is thought to have had a happy influence, )iot only on the mem- 
bers, but upon the coUego generally. Its library contains eight 
hundred volumes of religious and theological books. 

The " Bcnolicient Society" was formed in 1813 *• for the purpose 
of providing imligent students with text books." Professor Fowler, 
in his account of the college in 1837, says, — ''It furnishes thi-ee- 
fouilhs of all the students of the college the necessary text books. 
Indigent students obtain their books free of expense, and other nieni- 
bers obtain the same privilege by paying a small sum annually." 

A few valuable books were obtained for the use of the colle^i^e by 
the contribution of some of its friends, at the establishment of the 
college. But no serious eifort was made to establish a library until 
1809. At that time about one thousand dollars were raised by 
subscription of the citizens, and divided into shares of twenty-five 
dollars each. The owners of the shares were entitled to a limited 
privelego of using the books, but they liave since generally sohl or 
surrendered their shares to the college. The library from that time 
has been incrcasal by appropriations from the treasury. The pres- 
ent number of volumes is oGOO. 

The principal part of the philosophical apparatus was imported 
from London in 181 T, although *a few articles had been obtiiincd 
previously, and some additions have hoon occasionally made since. 
It is still deficient in amount, but is suiHcient for the ordinary in- 
struction in that department. 

Of the department of chemistry and natural history, Professor 
Isaac F. Ilolton says, — '* The labaratory was originally small and 
ill arranged, but the space given to chemistry has just been enlarged, 
and a series of improvements commenced, whicli, when completed, 
will add many fold to the facilities for teaching this branch. It is 
supplied with apparatus and chemicals oft a very li])eral scale indeed, 
and the design is to enlarge and improve this provision. The cabi- 


not 13 as large as any mere litx^rarj college ought to desire. A 
process of jiulicious exchanges, and moderate collections is necessary 
to adapt it to the best possible illustration of a full course of nat- 
ural history. The department occupies the entire lower floor of the 
chapel building.'' 

The following is a list of those, w^ho have occupied the offices 
dcsignate<l. Our limits do not authorize us to copy the long lists 
of the mem jcrs of the corporation or of the tutors. 



18i){) Sotli Storr.s Esq. 1807 Wi7 iS'iC ITon. Harvey BeU 184C 1^<4S 

18'VJ Hon. Tcter Starr iSlo 1843 Rev. Lucius L. TilJcn ISol 

ino Hon. Samuel Swift 182G I80I John W. Stewart, Esq. 


l.i^O Hon. Daring Matt! cw3Ui'V>, 1819 IfinT Hon. Samuel Swift ^S^".^ 

JSOM Sainu,'l Miller, E-^q. l>nij ISIO 1800 liou. Peter .<turr 1^-1-' 

IFOO Hun Samuel > wilt 1^10 1812 Kcv Thomas A. McrrilI18G2 1?»55 

ir.lO John Simmons, F.-q. l^JJ 1820 18.;2 Julius A. Bcekwith i:.^q^8r,l 1807 

182.« William G. Ho<)!;er IK'.O 1850 18>1 Rev. Jos D. Wickham l^-O 

1600 Rev. Win. C. Fowler 1807 VoVy Trof. W. H. Parker. 

pr.oi.'i:ss )RS or law. 

1800 llni. D. rhquna:iLL.D.1810 IJ^IH Hon. X'l ChipmanLL.D. I^IS 

15-00 Fre-lerio Hall, LL. D. 1821 1840 1808 Alex. C Twining. A. M 1847 
1825 Edwar.a Turner, A. AI. 1808 1818 William II. Parker, A M. 

1808 So'.o. StoUanl, A. M. 1S08 


1811 Rev. Oliver Hulburd 1812 1814 .1825 Rev. John Hough, D.D. 1838 

1812 Rev. Joan Hough,D.D 1817 1838 Solomon Stoddard, A M. 1847 

1817 Solomon M. Alien 1817 1848 R. D. C. Robbing, A.M. 

1818 Robert B. Patton, P.D.1825 1839 

1817 Pkcv. John Hough, D.D. 1825 

1828 Rev W\C. Fowlcr,A.M.1838 1848 Hon. Horace Eaton 1854 1855 

1808 Chjis. B. Adams, A.M. 1847 1853 1856 Isaac F. Ilolton, A. M. 1857 

1838 Rev. John Hough.D.D. 1839 1851 Rev. Jos. B. Bittenger 1853 

1 840 Rev. Albert Smith ,A.:>L 1 844 I808 Rev. George N. Boardman. 

1846 Hob. James Meacham jftO 183G 


Tho following constitute the present laculty : 
llcv. Bknjamin Labauke, D. D.j President, and Professor of 

Moral Philosophy. 
William II. Pakker, A. M., Professor of Mathematics and 

Natural Philosophy. 
Renselaek D. C. IloBiiixs, A. M., Professor of Languages. 
Geuiki;: IIai^ley, A. M , M. D., Professor of Chemistry and Nat- 
ural History, 
llov. GEOiujii: N. BoAiiDMAX, A. M., Professor of Khetoric and 
English Literature, and Pro-tempore l*rofessor of Intellectual 
CiiARLi:s M. Mead., A. B., Tutor in Latin and Greek. 
Lewis A. Austin, A. B., Tutor and Librarian. 

In the preceding list of j)rofessors aie the names of several dis- 
tinguislied scholars ^vho have passed av.ay, and who, in other rela- 
tional, would djiorve a distinct notice. But here our 
limiU allow only the following short notices : 

Fill i»]:iirc Hall, LL. D., was graduated at Dartmouth College 
in 180-3. In 1805 he Wiis appointed a tutor in this college: and, in 
180(5, professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy, and the 
first i)rofc<sor in any department in the college. Soon after this 
ai)poiiitment, in order to qualify himself the better for his profes- 
sorship, he went to Europe, and sperit some time in London and 
Paris. Alter his return, he continued to discharge tiie duties of Lis 
professorship until 1824, when he resigned, lie was afterwards 
cm[)loyed in various enterprizcs, and was for a tin^' a j)rofessor in 
the Episcopal College at Hartford, also president of Mount Ii02)o 
College in Maryland, and die<l in 184o- 

Rev. Oliver IIulruiid, from Orwell, was graduated at this col- 
lege in 1800, was tutor from 1808 to 1811, ami in the latter year 
was appointed the first professor of Latin and (iieek languages. 
His health soon declined, so that the same fall he took a journey to 
Georgia, with tho hope that the climate of that state might check 
an apparent tendency to a pulmonary disease. In the following 
summer he returned to Middlebury and resumed his duties as pro- 
fessor. But as the succeeding cold season approached; he found 

ni.-TO:.Y OF MIDDLr.DURY. 3S7 

Limself unable to endure the severity of this climate, and returned 
to Georgia. "While in that state, he labored in the ministry in 
"Wayncsborough until his death in 1814. The estimation in which 
his talents, scholarship and character were held by those who best 
knew him, is evinced hy his receiving the first appointment at the 
time of his graduation, and by his successive appointments as tutor 

and professor. 

S iLOMox M. Allen has similar testimony in favor of his char- 
acter. He was the son of Kcv. Jlr. Allen, for many years a dis-' 
tinguishcd clergyman of Pittsfield, iN^ass. He was graduated at 
this college in l^^l 3. Sylvester Larned, who was afterwards so much 
distinguishetl us a pulpit orator, was from the same town, and was 
graduate<l in the same class. After he was withdrawn from Wil- 
liam's College, as stated, on account of his ''youthful indiscretions 
and irregularities/' he came to Jliddlebury in company with, and 
under the ciualified guardianship of Allen, who was then a member 
of this college, and was a judicious, safe and kindly adviser, and 
who, it was thought, exerted a salutary influence over him. Mr. 
Allen pursued the study of theology one year at Andover, and offi- 
ciated as tutor the two following years. In 18 IG he was appointed 
professor of languages, but for one year continued to discharge the 
duties of tutor. At the commencement in 1817, he entered upon 
the duties of professor, as successor to Dr. IJough, who was trans- 
ferred to the professorship of theology. On the 23d of the follow- 
ing September, Professor Allen went upon the roof of the then 
new college building to remedy a defect in a chimney, and while at 
work there, the scaiTolding gave way, and he fell about ten feet to 
the roof, and was thence precij)itatod to the ground. The injury 
was fatal, and he died at 10 o'clock the same evening, at the age of 
28 years. We think no event ever spread such sadness over this 
whole community. He was known and loved by all. 

Robert B. Patton, from Philadelphia, was two or three years 
a member of this college, but removed his relation to Yale College, 
and was graduated in 1817. In 1818 he was appointed professor 
of languages in this college, as successor to professor Allen. In 
1825 he resigned, and received the appointment of professor in the 
New York University. He died in 1839. 


Edward Turner was educated at Yale College, and afterwards 
pursued theological studies at Andover.. While a member of tliat 
institution, in 1823, he was appointed a tutor in this college, and 
continued in that office two yeara. At tlie end of that pericHl he 
was appointed professor of Mathematics and Xatui-al Philosophy. 
While in that office he was mamed to Sophronia ^torrs^ a daughter 
of Col. Seth Ston-s, and died in January. 1838, at the age of 41 
years. Professor Turner was reserved in his manners and conver- 
sation ; but was distinguished as a very accurate mathematical and 
classical scholar, 

Solomon Stoddard, from Xorthampton Mass., was elected pro- 
fessor of Mathematics and Natural Philoso{)hy, as successor to 
Professor Turner in 1838, and the same year was transferred to the 
Professorship of Latin apd Greek Languages, as successor to Pro- 
fessor Hough, who was appointed the fii^st {professor of Rhetoric and 
English Literature. From the resignation of Dr. Bates to the ap- 
pointment of Dr. Labaree, as president, Professor Stoddard dis- 
charged the duties of that office, lie was educated at Yale College, 
and previous to his appointment as professor, he had established a 
high reputation as a classical scholar. In connection with Mr. 
Andrews he had published a Latin Grannnar, which has l>eeu 
known as ''Andrews and Stoddard's Grammar,'' an<l has boon intro- 
duced and used in nearly all the colleges and seminaries in tlie 
country. He continued to discharge the duties of hi< prollssorship 
with distinguished ability and reputation until 1847. hi that year 
he showed increasing symptoms of pulmonnry disease ; and when so 
much reduced as to be unable to dischai-ge his official duties, he 
went to Northampton, his native place, where he soon after died. 

Charles B. Adams was a graduate of Amhei*st College, and 
was an enthusiastic student of natural history. On the recommen- 
dation of Professor Hitchcock, in 1838, he was appointed professor 
of chemistry and natural history in this college. AVhile occupy- 
ing that office, Mr. Adams made explorations and collections in dif- 
ferent branches of natural history in this count}', and spent one 
winter in the same pursuit in the West Indias. He was also 
appointed by Gov. Slade, and for two years officiated as state geol- 




OOL. cA Cc^t^^ 

ifasfbRT iamnatm 889 


ogist. In 1847 he resigned his professorship to accept a similar 
appointment in Amherst College. While connected with that in- 
stitution he died in 1853. 

Hon. Horace Eaton, in 1848, was elected professor of Chemistry 
and Natural History, as successor to Mr. Adams. Professor Eaton 
was graduated at this college in 1825, and during the following 
year officiated as principal of Addison County Grammar School. 
In the meantime, he pursued the study of medicine with Dr. J. A. 
AllenJ of this town, and afterwards with Dr. Eaton, of Enosburgh. 
He also attended the medical lectures at Castletoil, 'and settled in 
the practice of medicine in "Enosburgh in 1828. He continued his 
practice in that place, except as interrupted by his official duties, 
until his appointment in this college. In the meantime he filled 
various important civil offices in the State. He represented the 
town of Enosburgh in the legislature in 1829, the Second year after 
he commenced practice, and three years afterwards, previous to and 
including]: the vcar 1886. In 1837 he was elected a senator for the 
county, and again in 1839, and the two following yeiirs. He was 
elected Lieut. Governor of the State in 1843, and the two years 
succeeding; and in 184G chief magistrate of the State, and con- 
tinued in that office two years. In the meantime he was annually 
chosen, and for four years officiated, as State Superintendent of 
Common Schools. In 1854 he relinquished his connection with the 
college, and, so far as his health permitted, continued the practice 
of medicine, in which he had, previously, among his friends been 
employed. He died on the 4th of July 1855, at the age of fifty- 
one years. His remains were taken for interment to Enosburgh, 
his former residence. 

Hon. James Meacham was elected in 1846 professor of Rhetoric 
aiid English Literature as successor of Rev. Albert Smith, who 
had resigned that office in 1844. He was bom at Rutland, August 
10, 1810, and was in early childhood left an orphan, and com- 
menced life as an apprentice in a cabinet maker's shop. By his 
native talents and energy, with some aid from a discerning and be*- 
nevolent neighbor, he raised himself to distinction. He was grad- 
uated at this college in 1832, and was aft;erwards sucoessively em- 


ployed as teacher in an academy at Castleton and St. Albans. In 
1836, he was appointed a tutor, in which office he continued two 
years. Having previously pursued the study of theology at the 
seminary at Andover, he was settled as pastor of the Congrega- 
tional, church in New Haven in 1838. In this position he remained 
until his appointment as professor. While discharging the duties 
of the latter office, with reputaticm and success, he was elected, m 
1849, a representative in Congress, and the year following resigned 
his professorship. He continued to represent the state, by mibse- 
quent elections, until the time of his death ; and just before his 
death had been unanimously nominated by his party for a new 
election. In the several stations which he had occupied, he did 
not confine his researches to the subjects more immediately con- 
nected with his position, but made himself familiar with general liter- 
ature and politics. Before his election to Congress he had estab- 
lished a high reputation as a writer and extempore speaker. As 
a member of Congress he was universally respected. Several of 
his speeches, which have been published, have secured him an envi- 
able reputation as an orator. His position, as chairman of the 
committee on the District of Columbia, brought upon him severe 
and exhausting labor, which, with other duties, made serious in- 
roads on his health, which had before been much impaired. A few 
days before the close of his last session, finding himselt too much 
enfeebled to discharge his duties there, he left Washington for his 
home, and on his arrival, sai(J he had come home to die. His pre- 
diction, a few days aftej, was verified. He died on the 23d of Au- 
gust 1856, at the age of forty-six. 

This account of Middlcbury College, was written two years ago ; 
and the printers had put most of the manuscript beyond our control 
before it occurred to us that there might have been changes which 
ought to be noticed. But wc find the changes to be not of sufficient 
importance to be mentioned in this place, except in the college library. 
President Labaree, while on his recent visit to Europe, purchased in 
London and Paris, a large number of volumes, — of which 650 are 
in French. These, with other additions, have increased the library 
from 6,600, as mentioned above, to about 10,000 volumes. 




About the time the Grammar School and College were estab- 
lished, and before the incorporation of the latter, the citizens, in 
order to complete their plans of providing institutions of a higher 
order for all classes, adopted measures to establish a Female Semi- 
nary. No legal corporation was formed to sustain it, bat in the 
spring of 1800, through the agency of Hon. Horatio Seymour, 
from the same place, and previously acquainted with her, they in- 
vited Miss Ida Strong, of Litchfield Conn., who had been educated 
at the celebrated school of Miss Pierce, in that place, to establish a 
similar school here. No building or other conveniences had been 
provided, and she opened her school in the court house. It soon 
rose to such reputation as to attract pupils from nearly all parts of 
the state. After a year or two, the school was removed to the north 
room of Dr. Campbell's house, which had been used for a store. 
The school had so rapidly increased, that the citizens felt the im- 
portance of providing better accommodations for it. In the winter 
of 1802-3, they formed a voluntary association and made prepa- 
ration for the erection of a suitable building. Mr. Seymour had 
appropriated land, as before stated. The stock was divided into 
shares, a subscription was circulated and the requisite funds raised, 
and early in the season following the two story building, now occu- 
pied by 0. Seymour, Esq., for his residence, was completed. The 
young men from the lawyers' offices, stores and mechanics' shops, 
were not behind others in their enthusiasm. They were without 
funds to take stock, but volunteered to build a plank walk across 
the flat ground in front of the building, where the deep mud ren« 


dered it otherwise inaccessible to female or male travellers ; and in 
other ways contributed their labor to promote the enterprise. Mrs. 
Willard, in a communication, to which we shall again refer, says, — 
" In the records of femalo education, it is worthy of notice, that this 
academy was one of the very first in the country which was built 
for that special object/' 

In this building Miss Strong kept her school in successful opera- 
tion until her health failed. Pupils were gathered from all parts 
of the state, and many from the state of New York. When her 
health was too much impaired to continue her labors, with the hope 
of improving it, she took a journey to Bennington County to spend 
a season with some of her former pupils, and other friends. But 
she continued to doclii^e, and soon after, in October, 1804, at the 
age of 29 years, she died in the familj of one of her pupils in Ru- 
pert. Mips Strong was the pioneer of female education in this state ; 
and that she was a woman of no common talents, education and 
energy, is evinced by her success in establishing a school of so much 
reputation at so early a period in the settlement of the country. No 
distinct school for the education of females in the higher branches 
had been established in this state and very few in the country. The 
nearest, if not the only, school of that character, to which Vermont 
females could resort, was Miss Pierce's school at Litchfield, Conn. 

There remained a vacancy in the school from the death of Miss 
Strong, until the summer of 1807. At this time Miss Emma Hart, 
from Berlin, Conn., was invited by the proprietors to take charge of 
the school. Although but twenty years of age, she had an estab- 
lished reputation, and had been invited to several other places, but 
chose to accept the invitation to come here. She continued in charge 
of the school, with high and increasing reputation, about two years, 
and on the 10th of August 1809, she was married to Dr. John 
Willard, then marshall of the District of Vermont^ of whom we 
have before spoken. During the vacancy in the school above men- 
tioned, the Addison County Grammar School was removed to the 
building belonging to this- seminary. Tlie lower story had been 
divided into rooms and furnished for the accommodation of the ordi- 
nary exercises ; but the upper story was finished in one room for the 


more publio exercises. Tire academy occupied the lower story, 
and Miss Hart's school was commenced, with thirty-seven pupils, in 
the upper room. But the male school was removed before the sec- 
ond winter. In the spring of 1814, Mrs. Willard opened a female 
school at her own residence. At our request, she has furnished us 
with an interesting communication, from which we quote so far as 
our limits and the object of this work will allow. Uer experience 
in her schools, her plans and their results, will be best explaind 
in her own words. 

** The winter of 1807-8 was one .of exceeding hardship for me. 
Tho' very cold, with frequent storms and much snow, I had to walk 
from Dr. Tudor's, where I boarded, to the acac'6my,and when there 
to keep my school in a large long room, formed like an ordinary 
ball room, occupying the whole upper story, while the only means 
of gaining warmth was from an open fire, in a small fire place on 
the north end. Yet that winter I had an increased and very pleas- 
ant school. When it was so cold, that we could live no longer, I 
called all my girls on to the floor, 'and arranged them two and two, 
in a long row for a contra dance ; and while those who could sing 
would strike up some stirring tune, I, with one of the girls for a 
partner, would lead down the dance, and soon have them all in rapid 
motion. After which wo went to our school exercises agaia. The 
school had quite an increase in the spring from different parts of the 
state, and amounted to sixty. Among them, and from the village, 
was a remarkable band of young maidens, ranging from about twelve 
to fifteen. I remained in this school two years from the time I 

After the dissolution of Mrs. Willard's connection with the school 
by her marriage. Miss Esther North, from Goshen, Conn., was invi- 
ted, and in October following became the principal. She continued 
the school for several years, a part of which time she was assisted 
by Miss Mary North, her sister. Mrs. Phebe Smith, before her 
marriage Phebe Henderson, of Bennington, and since the wife of 
Rev. Joel H. Linsley, D. D., of Greenwich, Conn., succeeded Miss 
North in January 1812. We have not the exact date of the 
close of Miss North's school, er of Mrs. Smith's. The latter bad 


charge of the school in the spring of 18 14, and probably closed it 
soon after, as Mrs. Willard commenced her school at her own resi- 
dence the same season. We quote again from Mrs. Willard. 

" It was in the spring of 1814 that I began, at my own resi- 
dence, the school which I regard as the germ of the Troy Female 
Seminary. It was there that I devised and wrote that ' Plan of 
Female Education,' which was first printed in the winter of 1818-19, 
and addressed as a petition to the legislature of New York, and be- 
came the basis of an extensive reform in female education. While 
I was in secrecy describing the institution, which was my beau ideal 
for it, and was diligently considering what name I should give it, 
I heard Mr. Merrill pray for our '^ seminaries of learning.'' I 
said, * I have it, — ^I will call it a female seminary.' That word, 
while it is high as the highest, is also low as the lowest, and will 
not create a jealousy, that we imean to intrude upon the province of 
the men. There, are now female seminaries, not only throughout 
the American Union, but in the islands of the Pacific and in Asia. 
Many of these have been either directly taught by my pupils, or 
indirectly by their scholars. As nearly as I can estimate, I have 
sent out about five hundred teachers." 

" My boarding school at Middlebury attained to so considerable a 
reputation abroad, that not only did I receive pupils from the first 
families throughout Vermont, but also a number from New England 
and New York. In 1816 and 1817, I had five from Waterford, 
N. Y., among whom was the adopted daughter of Gen. Van Schoon- 
hoven. In 1818, this gentleman being in Middlebury, invited Dr. 
Willard and myself to remove our establishment to Waterford. 
Having then my plan of education fully digested and written out, 
though known only to a few confidential friends, I gave the manu- 
script into the hands of the General, and with Dr. Willard's con- 
sent, the assurance, that if DeWitt Clinton, then Governor of New 
York, approved it, and the Waterford gentlemen would bring it be- 
fore the legislature, we would, on condition we were patronized by 
that body, remove and commence in Waterford on the plan pro- 
posed. Dr. Willard and myself, encouraged by Governor Clinton's 
warm approbation and efibrts, which, with those of the gentlemen 

/f-7.3'r/;// IJY AUlXJiMJEH . 


\^ '?: H m A W 'J L L k S 



of Wateiford, -were in a measure successful, did remove in 1819 to 
Watcrford with our teachers and most of our boarding pupils ; thus 
preserving the identity of the school, which had only an ordinary 
vacation between its close at Middlebury and its re-opening at Wat- 
crford. Two years afterwards it was removed to Troy. * Now in 
1857 it numbers about 330 pupils, and among those may probably 
be found representatives from every State in the Union, besides 
some from Canada.'' 

'• In a Jate account of normal schools, made by Mr. Ormiston of 
Upper Canada, he says the first in the United States was founded 
in 1838, in Massachusetts. This was^ more than twenty years later 
than the time when I began specially to prepare pupils for teachers. 
In Middlebury, Elizabeth Ifherrill and Katharine Batty were trained 
to becomo teachers in the institution which I was proposing to found, 
and they wore among my first teachers in this state." 

After the school wa^ established in Troy, en-^ouraged by a very 
liberal and unexpected private patronage,but disappointed in the en- 
dowmentr expected from the State, Mrs. Willard says, — " I ceased 
applying to the legislature, and determined to spread in another 
manner, what I believed an improved system. I then betook my- 
self to the training of teachers. Young women of character and 
talents I received to board and educate, some of them to clothe and 
some to pay travelling expenses ; when afterwards they went forth, 
as recommended by me, on application for teachers, to our different 
states. They went pledged to pay me, when they earned suflicient 
money by teaching ; being however allowed to retain of their earn- 
ings sufiicient to clothe themselves. In this way I continued to 
educate and send forth teachers, until 200 had gone from the Troy 
Seminary before one was educated in any public normal school in 
the United States. Thus early was my system of female education 
carried to every part of the country, and the school, whii^h in 1814 
was begun in Middlebury, is fairly entitled to the honor of being 
the first normal school in the United States." • 

While her school was continued in Middlebury, Mrs. Willard in- 
troduced a new system of instruction in geography, which she had 
partly written out and prepared for publication, and which was af- 

StSi(l HiarORT of MIDSLBBURir; 

terwards published in connection with* William C. Goodrich. She 
says a,l80, " In the school at Middlebury, I commenced teaching 
Moral Philosophy from Paley's work, Miss Hemenway being my 
first scholar. There also was taught my first class in Intellectual 
PhilosopBy. My text book was the entire work of Locke, and my 
first pupil l^as Eliza Ilenshaw, now Mrs. Bushnell." While in 
Middlebury, she had not introduced the study of Mathematics, 
" altliough, " she says, '^ it was in Middlebury, that the stream of 
lady-mathematics took its rise, which afterwards went tout from 
the Troy Seminary to every part of the Union. I taught drawing 
myself in both my Middlebury schools. I had a passion for it." 
"But I felt my deficiency, in not being acquainted with perspective, 
which I knew was the grammar of drawing. I purchased books of 
perspective, from which I perceived, that without geometry, per- 
spective must remain to me a dead letter. John Willard, since a 
judge, for many years, of the Supreme Court in this state, is a 
nephew of Dr. Willard, and was sent by him to Middlebury Col- 
lege, and boarded with us, I took up his Euclid, when ho was from 
home and was fascinated with the study. Once after he returned, 
I said to him I was studying it ; I had found no difficulty, but would 
like to see a kittle whether I understood it as he did. He sat down 
for about half an hour, and pronounced my learning correct. Tliat 
was the sole teaching I ever had in geometry, a science which I re- 
gard as more than any other the plough share of the mind. I af- 
terwards for years taught the whole of Euclid and trigonometry, 
with Enfield's Institutes ot Natural Philosophy." "If otherwise 
than as a teacher I have done any good to posterity, for which they 
will remember me after my decease, Middlebury will be associated 
with it. My theory of the circulation of the Blood, by means of 
respiration, now so extensively acknowledged, would never have 
been formed but for events occurring in Middlebury. After my 
marriage, Dr. Willard's office of Marshall called him to make long 
jo»rncys from homo. But his old medical library, with Cheseldcn's 
Anatomy to begin with, remained at home. He had a passionate 
attachment for these old authors, and talked to me in their language, 
and I kindled into his enthusiasm, and prepared myself, much to his 


delight, to respond, and to understand what he taught me, and thus 
I obtamed some knowledge of scientific physiology and medical 
practice as it then stood." 

We have indulged our inclination in quoting from the communi- 
cation of Mrs. Willard farther perhaps than some would justify aa 
a part of the history of Middlebury. But we may be allowed to 
add, what will be obvious to the reader, that she has been a pioneer 
in female education in this country, and her incipient plans and ef- 
forts were adopted while she was a teacher here. Her influence has 
not been confined to her own personal instructions or those of the 
teachers whom she has raised up ; but the numerous and popular 
books, which she has published have tended to the same object* 

After the removal of Mrs. Willard to the State of New York in 
1819, no general measures were adopted for the revival of a female 
seminary until the spring of 1827. In the meantime independent 
schools for the higher branches were occasionally kept by different 
females. At the period above mentioned, a new eftort was made to 
revive the school and place it on a more permanent footing. The 
building, which had been erects, as well as its location, was not 
satisfactory, and had been given up to the Addison County Gram- 
mar School. Besides, it was thought desirable to make it a board-^ 
ing school. The citizens came together and formed a new associa- 
tion and adopted a constitution and by-laws. The stock was di- 

*In Barnard's American Jonmal of Education for March 1859, is published an 
article on the ** Educational Services of Mrs. Emma Willard," by Prof. Henry 
Fowler, Bochester University N. Y., extending to more than forty pages. It con- 
tains a detail of hor labors and success in enlarging the field and improving the 
system of Female Education. She has, at difiisFent times, in various addresses to 
the public, explained her views of the system she proposed ; published very nvt- 
merous educational books, formed on her new plans of instruction, which have 
been introduced into the seminaries through the country ; educated a multitude of 
of teachers, who, having become fiimiliar with her system, have gone forth every 
where to introduce it; and finally has established a model school, into whose exist- 
ence her principles are incorporated; and has by her various labors, established a 
character, — to use Prof. Foster's language-^as a ** Refbessntative Womav, who 
suitably typifies the great movement of the nineteentn century, for the elevation of 
woman." We cannot do justice to this article without copying the whole, which oar 
limits will not allow. 


898 mSTOBY OF midslbbttrt. 

yided into shares and a new subscription was rdsed. The aissocia'' 
iion was incorporated by the legislature in October 1827, by the 
name of the Female School Association. The constitution had pro- 
yided for *' a board of trustees consisting of nine members, elected 
at the annual meeting, one third of whom shall go out of office at 
the end of each year." To this board was conmiitted the general 
superintendence of the school. This ancLother provisions were sanc- 
tioned and legalized by the act of incorporation. In the course of 
that year the association had purchased the three story building 
erected by Hon. Daniel Ghipman for a law school, and repaired and 
fitted it for the school boarding house. Misses Ann F. and H. B. 
Mahew, from Woodstock, were in 1828 employed to take charge of 
the school. They continued in it about a year. They were suc- 
ceeded by Mrs. Harriet B. Cook, widow of Milo Cook, Esq. Be- 
fore her marriage, as early as 1801, Miss Harriet B. Latimer had 
been invited to come from Middlctown, Conn., and open a school at 
Vergennesi After her marriage, Mr. Cook removed to the State of 
Georgia, where Mrs. Cook was employed with her husband in teach- 
ing. After his death she returned* to Vermont, and again opened 
a school at Vergennes, until she was invited to take charge of the 
seminary hero. Under her administration, the school was in great 
reputation, and increased to such extent that the room which she oc- 
cupied in the boarding house was wholly insufficient to accommo- 
date it. The stockholders and others, who took additional stock, 
early in the year 1830, adopted measures to erect a separate build- 
ing for the school. The lot then owned by the association did not 
afford sufficient room to admit the building on the street, and it was 
erected in the rear of the boarding house. Dui'ing the administra- 
tion of Mrs. Cook, Walter R. Gilkey, Esq., then carrying on the 
business of a saddler and harness maker, as successor of Capt. Jus- 
tus Foot, had charge of the boarrling house. The boarders, as well 
as the scholars, had so greatly increased that further accommodations 
were required for them. On a pledge of the future income of the 
establishment, a few individuals undertook to erect an addition to 
the boai-ding house. Toward that object, Dr. William Bass con- 
tributed the lot next east of the seminary, on which stood a two 


Story dwelling house, estimated st $500 ; Bufiis Wainwright con- 
tributed nearly the same amount, and three others firom one to three 
}iundred dollars each* The dwelling house on the lot received from 
Dr. Bass was sold and removed to a lot on the same street, and is 
now owned by Mr. Powers. The addition at the east end of the 
boarding house was erected in 1831. 

in August, 1834, Mr&.|Pook Resigned her charge of the school, 
and afterwards opened a school in Bloomfield, New Jersey. She 
was succeeded the following year by Miss Nancy Swift, who had 
been engaged in a school in St. Albans. The school under her ad- 
ministration was continued four years, with similar high repu- 
tation and success. Miss Swift resigned, and for several years had 
charge of a female school in Huntsvile, Alabama. A temporary 
teacher was employed during the winter, and in the spring of 1840 
Bev. Lucius L. Tilden, having been dismissed as pastor of the Con- 
gregational church in West Butland^ on account of the fiulure of 
his health, was appointed and took charge of the seminary as prin- 
cipal, and was assisted by Mrs. Tilden, who had been a teacher in 
the school before their marriage. They had charge also of the 
boarding house. In the sprmg of 1845 Mr. Tilden resigned the 
charge of the school, and was succeeded in the spring of 1846 by 
Dr. S. P. Lathrop, who continued in charge of it until the spring 
of 1849. Dr. Latbrop then resigned to accept the appointment of 
professor in the new college at Beloit, Wisconsin, and has since died. 
Under the last two administrations the school sustained its high 
reputation, but felt the influence of the frequent changes and unset- 
tled state of the institution, and the increasing reputation of neigh- 
boring schools. 

For the next two years the school was kept in operation with only 
temporary teachers. In 1851 Mr. S. W. Hitchcock, from Burling- 
ton, was employed, and designed to make it his permanent business. 
In the meantime new measures were adopted to make extensive al- 
terations and repairs of the establishment, which resulted finally in 
the expenditure of a large sum. At this time the school house was 
removed to its present position on the street, and fitted up anew. 
But Mr. Hitchcock was able to continue the school for only about 


ono year, when his health failed, and he died m the summer of 1853. 

Soon after Mr. Hitchcock's death, William F. Bascom, Esq., 
who had then been engaged for several years as principal of a pub- 
lie seminary at Potsdam, N. T., was appointed and entered upon 
the duties as principal. He was assisted by Mrs. Bascom, who had 
been a teacher in the sdhool previous to their marriage, and by other 
competent teachers. Under his administetion, the number of pu- 
pils was large, and the reputation of the school was high. But Mr. 
Bascom, having in the meantime been admitted to the practice of 
law, in the &11 of 1856, relinquished the school, and the business of 
instruction, for his new profession. The school was continued through 
the winter by Mies Eliza Merrill, daughter of the late Rev. Dr. 
Merrill, an experienced teacher. 

In the meantime, the board made an arrangement with Miss 
Agnes Gordon, who was formerly a resident here in the &mily of 
her &ther, Mr. Joseph Gordon, and is well known as a popular 
teacher in several states, south as well as north, and appointed her 
as principal. She assumed the charge both of the school and board- 
ing house, and with other distinguished and competent teachers, 
opened the school on the 9th of March 1857. From the success, 
which has so far attended the school under her administration, it is 
anticipated that she will make it a permanent school of high re- 
spectability and usefulness. 

The following are the present teachers, and the number will b^ 
increased as the necessities of the school shall require. 
Miss Agnes Gordon, Principal and Preceptress. 
Miss M. J. Knowles, Assistant Preceptress. 
Miss E. C. Lawrence, Teacher of Drawing and Painting. 
Prof. A. BoTT, (a distinguished musican and scholar from Germany) 

Teacher of Music and German. 

i^oiTthe sake of making the &culties for acquiring an education as 
accessible as possible to all classes of females, it has been thought nee- 
essary to keep the price of tuition and board low. For this purpose 
the seminary needs a permanent fund of fifteen or twenty thousand 
dollars, in addition to the present establishment ; which, we think, 
would keep the buildings and furniture in repair, gradually increase 


the library and apparatus, and secure a permanent school of a high 
order. And this sum, or more, we hope some liberal and wealthy in- 
dividual will soon be induced to contribute to so important an object. 
Since the above was written, we learn that the late David Nich- 
ols of New York, son of the late David Nichols of Middlebury, 
has made provision bj his will for tlie education of females in his 
native town, to nearly the amount suggested above. Mr. Nichols 
was a young gentleman, greatly respected here for his amiable, 
courteous, and enterprising disposition and character ; and in this 
liberal provision has manifested his characteristic benevolence, and 
his regard for educational institutions, and the prosperity and hap- 
piness of the place where he spent his childhood and youth. Mr. 
Nichols died at Paris, France, November 27th, 1852, at the age 
of thirty-five years. His remains were subsequently interred at 





The doctrines respecting religious liberty and toleration, and the 
relations of " Church and State," which prevailed in the States, 
Irom which the immigrants came, were imported and established here. 
The liberty of worshiping the Supreme Being according to one's own 
convictions, was not denied, nor was any one forced to worship con- 
trary to his convictions. Religion was regarded as essential to the 
highest interests of the state, and therefore it was considered right 
for the government to require all the citizens to pay their proportion 
of taxes for its support, to some ecclesiastical organization. The con- 
tribution of each must therefore be paid to the existing organization, 
unless he belonged to some other, to which he contributed. 

The following are the main provisions of the law existing in this 
state from the organization of the town until the year 1801. "When 
any number of the inhabitants of the town or parish, exceeding 
twenty-five, being of a similar sect or denomination of Christians, 
shall think themselves able to build a meeting house," and other- 
wise provide for the support of the gospel, a town meeting was to 
be called, and two thirds of those assembled, being not less than 
twenty-five, were authorized to provide for erecting a meeting house 
and " hire or otherwise agree with a minister to officiate as a minis- 
ter " of the inhabitants ; and to assess the necessary taxes to defiray 
the expenses. And it was further provided, that every voter in 
town " shall be considered as being of the religious opinion and sen- 
timent of such society, and liable to be taxed for the purposes afore- 
said, unless he shall procure a certificate, signed by some minister of 


tiief gospel, deacon, elder, moderator or clerk of the church, con- 
gregation, sect or denomination, to which he belongs," making 
^'Imown the person procuring the same to be of the religious opin- 
ion or sentiment of the si^er thereof, and to what sector denomi- 
liation he belongs." This certificate was to be recorded in the 
town clerfc'^ office. 

The Congregational was almost the only denomination known to 
the first immigrants, and was at first almost the only one established 
in this state. It was established in this town as the ^'standing 
order," taxes were assessed for its support and ministers settled by 
vote in town meeting, as other town business. The support of the 
gospel in that denomination constituted an important share of the 
business of those meetings, its history is a part of the history of the 
town, and is therefore extended beyond the limits, which jould oth- 
erwise be assigned to it. 

There had been, as elsewhere stated, religious meetings to some 
extent, and occasional preaching in town before any action in town 
meetings. At the annual meeting in March 1788, two years after 
the organization of the town, and the first meeting, when any busi- 
ness was done except the appointment of a few officers, the following 
votes were passed : 

*' Voted to choose a committee to stick a stake for the meeting 
bouse and pitch on a place or places to bury the dead." 

" Voted, That Mr. Daniel Foot's house be a place to meet for 
public worship for the present." 

** Voted Daniel Foot, Benjamin Smalley, Abraham Kirby and 
Nathaniel Hunger be a committee to procure preaching for the 
present year." 

January 1, 1789, '' Voted that the town be divided into two dis- 
tict societies." '' Voted, that the committee, that was appointed 
last March, hire preaching for three months, as they, in their wis- 
dom, shall think proper." March 2, 1789, " Voted that we will 
try to procure preaching for the ensuing year. Voted that we will 
raise a tax of three pence on the pound to be paid in wheat at 5s 
per bushel. Voted that Benjamin Smalley, Abraham Kirby and 
Jonathan Chipman be a committee for the purpose of procuring 


some stitable person to prestch in the town on probation for a settle^ 
ment. Voted that we will meet one half of the time at the north 
end of the town, and the other half at the south end of the town on 
Sundays f<y public worship. Voted that Capt. Stephen Goodrich's 
house for the north end and Mr. Bill Thayer's for the south end for 
to meet at, at present. Voted to reconsider the vote passed last 
town meeting concx^ming dividing the town." 
' July, 1789, " Voted that the committee try to hire Mr. Parme- 
lee« on probation five Sabbaths more, when he comes back. Voted 
to re-consider the former vote that was passed, to meet one half tbe 
time at the north end and the other half at the south end of the 
town for public worship, and that we will meet at Mr. Daniel Foot's 
for said purpose." 

Febru^ 8, 1790, '* Voted to have the Rev. Mr. Parmelee to 
Inreach for the term of six months on probation, if the situation of 
his family is such that tbcy can be removed by sleighing, otherwise 
for three months in the town of Middlebury." 

March 11, 1790. Meeting warned ''to see if they will raise a 
tax to pay Mr. Parmelee for preaching in said town for the space of 
six or three months." *' Voted Samuel Miller, Esq., Moderator, 
and tried to get a vote for the above purpose, and it passed in the 

At a meeting April 12, 1790, notified, among other business, 
*' 4thly, to see if the town will agree to hire the Rev. Mr. Barnett 
to preach on probation, or some other person." " Voted Samuel 
Miller, Esq , moderator of said meeting. Voted to appoint a com- 
mittee to procure preaching for the present year. Voted Joshua 
Hyde, John Doming and John Cbipman, Esq., to be a committee 
for the above purpose. Voted that we raise a tax of three pence on 
the pound, to be raised on the list of the present year 1790, and 
paid in grain by the first day of October next, — there being two 
thirds in the aflSrmative, and those two thirds consisted of more than 
twenty-five legal voters. Voted that wheat be paid at 5s and corn 
at 38 per bushel, and other grain equivalent on said tax. Voted 
not to act on the 4th article in the warning." 

At a meeting June 2, 1790 warned '^ to deliberate on the subject 


of hiring or settiing Bev. Mr. Bamett as their ministor, and choose 
a committee to treat Trith ^im, if necessary,'' it ivas '^ voted to 
choose a committee of three to treat with Mr. Bamett. Voted 
Gamaliel Painter Esq., Capt Stephen Goodrich and Joshua Hyde 
a committee for said purpose." 

June 15, 1790. " Voted to give the Rev. Mr. Bamett fifty 
pounds L. money per year as a salary to commence at his settle- 
ment. The above vote carried by more than two thirds of the 
meeting, and those two thirds consisted of more than twenty-five 
legal voters." 

The result of these proceedings was, that the Rev. John Bar- 
nett was ordained as pastor of the church and society on the 11th 
of November 1790. In anticipation of his ordination, a Congre- 
gational church was organized on the 5th day of September pre- 
vious, and adopted as their '* articles of faith " the doctrines which 
are common in the Calvinistic Congregational churches in New 
England. The following persons composed the church at its organ- 
ization : Daniel Foot, Elijah Buttolph, Moses Hale, Bethuel Good- 
rich, A-braham Kirby. Ebenezer Sumner, Simon Farr, Pradence 
Preston, Silence Goodrich, Abigail Foot, Sarah Farr and Deborah 

March 1791. ''Voted that the selectmen for the present year be 
a committee to treat with Rev. Mr. Bamett and agree with him on 
some certain price, at which he will receive grain in payment of 
his salary." 

March 179S. ''Voted to hold meetings in future in Mr. Ebenezer 
Sumner's bam till such times as he shall fill it with hay." 

December 80, 1794, at a meeting held at John Foot's, '* The 
vote was called for the tax of 25 in addition to Mr« Bamett's 
salary and carried in the negative." 

At a meeting at the same place January 1795, "Voted Mr. Bar- 
nett a dismission agreably to the warning." 

A committee was afterwards appointed to confer with Mr« Bar- 

nett respecting his dismission or continuance as a minister ;" but 

the result of the proceedings was that he was dismissed March SI, 

1795. The controversy, which had existed in the town^ in relation 


to the place of holding meetings and the location of the meeting 
house, which vre have referred to elsewhere, had extended to the 
church, and was the principal occasion for the dismission of their 
pastor. Whether he took anj part in the controversj does not ap« 
pear ; hut it rendered his position very unpleasant It will be 
recollected, that the town had voted to hold religious meetings at 
Mr. Mattocks' in the village for the time being, with such conditions 
as to future meetings, as rendered it hopeless, that thej would ever 
build a house of worship or again hold their meetings permanently 
in the centre t)f the town. Some of the members of the church, 
as well as others in that neighborhood, refused to attend the meet- 
ings. This led to a course of discipline, and several members were 
excluded or suspended ; but most of them afterwards returned, and 
were received by the church. Dr. Merrill says, " Mr. B&mett 
resided in town nearly two years after his dismission, he was chosen ^ 
moderator of the church and preached as a supply. After several 
removals he died at Dorham N. Y. December 6, 1837, at the ad- 
vanced age of eighty-four," 

After Mr. Bamett left, measures were adopted from time to time 
to sustain the preaching of the gospel, and various clergymen were 
employed temporarily. The expenses were principally paid by taxes 
voted by the town, but some times by subscription. In December 
1798, some measures were adopted by the town toward extending aa 
invitation to Mr. Mason to become the permanent pastor ; and in 
August 1799, similar measures were adopted in relation to Mr. 
Thomas Robbins ; but neither resulted in eflFecting the object Mr. 
Robbins was son of Rev. Dr. Robbins of Norfolk Conn., from un- 
der whose preaching the Mungers and other settlers had removed, 
was then a young man, and now Rev. Dr. Robbins of Hartford. 
Soon after Mr. Robbins left, Rev. Jeremiah Atwater preached for 
the society two or three years, while acting as principal of Addison 
County Grammar School, and president of the college. Rev. Ros- 
well ShurtliflF, afterwards professor in Dartmouth College, and Rev. 
Moses Stewart, afterwards professor in the Andover Theological 
Seminary, supplied the pulpit for a time, and each received a call to 
settle as pastor, but both declined. Rev. Dr. Merrill and Rev. 


Walter Chapin, then officiating as tutors in Middlebory College, 
jointly supplied the pulpit, for several months, commencing in 
March 1805. 

The. meeting held July 1, 1799, was notified as other town meet- 
ings were, but the business proposed and acted on related only to 
the ecclesiastical affairs of the town. For the first time the officers 
were chosen for the management of such business. Such continued 
to be the practice until the alteration of the law in 1807. And 
from this time those who assembled for that purpose were denomi- 
nated a *• society," and sometimes '* The first Congregational Soci- 
ety/' and in one case, '' The Religious Society consisting of the 
Town of Middlebury." The town clerk was also chosen and offici- 
ated as the society's clerk ; their meetings were sometimes held at 
the same time or an hour before the town meetings, and the records 
of both were for some years kept in the same book. After the 
completion of the court house in 1798, the meetings for business 
and for public worship were held in that building. 

On the 3d of November 1801, the legislature altered the law 
" for the support of the gospel,'' and instead of a certificate signed 
by some church officer that the person belonged to some othir de- 
nomination, required only a certificate signed by himself in the fol- 
lowing form : '* I do not agree in religious opinion with a majority 
of the inhabitants of this town." This, being lodged with the town 
clerk for record, discharged the person signing it from all connection 
with the society, and exempted him from all future taxes in it 
Previous to this few persons had lodged the required certificate ; 
for few belonged to any other denomination. But there were many, 
who thought themselves oppressed by being forced to pay taxes for 
the support of an institution, of which they did not approve. With- 
in two months after the alteration of the law, not less than forty- 
three persons, liable to pay taxes, had released themselves and with- 
in three years about thirty more. 

In December 1801, incipient measures were adopted toward the 
erection of a church building, the location was fixed on the comer 
where the Methodist chapel now stands, then owned by Daniel 
Chipman, and a tax laid to defray the expense of the erection. It 


was in anticipation of this measure, thati so large a number had 
lodged their certifi6ates. As the meeting house was not erected fixr 
several years, it is possible, that this diminution of the society 
might have bad some influence in delaying its erection ; but there 
were other sufficient causes of the delay, and the object was un- 
doubtedly more satisfactorily accomplished, than it would have been 
under the old law. In this country at least, the support of relig-< 
ious institutions is rather encumbered than aided by unwilling con- 
tributors. Many who lodged certificates afterwards voluntarily 
returned and united with the society, and became members of the 

The location of the church was several times changed, aud at 
length the present site was settled on, the land was purchased of 
Laudon Case, who then owned it, and removed the house then 
standing on it to the north part of the lot, where it is now occupied 
by Dr. Charles L. Allen. The difficulty of fixing on the location 
did not arise from any difierence of interest, convenience or opin- 
ion in the members of the society, but from a change of the general 
taste and judgment. At a meeting in August 1805, it had been 
decided, '^ that the expense of building the house shall be defrayed 
by a public sale of the pews ;" a committee of seven, including 
Judge Painter was appointed " to draw a plan of a meeting house, 
and expose the pews for sale by public auction," twenty per cent to 
be paid in money, *' and the remainder in neat cattle or materials 
for building." 

After the location was finally settled, the committee proceeded to 
make the necessary arrangements, and Judge Painter acting as the 
agent for that purpose, contracted with Mr. Lavius Fillmore, an ex- 
perienced architect to erect and complete the building. The build- 
ing was commenced in the spring of 1806, and the frame was put 
up and covered, so that, with temporary seats, the legislature assem- 
bled in it to hear the election sermon that fistU ; but the house was 
not completed until the spring of 1809. It was dedicated on the 
81st of May of that year. The sermon was preached by Rev. 
Heman Ball of Rutland. The expense of the building, we think, 
was between seven and eight thousand dollars, — about half what it 


would cost now. The house when completed was regarded as not 
inferior to any one in the state, and its steeple, — ^136 feet in higbt, — 
is still admired for the beauty of its proportions. The pews or 
slips were circular, having the pulpit for the centre of the circle, so 
that the whole audiance, in their natural position, &ced the speaker. 
With a few alterations, in lowering the pulpit and otherwise, and 
necessary repairs, the house was used until the summer of 1854. In 
the meantime the society, by tiie individual contribution of pews 
and money, had obtained the ownership of about two thirds of the 
slips on the lower floor, the rent of which had been appropriated to 
meet the expenses of the society. 

Previous to the season above mentioned, arrangements had been, 
for some months, maturing for a thorough repair and alteration of 
the house to make it conform to the more modem style of such 
buildings. The society had decided on the alterations to be made, 
and several gentleman, belonging to the society proposed to com- 
plete them, under the direction of the society's committee, and pur- 
chase the remaining pews owned by individuals on their own re- 
sponsibility, with the right to compensate themselves from the sale 
of the pews on the lower floor. This proposition was accepted. 
Under this contract the following alterations and repairs were made. 
The whole interior of the building was torn out, except the frame 
of the gallery ; the floor was raised two feet, together with the tim- 
bers under it ; two chimneys were built at the north end for the 
smoke from the furnaces ; the firont of the gallery was lowered 
eight inches, and the stairways and entrances to the gallery rebuilt ; 
the pulpit was remodelled,and the lower floor and gallery re-seated, 
with four aisles below, instead of three as before; the west and north 
walls, which supported the building were taken down and rebuilt, 
and the earth, under and on the west side of the church, reduced 
about five feet, and a handsome and convenient lecture room, forty 
five by thirty-six feet, built in the basement, and furnaces placed in 
the basement for warming the house above. 

The expense of these alterations, with some exterior repairs, 
and the purchaae of pews belon^ni; to individuals, was somewhat 
more than a^ven tfaoosand dollars, — about the sum of the original 


cost of the bailding. Pews were sold to nearly tlie amount of this 
sum in one day, sabject to a ground rent, which will amount to 
about five hundred dollars annually. Several families, which had 
not before been connected with the society, secured pews. The 
house was dedicated anew on the 5th day of February, 1855, and 
sermons were preached during the day and evening by Rev. R. S. 
Kendall, the pastor, Rev. Dr. Labaree and Rev. Professor Boardman. 

We return to the general history of the society, the date of which 
we have anticipated. On the 15th of August, 1805, — the day on 
which the final measures for erecting the church originally were 
adopted, — an invitation was extended to Mr. Thomas A. Merrill to 
become their pastor, and he was ordained as such on the 19 th of 
December, 1805, Rev. Asa Burton, with whom Mr. Merrill had 
pursued his theological studies, preached the sermon on the occasion. 

Mr. Merrill was graduated at Dartmouth College in 1801, and 
had officiated as tutor in that institution before he came here. . He 
continued to perform the duties of pastor until the 19th of October, 
1842, when he presented a request to be released wholly from pas- 
toral duties ; agreeing, in that case, to relinquish his salary ; and 
this proposition was accepted by the church. He afterwards preached 
occasionally in other places, and for several of his last years, as 
long as his health permitted, he supplied the destitute church in 
Weybridge. He had been for some time afflicted with a disease of 
the heart, of which he died on the 29th day of April, 1855. He 
had a reputation for talents of a high order, and at the commence- 
ment of Middlebury College in 1837, the corporation conferred on 
him the degree of Doctor of Divinity. During his ministry, the 
society and church of which he was pastor greatly prospered, and 
large additions, from time to time, were made to each. By his con- 
nection with all the ecclesiastical bodies of the Congregational de- 
nomination, and with the important benevolent associations in the 
state, and by his punctual attendance and active labors in them, he 
exerted an extensive influence among the clergy and churches, which 
was highly appreciated."^ 

"^Rev. Josiah Goodhue, late pastor of the charch in Shorcham, soon after Dr. 
Kerrill's aeath, published a Taluable memoir of his lifb; and Dr. Sprague, in hia 

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After Dr. Merrill was released from his pastoral duties, the pul- 
pit was temporarily supplied bj different clergymen. In the spring 
of 1844, Mr. Samuel G. Coe, of Greenwich, Conn., son of Rev. 
Nodrh Coe, of that place, preached several weeks for the society, 
and the society and church severally invited him to become their 
pastor. He accepted the invitation, and was ordained on the 17th 
day of July, 1844. Rev. Dr. Bacon, of New Haven, Conn , 
preached the ordination sermon. Mr. Coe was dismissed, at his own 
re({uest, on the 30th of October, 1850, and has since been the pas- 
tor of a church in Danbury, Conn. 

On the 14tU day of April, 1853, Rev. R. S. Kendall, kte pro- 
fessor in Illinois College, on the invitation of the church and society, 
was installed pastor, lie continued to discharge the duties of that 
office until his ill health compelled him to request a release from 
them, and he was dismissed on the 4th day of June, 1856. 

For another year the society was left destitute of a settled pastor, 
and supplied with preaching by several diflferent clergymen. In 
the spring of 1857, they extended an invitation to Rev. James T. 
Hyde, the present pastor, who had been for a year or two supply- 
ing the pulpit of Rev. Dr. Bushnell, in Hartford, in his absence in 
Califoruia. The invitation was accepted, and Mr. Hyde was in- 
stalled pastor of the church and society on the 10th day of June, 
1857. Rev. Dr. Bushnell preached the sermon on the occasion. 

On the 24th of October, 1807,the legislature repealed all the ex- 
isting laws for the support of the gospel, except such as invested* 
voluntary associ9.tions with corporate powers, and legalized all con- 
tracts voluntarily made for that purpose. Since that time the sup- 
rort of the gospel has been left entirely on the voluntary system. 
This society was immediately called together, and agreed to form an 
association, under the law which remained, and as their constitution 
and articles of association, adopted the provisions of the law which 
had been repealed, by signing this agreement and articles of as- 
sociation, each person became a member. The new society voted to 

** Annals of the Americaoi ?alpit," has giTea a sketch of his lifd and oharacter; 
which supercede more partical&r details here. 


aflsame the rights and dbKgations of that which had heet dissolyecl. 

Many persons were alatmed lest this sadden withdrawal of leg- 
islative aid should undermine all religious institutions, and dissolre 
the relations of pastors -and churches. But no such devastation oc- 
curred in the Congregational Society. The church building, which 
was in the process ot erection, proceeded vigorously to its comple- 
tion, and the pastor, who had been but a short time settled, remained 
as firmly settled as before. And we heard of no place where any 
serious injury occurred. It opened the way for the more convenient 
establishment of other denominations, which soon sprung up, and, 
without doubt, by giving each man the right of selection, more per- 
sons are enlisted in the aid of religious institutions. Notwith- 
standing the multitudes who have connected themselves with other 
associations, the Congregational society has been more prosperous 
than it would have been under the old law. 

The entire destruction of the records on the 22d of February, 
1852, left no evidence of the proceedings of the society since 1805, 
when they began to be kept separately from the records of the town, 
nor of the persons who constituted the association, or of the terms 
and conditions on which it was formed. The society was therefore 
called together for the purpose of renewing their compact and arti- 
cles of association, as far as practicable, so as to constitute them- 
selves a continuation of the former society, with the same rights and 
obligations. At the meeting called for that purpose on the 81st of 
March, 1852, they adopted a compact, with rules and conditions 
somewhat more particular, but such generally as • had been from 
time to time voted by the society. In order to avoid all appearance 
of constraint, one article is, that any person may at any time dis- 
charge himself from his connection with the association, and from 
all obligations he had assumed. The business has progressed pre- 
cisely as before the destruction of the records. 

The numbers of the society and of the church have varied at dif- 
ferent times. While there have been accessions from time to time, 
the numbers in both have been greatly diminished by removals and 
deaths, especially in the agricultural districts. * Dr. Merrill, while 
pastor, from 1806 to 1842,-— each year ending June 1, — ^kept a 


list of the additions to the church, and the deaths and dismissions to 
other churches, and the remaining members ; as did the succeeding 
pastors generally. June 1, 1806, the number of members was 197. 
From this period the number annually increased until 1817, when 
the number ¥ras 428. From that time to 1840,'^we have not be- 
fore correct data of later years, — ^the smallest number, 404, was 
in 1820 ; and the largest number, 781, in 1886. In 1840, the last 
of these years, it was 515. During the period which soon followed, 
while the church had no settled pastor, or the pastors were frequently 
changed, the number, by reason of deaths and removald, declined. 
It appears by a record of Rev. Mr. Kendall in 1858, that the num- 
ber was 358, some of whom were absent members, — as was the case 
in other years,— and, among them, 19 clergymen. Since the in- 
stallation of the present pastor, Rev. James T. Hyde, in June 1857, 
84 have been added, and many have died or been dismissed, leaving 
the number in June 1859 about four hundred. 


The following history has been furnished, at our request, by Rev. 
W. T. Webbe, rector of St. Stephen's Church in Middlebury. 

The history of St. Stephens Church and of the Society to which 
it belongs, can only now be given with that brevity and incomplete- 
ness that results from deriving the knowledge that we possess from 
dry records of past recurrences, and not from the recollection, from 
the memory of an eye witness, or an actor in the scene. All of 
the individuals prominent in the establishment of this Parish, have 
gone from among us. The very meagre statements of business 
meetings, never very accurately kept, and the indefinite allusion to 
circumstances perhaps deemed unnecessary or unworthy of very 
much minuteness of detail, is all that can be relied upon as the ma- 
terials for this sketch. No attempt will be made to do niore than 
condense the principal circumstances in order as they have occurred, 
leaving the real history of the Society confessedly unwritten. Many 
circumstances in the early efforts made to obtain clergymen, and 

many matters that to the worshippers in this church, scattered all 


over the land, would be of the ^atest possible interest, must gor 
unnoticed, unrecorded. 

The Society was organized December 5th, 1810, under the name 
of the " First Episcopal Society in Addison County," according to 
an act passed October 20th, 1797, entitled '^ An act fixr tke support 
of the Gospel." Horatio Seymour, Joel Doolittle, George Clere- 
land, Wm. B. Sumner, John A. Sumner, Isaac Landon, Sam« 
Clark, John Alexander, "&. Henshaw, William Kellogg, Joseph 
Brackett, Luther Barnard, Daniel Chipman, Lavius Fillmore, John 
Willard, Lewis Steams, Eben W. Judd, Stephen Weston, Eoger 
Haskill, Sam' S. Phelps, Robert HoUey, Jun., Chas' P. Harria, 
Dorastus Wooster, Jonathan Hagar, Alfred B. Allen, Josh' Burks, 
Albert P. Heath, Sam' H. HoUey, Ozias Seymour, George Chip- 
man, John Chipman, Joseph Hough, Chas' Linsley, N. Wood, 
James McDonald, Robt' B. Bates, Edwd' Tudor, Calvin G. Walker, 
G. C. Loomis, J. W. Stephens, were among the earliest numbers 
of the Society, but how many of them identified themselves with 
it at the first meeting is not known. 

Services were held, and arrangements made with clergymen 
who visitcil the village occasionally, supplied for a season the 
wants of the people until 1811, when a resident Minister was se- 
oui'cd. Public Worship at first was held in the Court-House. 
Then a room belonging to the late Judge Seymour was placed at 
the disposal of the Society, which was used for many years. At 
length a building belonging to Mr. Daniel Henshaw, was fitted up 
for the exclusive purpose of Public Worship, and continued to be 
BO used until the present edifice known as St. Stephen's Church was 
erected. The first steps towards this important improvement in the 
condition and welfare of the Society, appear to have been taken a» 
early as 1826.* 

♦An unsuccessful elFort had been made in 18I0. A committee was nppoiuted, 
measures were taken to raise the necessary funds, and a resolution was passed 
April 2lgt 1817, directing certain steps to be taken ** for building a church on tlie 
ground purchased by George Cleveland, agreeable to the plan submittca by £bcn 
W. Judd,** and a committee of five was appointed to superintend the building of 
tho church. The records fail to indicate the reason why this design was never car- 
ried into effect . 


The following resolution appears in the minutes of the proceed- 
ings of the Society passed July 11th, in that year. 

*' Resolved, That a Committee be appointed to enquire where 
will be the most eligible place in which to erect a Church, and what 
will be the probable expense of obtaining the same. Messrs. Ho- 
ratio Seymour, Eben Judd, Joseph Hough, George Cleveland, 
Nathan Wood, Lavius Fillmore, James McDonald were appointed 
the said Committee." In the month of July, this Committee made 
a verbal report, and a resolution was adopted " to examine into the 
expediency of soliciting aid from abroad to build a Church." The 
Rev. B. B. Smith, Hon. Horatio Seymour and Danl' Chipman 
were appointed the Committee for this purpose. At this meeting 
Col. S. S. Phelps was added to the Committee, formerly raised on 
the subject of a site. It was further resolved that the Coiumittce 
inquire ** on what terms the lot of Mr. Van Ness, Mr, Wainwright's, 
Mr. Henshaw's and Judge Doolittle's lots can be obtained, and 
whether liberty would be granted to build a Church on the Com- 
mon, &c." 

There is no record of the result of the labors and investigations 
of these Committees ; but in August, a Committee of five was ap- 
pointed to *' make a plan of a Church, with an estimate of th<i 
probable expense of building on the site selected by the Conmiitteo 
appointed by the Town of Middlebury for that purpose." In i?ep- 
tember, the Committee already named, was appointed to ascertain 
what sums can be obtained to erect a Church on the spot located by 
a Committee of the town, and the same persons were to be consid- 
ered as the Building Conmiittee, and are directed to proceed in the 
erection of the building, with aa much expedition as the case will 
admit of. 

There is no further record as to the'completion of the erection, or 
as to the time of the Consecration of the building. This, as we learn 
from other sources, took place on the 14th day of September, 1827. 
• The names of the individuals who have been regularly settled in 
the village as officiating Ministers, are the Rev. P. Adams, from 
1811 to 1814. The Rev. S. S. Safford, from 1814 to 1816. The 
Rev. George Leonard, a part of the year, 1817. Rev. B. B. Smith, 


1828 to 1828. Rov. S. A. Crane, 1881 to 1835. Hey. S. R. 
Crane, 1835 to 1837- Rev. W. H. Hoyt, 1837, to 1888. Rev. 
J. Wv Dillcr, 1888 to 1842. The Rev. Jedidiah Huntington, 1842 
to 1848. Rov. Joseph F. PhiUps, 1843 to 1847. The Rev. Mr. 
Hickox, of Westport, N. Y., supplied the parish vrith occasional 
seryiees during the year 1849. Rev. Mr. Mulchahey, 1849 to 1854. 
Rev. W. T. Webbe, elected by the Vestry on the 4th of June 1854, 
and Instituted to that office on the 4th of July 1855, is the present 


(BT REV. B. M. HALL.) 


The exact date of the introduction of Methodism into Middlebury 
is not known. The published Minutes of the Conference mention 
the name of the town, as designating a circuit, in 1810, for the first 
time. But there was Methodist preaching here much earlier ; and 
there is reason to believe that a Society had been formed several 
years anterior to that date. 

There is now living in this village, an aged member of the church, 
who assures the writer that she came here with her husband in 1804, 
and found both Methodists and Methodist preaching at that date. 

Rev. Ebenezer Washburn was one of the early ministers who 
travelled in Western Vermont ; and was on the Vergennes Circuit 
in 1801. In 1842, he published in the Christian Advocate and 
Journal, a series of letters, containing reminiscences of his early 
itinerancy. In those letters the following paragraph occurs : 

** At Middlebury I found a small and persecuted class. Our 
preaching was at the house of Lebbeus Harris ; and in the midst of 
that village our average congregation was from twenty-five to thirty. 
Mr. and Mrs. Harris were deeply pious, and ready to greet the 
preacher with joy at his coming, and to render him every service 
and accommodation to make him comfortable and happy while he 

Mr. Washburn was, in that year, (1801) appointed to Brandon 
Circuit, whicl^ was then newly organized, and composed of the 


soatbern part of Yergeimes Circuit, which had extended &r south 
of Brandon. 

Lebbeus Harris and his wife, who are mentioned above, were con- 
verted in the spring of 1801 ; the same year in which Mr. Wash- 
burn came upon the circuit and found a small class. A record of 
their conversion was made by Mr. Harris, and preserved in his ,01d 
Pocket Book, now in the possession of his son, Dr. Harris, of this 
place. It is as follows : 

"Middlebury, April 21, 1801. This day Sally Harris made a 
profession of Religion." 

" Middlebury, May 18, 1801 : This day Lebbeus Harris made a 
profession of Religion." 

On the back of the paper are these words : *' Old things are done 
away, and all things are become new." 

Taking into account the above facts and dates, we shall be safe 
ill believing that a Society has existed here almost from the organ- 
izing of the Circuit in 1798. 

The first preacher appointed to Vergennes Circuit was Joseph 
Mitchell, who is described as " a man of extraordinary natural pow- 
ers ; — a shrewd, witty, energetic and overwhelming preacher." 

Mr. Mitchell was admitted into the travelling connection in 1 794 
and located in 1804. , 

The next preacher was Joseph Sawyer. He was in charge of 
several important places, including the Presiding Eldership of Up- 
per Canada District, during four years. He also retired from the 
itinerancy, after having travelled thirteen years ; and of his later 
life there is no record. 

In 1800 Henry Ryan was Pastor of this charge. This was his 
first appointment, aftier which he served in Fletcher, Plattsburgh, 
Bay Quintie, (Canada) Long Point and Niagara Circuits. He was 
Presiding Elder of both Upper and Lower Canada Districts in suc- 
cession : also of Bay Quintie District, and Missionary to the Chippe- 
way Indians in Canada. After laboring twenly-five years, he be- 
came a Superannuate in Canada. 

Mr. Ryan was a man of vast size and strength, and utterly fear- 
less in the presence of those '* lewd fellows of the baser sort," who 


sometimes delighted in making disturbanco in Methodist meetings, 
and mal-treating M^odist preachers. More than one such feUow 
has taken counsel of that discretion which '^is the better part of 
valor," and retired before this '* son of thunder." 

Ebenezer Washburn, the first whose name is associated, particu- 
larlj, with that of Middleburj, was a man who lived long, labored 
much, and died well. In his letters we find the following, which 
refers to his labors on this Circuit. : 

" Here too, I was compelled to be a man of contention. If I 
presented Christ to the people as having tasted death for every man, 
that was strenuously opposed by the doctrine of partial atonement. 
If I called upon sinners to repent and believe the Gospel, I was 
told that a sinner could not repent until he was converted. If I 
preached the knowledge of sin forgiven, that was wild and danger- 
ous fanaticism." 

Speaking of the trials which he endured on this circuit, Mr. 
Washburn says ; 

'^ I have had stones and snow balls cast at me in vollies. I have 
had great dogs sent after me, to frighten my horse, as I was peace- 
fully passing through small villages. But I was never harmed by 
any of them. I have been saluted with the sound of ' Glory, ho- 
sanna, amen, hallelujah' ; mixed with oaths and profanity. If I 
turned my horse, to ride toward them, they would show their want 
of confidence, Loth in their master, and in themselves, by fleeing 
like base cowards." 

In 1802, Elijah Chichester was the preacher. lie was one of 
the strong men of the times ; and had he made preaching the busi- 
ness of his life, would have risen to the high places in Zion. But 
having travelled about eight years, ho located, and entered into mer- 
cantile business in the city of Troy. In later years he removed to 
Lansingburgh, and continued in the same business until the infirmi* 
ties of age admonished him to rest. He entered into his Jifial rest 
a few years since, at Lansingburgh, and the writer of this preached 
his funeral sermon. 

William Anson next appears in this field of labor, but of his toils, 
or success here, we have no account. The old members who were 

illSTOnY of MIDDtEBUKT 419 

living but a few years since, and whose memories would have gone 
back to those times, are gone from us. By consulting the Minutes 
of the Conference, we find that the numbers in Society increased 
during his year from 227 to 268, — a very fair per centage. 

Mr. Anson was a faithful and competent minister. In all his re- 
lations, on Circuits, in Stations, and as Presiding Elder, he showed 
** all good fidelity." On account of impaired health, he sought re- 
tirement on his farm in Saratoga Co , N. Y., in 1823. There he 
remained until 1848, when he died in great peace, respected and 

lu 1804 James M. Smith travelled this Circuit. Of him but 
•little is known at this late date. That he was a man of good tal- 
ents is evinced by the grade of his appointments. The largest vil- 
lages in the Conference, in connection with Kew York City, shared 
his labors. 

Samuel Cochrane was on the circuit in 1805. All that can be 
learned of him, is, that he served the cause well in places of im- 
portance and responsibility, until 1842, when he was returned su- 
perannuated, lie was living in 1846 — **o]d and full of days." 

Samuel Draper was one of the strong men of his day, and he 
came to this field in 1806. He was admitted into the travelling 
connection in 1801, and died iii 1824. His ** record is on high," 
and his memory is yet fragrant among the preachers of olden time. 
As Presiding Elder on Champlain, and Ashgrove Districts, each 
four years ; he was faithful, cfiicient, and beloved. His ** works do 
follow" him. 

Next came Dexter Bates, whose connection with the travelling 
ministry was brief; he located in 1809. Ho was followed by An- 
drew McKcan. This was a good man and a good preacher. But 
like many in those days, he found the labors too severe for his phys- 
ical powers ; and after some years of useful toil, was obliged to re- 
tire from active service. Taking his place with the worn-out mem- 
bers of the conference, he took up his residence on his farm in Sar- 
atoga Co., N. Y., where he still resides. 

This closes the first period of the history of Methodism in this 
immediate vicmity. It is, in some sense, the tradiiionary period ; 


for though the published Minutes of the Conference are presetved, 
and we there find the stcUions of the preachers^ and some statisU- 
cil information ; yet there is but little of the kind that is needed for 
the *• filling up.'' There are no details^ except such as are laid up in 
the memories of the ancients, and some fragments in the scanty 
reminiscences of aged ministers who have written, now and then, for 
the weekly press. 

Middlebury first gave its name to a circuit, or station, in 1810, 
and Phincas Peck was the first resident Pastor. The appointment 
probably became a Station, in contradistinction from a Circuit, at 
this date. How many were in Society at this time, cannot be known, 
for heretofore the numbers for the whole circuit were reported in 
gross. But at the end of Mr. Peck's first, and also of bis second 
year, there were sixty members reported. 

Mr. Peck is remembered by some who yet live, and is represented 
as a man of sound sense, sterling integrity, and good preaching tal- 
ents. It is said that he was once Chaplain to the State Legislature. In 
Dr. Bangs' History of the M. E. Church, there is a list of names ot 
all the preachers who have joined the Travelling Connection — of 
the time of joining — of deaths — of withdrawals — or expulsions, as 
the case may be— with the date of each. From that list it appears 
that Mr. Peck died in 1835 ; but at what place, is not know.* 

In the spring of 1813, Samuel Howe was stationed in Middle- 
bury : and also again in 1816 — remaining but one year each time. 
It was during his first year that the first Chapel was erected. It 
was a humble structure ; yet it was, doubtless, much better than 
the ** loft " in which they had worshipped since leaving the house of 
Lebbeus Harris. Besides, it was their own, and erected specifically 

*The preaching place at this time, was an " upper room " in what is now called 
Seymour's Block, at the north end of the Bridge. It was about this time that two 
men from the •« fiither-land," who were Methodists, arrived in town, and the next 
day being the Sabbath « they walked out, in order to see if a Methodist Meeting 
could be found. Seeing no house which appeared like a Chapel, they began to de- 
spair, when the sound of Praise was heard issuing from a priyate house ; and after 
listening to the words and music, they said to each other ; * 'There is a Methodist 
Class-Meeting ;" and they both wept for joy ! They entered, and found a happy 
introduction to Methodism in the New World. 


for tlic worship of God ; and the Saviour, vrhosc birth -place was 
emphatically humble, did not disdain to be with those who wore 
gathered in His name. 

We have no report of numbers at the end of Mr. Howe's first 
ycat ; but judging from what the writer knows of the man, he is 
confident that the Gospel was faithfully proclaimed, and the Church 
edified — and doubtless, some souls were converted. 

Mr. Howe became an itinerant in 1801, and labored diligently 
until 1831, when his impaired health rendered it necessary for him 
to take a superannuated relation. 

On the 16, Feb. 185S, lie went to Troy to attend the funenil of 
an aged and estcemefl memhor of the Church. After the sermon, 
which was preached by another, Mr. Ilowe made a few remarks, and 
closed by saying : '• I have entered my 78th year, and expect soon 
to follow the deceased, and hope to meet him in heaven.'' He im- 
mediately retired to one of the Class-Rooms in the basement — sat 
down in a chair, and expired before the procession had left the Church! 
** How many fall as sudden ; — not so safe !** 

The next in the regular succession of Pastors, was Cyprian H. 
Gridley, who remained two years. We have no report of numbers 
at the end of his first year, but at the close of the second there 
were 100 members. He was stationed here again in 1818 ; and in 
1820 he was compelled by ill health to take a superannuated relation, 
which continued for twenty-four years, during all which time he 
resided in Middlebury. 

In 1844 he became efiective, and travelled until 1850, when he 
once more retired from the open field. He is now, (1859,) residing 
at Appleton, Wisconsin ; with some of his children. Mr. Gridley 
joined the itinerant band when it was feeble in all this region, and 
'• endured hardness as a good soldier of Jesus Christ,'' so long as 
his health would permit. 

The many in this place who remember him, will call to mind his 

small, but wiry frame — and quick elastic step ; and also his mighty 

prayers and moving exhortations. In these exercises he had 

few equals. When he was young in the ministry, it was supposed 

by many, even in the moral and orderly Village of Middlebury. 


that it was neither unlawful nor dishonorable, to disturb Methodist 
meetings, or mal-treat Methodist Ministers! Mr. Giidlej lias manj 
interesting recollection in this department of experience. On many 
occasions he was followed from evening meetings, by savage /lootings^ 
and assailed by dangerous missiles ! On one occasion his window 
was broken in the night, and a large and heavy ^fe was thrown into 
his house and found sticking in the wall above the bod on which he 
lay at the time of the assult ! . He facitiously remarked, that he 
thought that the devil was about to retire from business, as he had 
begun to distribute his tools. 

Now, why was Methodism so violently persecuted ? Any other 
ism^ no matter how erroneous or fanatical, could have shown itself 
in the same place, and made its proselytes without such opposition. 
I leave the answer to such as are responsible. 

As before-stated, Samuel Howe was here for the second time in 
181G. This was a year of trial, and many were distressed for food. 
It was called *' The cold season/' and at the end of the Conference 
year I find the following entry in the Book of Records. 

'' N. B. This year, paid P. Elder, H. Stead, m all $23,00 
'^ '' '' Rev. S. Howe, " 256,00 

*' Cheap enough for the pure Gospel ; we hope to do better next 
year. As this was a severe season in these northern parts, some 
were destitute of a morsel of bread ; and surely, both ministers and 
people must have suffered. But, 0, that there may never be a 
famine of the pure gospel word of grace !"* 

In the spring of 1817, the church was favored with the minis- 
trations cf Buell Goodsell. This able minister, has occupied prom- 
inent positions among his brethren, and yet lives to enjoy their re- 
spect and affection, in the New York East Conference. 

James Youngs was stationed here in 1819-1820. He was a 

♦The New York Couferrenco held its session here in June 1817. At that 
time the whole number of preachers in the Conferenoa was ninetj-four. Since that 
time the Conference has been divided into three — all numbering about five hundred 
preachers. Bishop George was the presiding officer, *• A mighty man of God.'* 


man of social habits, kindly feelings, and catholic spirit ; and was 
inftaential in bringing in a better state of feeling among Christians : 
dispensing with that bigotry so often seen in those days — ^so unlovely 
and injurious to all. 

He was an able minister, and his mind was well stored, and well 
disciplined ; a scholar, a Christian, and a Divine. 

Next in order was Ebenezer Brown, — a minister of rare talents, 
sound mind, deep thought^ and popular address. Under his labors 
the Chapel proved too small — '^ the place was too strait," and the 
house was enlarged. Still, a portion of the " Old-fashioned Meth- 
odists " were not quite pleased with the preacher. He was not 
loud enough for them, though sufficiently so to be heard with the 
greatest distinctness and ease in all parts of the house. 

Besides, he had a fashion of tying his white cravat in a double^ 
bow, in front; and moreover, his hair stood up in front, instead of 
lying smoothely down on his forehead ! When labored with for this 
last offence, his explanation was, that he had a '* Cow-lick '' on one 
side of his forehead, and his hair on that side stubbornly refused to 
comply with the usage^ and he chose to allow the other side to 
keep it company ! 

Notwithstanding these faults, Mr. Brown was quite successful, 
and the membership increased about fifty per cent during his year 
of service. He left the itinerancy in 1825, and entered into busi- 
ness in the city of Troy. 

In 1822 Noah Levings was appointed to this station, where he 
remained but one year. He was young as a minister at that date, 
and had not arrived at the maturity which he reached in later years. 
Starting from the anvil in the city of Troy, soon after reaching his 
majority, and with but a limited English education, he won his way 
to the *' high places in Zion." He was studious and quick to learn, 
and his literary attainments became very respectable. 

He was never one of the most profound — but one of the most 
popular preachers : — he was eloquent in the best sense of the word. 
His address was pleasing, his manner easy, his heart warm, his doc- 
trine pure, and his voice like aeolian music ! 

Haying served the churches in the cities of Troy, Schenectady 


and Albany, some of tlicm more than one term, he was transferrod 
to New York, and stationed at Vestry Street. While there he was 
elected Financial Secretary of the American Bible Society, wliich of- 
he held until the close of his useful life. While stationed in Sche- 
nectady, he received the Degree of D. D., from Union College. 

In the Fall of 1848 he left New York, intending to visit large 
portions of the South West in behalf of the Bible Society ; and 
while in that region, in the midst of the Cholera, which then pre- 
vailedjhe was attacked with disease which he knew was alarming ; and 
he hastened toward home by way of the Mississippi and Ohio rivers. 
Having reached Cincinnati he could proceed no further, and at the 
house of his former friend and Brother, Mr. Burton, with no mem- 
ber of his family present, he ** entered into rest," on the 9th day 
of January, 1849. He died like the good and happy Minister — 
expressing his unshaken faith in that Gospel, and Saviour which he 
had so long preached to others. 

During his ministry of thirty years^ he officiated! in eighteen 
Circuits and stations, — preached about four thousand times — dedi- 
cated thirty-eight churches — delivered sixty-five miscellaneous ad- 
dresses — two hundred and seventy-three addresses in behalf of the 
Bible Society, — and travelled more than thirty-six thousand miles \ 
Surely, he exhibited the '^ signs of an Apostle." 

John J. Matthias had charge of this church in 1823, for one 
year only. He was, at one time, in the early history of Coloniza- 
tion, the Governor of the Colony of Liberia, in Africa ; and is now 
a prominent member of the New York East Conference. 

Robert Seeney followed Mr. Matthias. He is reported as one of 
the best Pastors ever stationed in this place — one who performed the 
greatest amount of visiting in a strictly pastoral manner. In preach- 
ing, he is said to have greatly excelled; being full of thought, easy 
in manner, and rapid and graceful in elocution. On Sabbath morn- 
irrgs he would be in great distress through nervous excitement — feel- 
ing as if he could not possibly preach, and giving illustrations of 
^notion without prog'?'css ; for he would hurry from room to room, 
in his efforts to prepare for going to church, and yet if his wife did 


Kot follow, and put him in order by piece-meal, he was likely to go 
with baif-adjusted apparel and hair unkempt ! 

John B. Stratton became the pastor in 1825. He was receive<l 
into the travelling connection fifty-eight years ago, and is still hale 
and strong. After having occupied important posts in the ministry, 
and discharging his duties with the greatest fidelity, he is enjoying 
a green old age in the oflSce of Presiding Elder on Burlington Dis- 
trict, in which this town is included. As he is in our midst, it may 
not be proper to say more ; except that, as he has been one of our 
ablest men, we hope that his robust health and unabated vigor may 
continue to the church his services for years to come. 

John Clark was pastor in 1826-7. He was admitted in 1822, 
and having made good use of his time and means, became an able 
minister. He was fiivored with considerable revival, and saw the 
membership increased during his administration from 126 to 182. 
Though not quite thirty-one years old when his term expired herC; 
yet he was made Presiding Elder of Plattsburgh District, and showed 
himself an accomplished and eflScient* officer in that capacity. He 
was next appointed to New York City, where he served one year, 
and then offiered himself as a missionary to Green Bay. 

In that field he continued five years, having charge of all our 
missions and schools among the Indians in the whole North West. 
His labors were extreme, and often perilous. His travels were ex- 
tensive, reaching from Green Bay and Sault de Ste. Marie, to Mack- 
inaw, — ^and westward to the Mississippi River. The country was 
then a vast wilderness, and the modes ©f travel — by canoes and port- 
ages, both slow and toilsome. 

On leaving the Indian work, he spent a few years as Presiding 
Elder in northern Hlinois, and then volunteered for Texas. In go- 
ing to that country, he took the over-land route, via St. Louis, with 
his own horses and wagon, taking his wife and child with him. In 
that journey they slept under their own tent twenty-one nights be- 
fore reaching their destination ! 

After three years passed in that region, the health of his fiimily 
required his return ; and in 1844 he agam became a member of this 
Conference. Having remained with us eight years, he took a trans- 


fer to Rock River Conference, and was stationed at Clark street, 
Chicago. He had nearly finished his two years there when he was 
smitten with cholera, and died in great peace, July 11, 1854. 

John C. Green succeeded Mr. Clark in this station in 1828. Of 
him there is not much to be said. 

Jarvis Z. Nichols was next in order. He is still in the vineyard, 
in the New York Conference, 

He was succeeded by Peter C. Oakley, who also is a member of 
the same Conference ; — a man of sweet spirit, pleasing manners and 
good talents. 

Charles P. Clarke came to this place in 1833, and was stationed 
here again in 1844, remaining but a year at each time. lie was quite 
successful the first time, — increasing the membership from 200 to 
307. He went south the year after his last labors here, and his lo- 
cality is not known. He joined the Protestant E. Church, and we 
have lost his address. 

Merritt Bates came next in order, and was an efficient and suc- 
cessful laborer, and the church was increased in numbers and edi- 
fied. He is still in this Conference. 

In 1836 Joseph Ayres became the pastor for one year, and again 
in 1841, for two years. There was a great revival during his last 
term, and the numbers went up to 451 ! He is now preaching in 
Northern Ohio. 

After his first term came John (now Dr.) Frazcr, who preached 
here in 1837-8. It was during his term that the present House of 
worship was erected. It is 45 feet in width, and G9 in length ; hav- 
ing a basement with a Lecture Room 30 by 45 feet, and four class- 
rooms : and is surmounted by a belfry and beautiful spire. Mr. Fra- 
zer has since been transferred to Ohio, where he is still in the ministry. 

A. M. Osborn was appoiuted here in 1839, and tarried but one 
year. He is now a member of New York Conference, and wears 
the title of D. D.* 

♦The Troj? annual Conference, 'which was organized in 1832; met in Middlebury 
in 1840. Bishop Roberts presided— a white-haired, apoetolic looking old man, who 
preached on the Sabbath, with great effect. He has since been called to his re- 
ward in the higher Kingdom. 


Cyrus Prindle was the next incumbent, and served two years, 
lie soon after seceded from the Church, and joined the "American 
Weslcyan Church." 

In 1847, Elijah B. Hubbard was the pastor. It was a year of 
deep and sore trial to him, for he was prostrated by painful and lin- 
gering diseiioc, and his excellent wile was taken away by death ! 
These afflictions gave his nervous system a shock from which ho 
never fully recovered; and he died at Fort Edward, N. Y., April 
22, 1852 * 

Lester Janes preached in this place in 1848. He has since ta- 
ken up his abode in the West, where he has been employed alter- 
nately in preaching and teaching. 

B. 0. Meeker was the next Pastor, and served this people in 
1849-50. The numbers were considerably increased under his la- 
bors. He is still a member of this Conference. 

Uc was followed by his brother, Hiram Meeker, who was the 
Pastor for two years. At the end of that time he became supernu- 
merary, and continues to reside here, engaged in the practice of 

The next incumbent was Robert Fox, who tarried but one year, 
and was succeeded by Peter M. Hitckcock. Here this minister, al- 
so, buried his wife after a long and painful illness ! 

H. C. H. Dudley was appointed to this charge in 1855; and after 
spending about three-fourths of the year, he joined the Protestant 
E. Church, and is gone — we know not where. 

The next in order was J. F. Yates, who labored here two years. 
During his last year there was a large revival, which increased the 
number to 290. During that year the House of worship was thor- 
--^-^— -^^-— .—_—-— ^.—^-— —-—-—— ^—^_^—__—^__^^.^_^^-^—.^— ——^——— ^—— ^ 

*Mr. Hubbard was the yictim of a useless, if not cruel custom which prevails 
in many places. He had preached a funeral sermon in a school-house, which was 
densely crowded, and extremely warm. He then rode some distance in an open 
sleigh, though the day was cold and the wind harsh. There ho stayed until the 
grave was filled, and then rode back. By this time he was thoroughly chUled ; and 
a pulmonary disease followed vhich baffled the skiU of physicians and the power of 
medicine. How many other ministers kayo been sacrificed on that aUar of cruel 


oughly rcjKxifed and modernized, and made one of the best in flic 
denomination in Western Vermont. 

Jlr. Yates was succeeded by B. M. Hall, who is still, (August, 
1859) the Pastor. The annual Conference was again entertained 
in tliis village in the spring of 1858 — Bishop Ames presiding, and 
'* winning golden opinions from all sorts of men." 

Bj a careful examination of the oldest Records which are pre- 
served, I find the following names, as in Full Connection, in 1809, 
viz : 

Lcbbeus Ilarriff, Azctba Babcock, 

Sarah Harris, Sarah Weaver, 

Daniel Bigelovv, Amelia Famsworth, 

Betsey T. Bigelow, Chester Haskins, 

Abel Knights, Huldah Fisher, 

Kathan Alden, Local Pr., Josiah Johnson, 

Barbary Alden, Joseph Johnson, 

Thomas Carpenter, Local Pi:, . Anna Johnsoir. 
Aurelia Carpenter, 
How long these had been members, is not known. But it is evi- 
dent that a Class had previously existed.— (See Mr. Washburn's 
statement on a fiirmer page.) Besides, there is a long list of names 
placed *' On Trial,'' at the same date, 1809, showing that those not 
then on trial, were the original mqnbers. 

There \^ere forty-Jive admitted on trial in that year ; which made 
the whole number in society sixty-two. Among those who com- 
posed that little band^ just fifty years ago, there are but few now 
living ; and fewer still who are in connection with Methodism in 

Of those who were in Full Connection in 1809, Betsey T. Bige- 
low is the only representative. She is still here, in good standing 
in the church, and looking for a re-union with the others in the 
world above. 

Of all who joino<l on trial in 1809, Althea Demming alone sur- 
vives among us. And of those admitted in 1810, Joel Boardman 
is the sole survivor ! What changes are wrought by the lapse of 
time ! Among those who identified themselves with this branch of 


the Church in its infancy, several will be long remembered for their 
attachment and devotion to the cause. 

Of such, mention may be made of Lcbbeus Ilarris, Daniel Biglow 
and thoir wives, David and Clark Dickin^onj John and Hastings 
Warren, Jonathan Barlow, Luther Ilagar, and others. 

From this Society there have gone out at least three Ministers of 
the Gospel, who are doing good service within the bounds of tho 
Troy Conference ; — Albert Champlin, Alfred A. Farr, and Chester 
F, Burdick : — While the sons and daughters of this church are its 
representatives in many places and states. 

This church, like most others, has. had a varied experience — 
sometimes passing through waves of trial, and again exulting in 
hope of that heavenly rest where 

'* Xot a wave of trouble " rolls. 

At times it has been ^* minished and brought low,'' by reason of 
numerous re//wra/5, and other causes: — and again, it has been 
favored with powerful revivals — so that " the wilderness and the 
solitary places have been made glad for them, and the desert has 
blossomed as the rose/' 

Its present position is such as will insure success in the future, if 
it will only be true to itself and its Master. May this, and every 
true church of Christ, " grow into a holy temple in the Lord." 

The following Table exhibits the numbers in Society in each year 
since Middlebury became a separate station. 


























































































1853 171 1855 174 1857 155 1859 280 

1854 147 1856 160 1858 290 


For many years there was a respectable Baptist Church and 
Society, generally supplied with regular preaching, and the usual 
ordinances of religion. But for ten or twelve years past, their mem- 
bers have been bo much reduced by removals and deaths, that the 
organization has ceased, and the remaining members attend upon the 
worship of the other churches. We have no means of obtaining a 
correct account of its history, except frcm the following, copied 
from Dr. Merrill's History, published in 1841. 

*' By Rev. Arnold Kingsbury, pastor of the Baptist Church. 

The church was constituted Dec. 10, 1809. First pastor Rev. 
Nathaniel Kendrick from 1810 to 1817; second Rev. Isaac Back- 
land from 1818 to 1820. Since the last date the church has been 
destitute, a portion of the time and has enjoyed the labors of the 
following pastors, viz : brothers Ewens, Spaulding, Mott, Green, 
Ilaff, A. Jones, W. G. Johnson and A. Kingsbury. The church 
generally attended public worship in the Court House, till 1838, 
wlicn tliey procured the meeting house, 65 feet by 32, which they 
now occupy. The present number of members in the church is 06.-' 


The following account has been furnished, at our request, by Mr. 
Timothy 0' Flanagan. 

The first Missionary Catholic Priest, that came to this town was 
the Ilcv. James MacQuaide in 1822. He left here the following 
year and we had none here until 1830, when the Rev. Jeremiah 
(). Callaghan came, as a Missionary of the whole State — comin«» 
' here occasionally— until 1834 : Then the State was made into two 
missions, and the llev. James Walsh came on this part of the mis- 
sion and left in 1835. In 1837, Rev. John B. Daley came here 
and built the present brick church, which is 60 feet by 40, in 
I^nO : Miwl r.-inniiipfl on the mis.-^ion iiutil 18-'>4. .Then the first and 


present Catholic Bishop of this Diocese, the Right Bev. Lewis 
Goesbriand, sent the Rev. Joseph Duglue, who is here now. The 
number of hearers is about 400, and the number of communicants 
300. Some of these are from the adjacent towns. As to church 
membership, any person, no matter where&om, who confesses and 
receives the eucharist, is a member of the Catholic Church, in any 
part of the world. T. 6. F. 

435 msTony of midli^edurt. 



At the time of the dccLiration of war by our government against 
Great Britain, in June, 1812, party spirit had risen, between the 
Federalists and Republicans, to a state of greater asperity than has 
since been known, in consequence of the measures which had been 
adopted, in defence of the country, agaiilst the encroachments of the 
British and French, then at war. After the declaration of war, the 
friends of the administration felt bound to co-operate with and sus- 
tain them in every measure deemed necessary for its successful pros- 
ecution. The Federalists, who were opposed to the declaration of 
war, as being, as they alleged, unnecessary, impolitic and not tend- 
ing to any hopeful result, felt no disposition to co-operate or aid in 
the prosecution, beyond the *' letter of the law."* The principal 
difference between the parties arose from their different construction 
of the power given by the constitution to the General Government 
over the militia of the several states. We have said so much in ex- 
planation of what may follow. But it is our business not to ex- 
press any opinion as to their differences ; but to confine ourselves to 
such occurrences as had some connection with incidents and proceed- 
ings in Middlebury. There being no records of those occurrences 
to which we can appeal, we are obliged to rely much on the recol- 
lection of the few survivors who remain ; which, after nearly fifty 
years, are of course rather confused and contradictory. For many 
of the facts depending on recollection, we are indebted to Ozias 
Seymour, Esq. 

Soon after the declaration of war, in June, 1812, in pursuance 
of the act of Congress authorizing the President to call on the dif- 
ferent states for detachments of militia, to the number of 100,000 


men, a brigade, consisting of four regimtnts, was called for from 
Vermont, under General Orms, of West Haven, jmd ordered into 
actual service, and was concentrated at Burlington. The men com- 
posing the brigade were designated by drafts, except when volunteers 
offered themselves. There were, at the time, five or six young gentle- 
men studying law in the oflSce of Hon. Horatio Seymour, all of whom, 
as well as their instructor, were friends of the administration, and 
rather zealous supporters of the war ; and, for that reason, the office 
was honored with the designation of the ** War Office." Four or 
five of these were enrolled in the standing militia company, then un- 
der the command, we think, of Capt. Joseph D. Huntington. The 
company consisted of seventy or eighty non-commissioned officers 
and privates, and about thirteen were to be taken from the number. 
When the company was paraded for the draft, the officers called for 
volunteers, and suggested the expectation that the young gentlemen 
who were so zealous for the war, — referring particularly to the law 
students, — would have patriotism enough to volunteer. But none 
offered themselves. When the officers retired to make the draft, 
and returned to announce the result, it appeared that, among others, 
the following law students were drafted, — Hon. Zimri Howe, of Cas- 
tleton; the late lion. Samuel S. Phelps, of Middlebury ; Walter 
Sheldon, Escf., and the late John Kellogg, Esq., of Benson. They 
complained that there had not been a fair draft ; that they had been 
selected instead of being drafted ; and consulted Mr. Seymour on the 
subject. He inquired whether they had any evidence of unfairness. 
When they replied that they had no available evidence, he advised 
them to shoulder their muskets and go to the war. Judge Howe 
was soon appointed Secretary to Gen. Orms : Judge Phelps, after 
serving some time in the ranks, received from Mr. Madison the ap- 
pointment of paymaster : Walter Sheldon, before the troops were 
called into service, was appointed a Lieutenant, and served as dis- 
trict paymaster in the regular service. But Kellogg declined any 
promotion, and preferred to carry his musket in the ranks, which he 
did during the term for which the brigade was ordered into service. 
Abotft the 10th of April, 1814, it was reported and understood that 
a mr% of the British -fleet iras seen oflF Cumberland Head, and their 


design was supposed to be to attack and bum the Amerk»n fleet in 
Otter Creek, in mud near Vergennes. On the request of Gen. Wil- 
kinson, of the United States army, Gov. Chittenden, of Yermcmt, 
immediately issued an order, by a messenger, to Col. Sumner, of 
Middlebury, commander of a regiment in this County, to call out 
his regiment, and forthwith to march them en masse to Vergennes 
for the protection of the fleet. At the time, there were few, if any, 
United States troops at that place. Three of the companies of the 
regiment belonged to Middlebury ; viz. a company of Light Infiint- 
ry, commanded by Capt. Samuel H. Holley ; a company of Cavalry, 
commanded by Capt. John Hacket, and the standing or Flood Wood 
company, then under the command of Lieut Justus Foot — the Cap- 
tain being for some reason absent. The order was received by them 
on Monday, the llth,or on Tuesday, the 12th of April, and promptly 
obeyed. The companies were ready to march as, early as the mid- 
dle of the afternoon of the day on which the order was received. 
Lieut. Foot's company was, about that time, paraded on the com- 
mon, and was dismissed under the order to meet at eight o^cIock 
the next morning on the hill just south of Vergennes. A large 
part of the company, having left their ranks, were immediately on 
their way to the place of rendezvous the next morning, each one 
looking out for himself a place to lodge, during the leisure hours he 
might have, in reaching the place of meeting at 8 o'clock in the 
morning. Capt. Allen, (who came into town only a week before, a 
stranger to nearly all the company, and wholly without equipments 
or other preparation,) and a few others, started too late to reach the 
place at the appointed time, and found the company quartered in a 
barn at Vergennes. 

Hon. Joel Doolittle was then adjutant of the regiment, and Hon. 
Samuel S. Phelps had an appointment in the staff. Soon after the 
regiment reached Vergennes, Gen. Dunton, of Bristol, who com- 
manded the brigade to which the regiment belonged, appeared and 
claimed the command. This claim was resisted by Col. Sunmer, 
and an animated and somewhat amusing war of words ensued be- 
tween the general and colonel, which was the post decidedly bellig- 
erent display the regiment was called on to witness. . ; • 


ideut Foot was a Federalist, and being jealous of the rights of ^ 
his company, became disaffected hy the movemeats made in the 
organization of the trdbps, and refused to have his company mustered 
under the proposed arrangements. Their operations were therefore 
kept separate and independent of the other companies ; and, on 
Saturday, the IGth, he gave a furlough to each of his men, under an 
order to be in readiness to return when called for.* 

The report, which occasioned the alarm, on the occasion referred 
to, turned out to be erroneous. No British fleet or signs of pres- 
ent danger appeared. Accordingly Governor Chittenden, who 
was at Vergennes, in consultation with Commodore Mac Donough, 

- *Mr. ScyzDour*8 recollection of what he then and afterwards understood, is, that 
the ground of Foot's disaffection was. that he was unwilling to have his company 
mustered into service under United States officers. This at the time was a mooted 
question. Nahum Parker, Esq., who was a member of the company, agrees with 
Mr. Seymour in his recollection. Oapt. Ira Allen, also a member of the company, 
states, as his recollection, that Foot objected only to the derangement of his compa- 
ny, by dividing it, and mix n^ it with others, to make It conform. In its organiza* 
tion, to that of the United States army; that he was willing the vacancy in the of- 
fice of captain should be filled by another person, but claimed the right to act as 
lieutenant of his own company, as it was ordered into the service. On the third 
day, Capt. Allen and a few others, who had no guns and could get none, were dis- 
missed, and returned home. On Saturday, as Allen learned firom Foot, he received 
some official communication , in which he was recognized as commander of the com- 
pany which he brought there, and he took the liberty, as their commander, to give 
them a furlough until further orders. The same night, after his return homo, 
Foot received an order from Col. Sumner, to return, and he went himself, the next 
morning, without his men, and while there he and his men were discharged, as the 
ether companies afterwards were, under on order to return when called for. 
. Mr. Lorin FiUmore, also a member of the company, whose recollection is more 
minute and definite, states, in addition, that many of the companies were small , 
and when counted off into full companies, there were many supernumerary officerr, 
who Were left .out of the service, and among them Lieut. Foot; and a captain and 
lieutenant were appointed over his men from other towns. When this was reported 
to the company, and the new officers appeared to take the command, they unani- 
mously decided not to submit to that organization: That on Thursday, Foot and 
his company marched out of the city, and were followed by the Colonel, Adjutant, 
and some other officers, who addressed them, and gave them encouragement that 
the organization should bo altered ; and thereupon the company returned to their 
quarters in the barn. But no alteration was made, and on Saturday furloughs 
were given to the company, as above stated. He also states that the militia mus- 
tered into the service were commanded and driUcd by United States officers. 


on the 19th of April issued a general order to Col. Sumner, in 
-which he states, that the Commodore *' will be competent to protect 
the flotilla under his command, after he shalPget the gallics now on 
the stocks afloat ;" and directs the Colonel, '* in the event of the 
gallies being launched to permit the militia under his command to 
return to their homes, except Capt. William C. Munson's company 
from Pan ton, who will remain until further orders j»" and that 
the troops were to be held *' in complete readiness to march on the 
shortest notice, without further orders, to meet any invasion the 
encfmy may attempt.'^ On the 20th of April he issued another order, 
stating that he had agreed with the Commodore '^ on an alarm sig- 
nal of three heavy guns, to be fired in rapid succession, in case of 
attack by the enemy,'' and giving the Colonel permission " to 
furlough the ofiiccrs and soldiers, (Capt. Munson's company excepted) 
until further orders.'' On the 22d of the same month he issued a 
third general order to the Colonel, stating that he ^' has received in- 
telligence, that a regiment ot the Uniteil States army at Plattsburgh 
had been ordered to proceed to Vcrgennes, for the defence of the 
naval force ;" and says — " Col. Sumner will therefore on the arri- 
val of these troops, proceed to discharge the whole detachment un- 
der bis command." We learn from a man who belonged to that 
corps of United States troops, that on their arrival, which was about 
four days after the date of the order, the militia were dismissed. Mr. 
Seymour relates the following, as what he understood at the time. 
A few hours before the troops were relieved, Col. Sumner called his 
officers to a council of war, to determine what sliould be done. 
Commodore MacDonough was invited to be present and express bia 
opinion. The Commodore, in reply to their in(|uiry, said, in sub- 
stance, — •• Gentlemen, I am willing to compromise this matter with 
you. If you will take your militia home, I will take care of the 
fleet. I am vastly more in danger from your men, than from the 
enemy.' ' The occasion of this pleasantry, on the part of MacDon- 
ough, is said to have been, that one of the militia men, in a room 
occupied as a guard house, directly under the Commodore, accidently 
discharged his musket, which sent its contents through Mac Don- 
ough's floor, passing near his person, as he sat at his table. The 


it^sult of the council was, that the regiment had leave to retnru to 
their homes, on an indefihite furlough, under orders to be in readings 
to return at a moment's wtming. 

In the month of May following, a British fleet, consisting of a 
brig, three sloops and thirteen gallies, came up the lake from St. 
Johns, passed Burlington on the 12th, and appeared before Fort 
Cassin, at the mouth of the Creek, and opened a spirited fire upon 
that fort, with a view of forcing their way up the Creek, and destoy- 
ing the American shipping before it should be ready for service. 
After exchanging a few shots with the fort, tbfey retreated and re- 
turned to Canada. On the proposed signal, or other notice, some of 
the militia on furlough, nearest to Fort Cassin, especially in Addi- 
son, returned and aided in the defence. 

In the fore part of September, 1814, Governor Provost, of Can- 
ada, invaded the territory ]of the United States at the head of 14,000 
troops, marching towards Plattsburgh. On the 6th of that month, a 
small reconnoitering party of regular American troops and militia 
met the advance guard of the British army, and had a skirmish 
with them, m which several of the. Americans were killed, and, it is 
said, some British. The bodies of the Americans were leftj and re- 
mained above ground until after the retreat of the British army, 
and were buried by the American volunteers on the 12th. An alarm 
was spread through the surrounding country, and a general rally 
followed. As soon as the citizens heard that the soil of their coun- 
try was defiled by the tread of an invading foe, all party distinctions 
and all constitutional scruples were laid aside, and all parties rallied 
to the rescue. Messengers were sent into all parts of this State and 
New York to give the alarm. A very inadequate force of regular 
troops, — a single brigade, — under General Macomb, was stationed 
at Plattsburgh, — the main army having moved westward. 

On the 4th of September, G^n. Macomb wrote to Hon. Martiti 
Chittenden, Governor of Vermont, giving notice of the near approach 
of the enemy, and said — ^' Much is at stake at this place, and aid is 
actually wanted, as the garrison is small, and the enemy in consid- 
erable force. Under these circumstances, your excellency, lam sure, 
will not hesitate to afiford us all the assistance in your power." Gov- 


ernor ChittendefH, on the same day, replied, — '* I shall take the most 
efiectual measute to furnish such number of volunteers as may be 
induced to turn out for your assistanceii' On the same day also, 
he enclosed a copy of Gen. Macomb's letter to Gen. Newell, of Char- 
lotte, commander of the brigade in that neighborhood, ^^ which," he 
says, " will show you the situation of our army at Plattsburgh, and 
the necessity of such assistance as can be afiTorded. I would recom- 
mend it to you to take the most effectual method to procure such 
number of volunteers as may be had for his immediate assistance, 
from your brigade." Col. Faasett, of the United States Army, on 
the 7th of September, wrote to (Jov. Chittenden, saying — " I learn 
by Mr. Wadsworth that there is a considerable quantity of fiixed am- 
munition at Vergennes, subject to your order. Can I have a part 
of it for the volunteers ? Please inform me by my son." To which 
Gov. Chittenden replied the same day — "If there is ariy (fixed am- 
munition) subject to my order, this letter may be considered a suflS- 
cient order for such part of the same as may be wanted." 

In every town in this section the standard was raised and the cit- 
izens gathered around it. The volunteers in the several towns were 
not generally organized, and did not meet together until they met at 
Burlington, where they were detained for a passage across the lake, 
or on the battle-field. When a smaller or larger squad had collected, 
they started forward, leaving the more dilatory to follow. In this 
town. Gen. Warren made the first direct effort to raise volunteers. 
As early as Tuesday or Wednesday — the 6th or 7th of Sept., — he 
came on to the village common, followed by martial music, and in- 
vited all who were so disposed, to join him as volunteers. After 
marching once or twice around the common, forty or fifty men had 
fallen into the ranks, and the number was afterwards increased. When 
a dozen or two were ready to start with him, they marched for the 
field of battle, and others, as fast as they were ready, followed. 

The patriotism on the occasion was not confined to the volunteers. 
The panic was universal. Those who were left behind exhibited their 
zeal by liberal contributions. The volunteers wanted ammunition, 
provisions and teams to transport them to Burlington, where vessels 
were engaged to convey them to the scene of conflict. A subscript 

Eben W. Judd 


Milo Cook 


Jonathftn Hagar 


Ira Stewart 


Daniel Chipman 


S. S. Phelps 



tlon was accordingly circulated, in the h|nd-writing of Hon. Horatio 

Seymour, in the following words, and subscribed by the persoofi 

whose names follow : 

Middlebury, September, 18L- 

'^ We, the subscribers, promise to pay Daniel Chipman, Ira Ste^ 
art and Jonathan Hagar the sums annexed to our names respectively, 
to be appropriated by the said Daniel, Ira and Jonathan, as a com- 
mittee, in providing those who shall turn out to defend the country 
against the invasion, at the present alarm, with ammunition, arms, 
and other necessaries, and in their discretion to give pecuniary aid 
to such as shall turn out, who are needy, or their &milies. 
Horatio Seymour $80.00 Joel Doolitae $10.00 Haskall & Brooks $10,00 
Peter Starr 10,00 Thomas Hagar 10,00 

W. O. Hooker 10,00 Lavios FiUmore 10,00 
Elisha Brewster 6,00 Lather Hagar 6,00 

Samuel Mattocks 6,00 Moses Leonard 6,00 
DayidPage, Jr. 36,00 William Slade, Jr. 6,00 


The money thus provided was paid out for powder, bullets, bread 
and other provisions, and teams to convey the volunteers on their way. 
And one of the charges to this fund was — '* One quarter cask of pow- 
der, which was used on Monday, 12th September, for rejoicing, $11." 
The whole sum expended, however, was only $203,50 ; and the pay- 
ments on the subscriptions were reduced in proportion. 

Other men, and the boys had also an opportunity to exhibit their 
patriotism. While the volunteers were making their preparations to 
start for the field of battle, — including the night before the detach- 
ment commenced their march, — the men and boys were engaged, at 
the office of Mr. Seymour, in making the powder into cartridges for 
the volunteers. Fearing to have a light in the room during the night, 
the floor, where the powder was,had became literally blackened by the 
powder which scattered over it in filling the cartridges. After there 
was sufficient morning light to discern the situation of the room, 
some one present said, — *' We have certainly been in more danger 
here to-night than any of our volunteers will be in at Plattsburgh.'' 

When a sufficient number of volunteers had met together they or- 
ganized as they could, in a summary and unceremonious way, by 


putting forward such promjj^ent men as were willing, to be officers* 
And when new recruits came on. they took their places as they could 
in the ranks. Gen. Warren and his men, and many others, did not 
reach the camp-ground until the evening of Saturday, the day before 
the battle, and some not imtil the next morning ; and others wholly 
lost their chance in the battle by arriving after it was over. 

To General Samuel Strong, of Vergennes, &ther of the present 
Samuel P. Strong, was assigned the position of Comuaander-iii- Chief 
of the Vermont Volunteers. Major Lyman, of Vergennes, was his 
right hand man, and was appointed Colonel. He had had some ex- 
perience in the Revolutionary War. Gen. Worren was first chosen 
Captain of the Middlebury volunteers, but was afterwards advanced 
to the rank of M^'or.* Capt. Silas Wright, of Weybridge, as cap- 
tain, commanded the volunteers of that town and Cornwall ; and af- 
ter the promotion of Gen. Warren, the Middlebury men fell into his 
and other companies, as they were most needed. Jehial Saxton, of 
Bristol, was Captain, and Daniel Collins, of Monkton, Lieutenant of 
the troops from those towns ; and John Morton, of Salisbury, was 
Captain of the troops of that town. Dr. Zaccheus Bass, of Middle- 
bury, went on with Gen. Warren as surgeon of the volunteers of 
Middlebury and neighboring towns ; and was employed in the hos- 
pital on Crab Island, in the care of the wounded, after the battle. 

In this extemporaneous gathering and organization, it is difiicult, 
at this late day, to ascertain who were presentjOr how a great major- 
ity of them were employed. Mr. Daniel Wright, of Weybridge, who 
was serving in the battle as orderly sergeant, states that James Ri- 
ley, of that town, in the rear of his right hand man, was wounded 
in the neck by a musket ball, and died of the wound after he returned 

*We h&ve spoken, in its proper place, of General Hastings Warren only as an 
early settler and man of business, and baring an important connection with our 
history. We take occasion of the mention of the patriotic part he bore, as a volun- 
teer, in the defence of his country, to add that he was, in addition to his distin- 
guished military position, a respectable, useful and influential citizen tor many 
years. Of a very interesting family of children, only two survive, — Mrs. Jane 
Kipley, wife of William Y. Ripley, Esq., of Rutland, and Edward S.Warren. Esq., 
of Bufl&ilo, who was graduated at Middlebury College in 1838. Gen. Warren died 
at the residence of his daughter, Mrs. Ripley, in May, 1846. 




putting forw: 
And when r 
in the rankf 
roach the c 
the battle, 
lost their (* 

Samuel I 
of the Vi 
right ha' 
to the 1 
tain, Of 
ter thi 
and 0* 




/, l.rocfhri .- !<fh 11, k 

n-cuJ^pf /f^^' 



home. He was also near Bethuel Goodrich, of Middklmry, who 
was wounded in his foot, and saw Dr. Bullard, of Weybridge, — who 
was in the battle, surgeon as well as soldier, and equipped for either 
service, — extract the ball. The wound was not serious. We are 
not aware that any others of the Vermont volunteers suffered seri- 
ously in the battle. Major Lyman, after his return, was seized with 
a violent fever, contracted in the service, and died greatly lamented. 
And we believe there were others attacked with similar fevers. 

The volunteers were more accustomed to hunting wild animals 
than fighting men ; and while they secured themselves as they could 
behind trees and other protecting objects, they were careful to take 
aim at individuals of the enemy, and killed and wounded many of 
them. After the battle, a number of British prisoners taken by the 
volunteers were collected together, and the man^ who appeared to be 
most prominent among them, was inquired of as to his experience in 
war. He mentioned, in reply, several battles in which he had been 
engaged, and said that he had never been in one half ecjual to this ; 
that these green-sprig men, — the Vermont Volunteers, who woro 
green sprigs in their hats, — would hide themselves behind the trees, 
aim at individuals, and hit every man aimed at ; and that their ar- 
my called it murder. 

We are not able to state the number of Volunteers from the sev- 
eral towns. The number from Middlebury, we judge, from the es- 
timate of different persons, to be from 150 to 200. 

In the midst of the excitement, we were compelled to follow the 
example of other patriotic citizens, — not to fight, for we had no tal- 
ent for that. We reached Burlington on the afternoon of Thursday 
the 8th of June. There we found Hon. Martin Chittenden, Gov- 
ernor of Vermont, and General Samuel Strong, Commander in 
Chief of the Vermont volunteers, in consultation on the approach- 
ing cirisis. The writer then held the position of Secretary to the 
Governor and Council. In that capacity, we were admitted to a 
familiar intercourse with both these important personages. The 
volunteers were flocking in and filling up the town ; but there were 
no means of conveying them, that night, to the field of their antic- 
ipated exploits. But a yeasel was to be ready the next morning, 


the 9th, to convey over the General and such of the troops as the 
vessel could carry. We, of course, were to accompany the Greneral 
in the same vessel, with the Governor's military aid. To bring ua 
into more immediate communication with the Commander of the 
army at Plattsburgh. and the better to ascertain the condition, perils 
and necessities of the small body of the American troops there, the 
General sent by us the following letter addressed to Gen. Macomb. 
*' Burlington, September 11, (a misprint for 9,) 1814. 

Sir : — The bearers, Amos W. Barnum Esq., my military Aid, 
and Samuel Swift Esq., Secretary to the Governor an<^ Council of 
this State, will go to Plattsburgh, for the purpose, if practicable, of 
communicating with you, and of receiving any information you may 
please to communicate, that we may know how to govern ourselves, 
in endeavoring to furnish assistance. They will communicate to me 
any necessary information you may give them for * this purpose. I 
am with high consideration your humble servant, 

General Macomb. Martin Chittenden." 

The next morning all hands were early awake, and soon we were 
making our way to the wharf, where the vessel lay. The Governor 
accompanied us, with as much apparent enthusiasm, as the most 
patriotic Green Mountain Boy, and said to us, as we were leaving, 
with emphasis, — ^^I wish my position would allow me to go with you." 

We reached Plattsburgh the same afternoon, and accompanied 
Gen. Strong to the fort, and were introduced to Gen. Macomb, who 
received us courteously, and we remained some time, in examining 
the fortifications, and looking, for the first time, upon the array of 
a hostile army, in full view, and within cannon shot. But as the 
evening approached. Gen. Macomb advised us to retreat and get a 
shelter ebewherc, as he thought they might be attacked before 
morning. We understood the British, during the darkness of the 
nights, were arranging their batteries nearer the fort. 

We were not present, nor very near the battle of the llth of 
September, but were not out of hearing of the great guns. On " 
Friday night, after we left the fort, we crawled into the largo tent 
of Gen. Thomas, on Crab Island, which was already well filled, and 
laid ourselves down on a wet board, with hemlock boughs for a pil- 


W, and remaiiidd until the dawning light of the next morning. 
The night of Saturday we lodged in a log cabin, inhabited by A 
kind old man and woman, high up on one of the New York hills^ 
which shuts down to the west bank of the lake, where our hunger 
was appeased, and oui fatigue relieved, with the best the house af- 
forded. In the afternoon of the next day,-^the day of the battle, — 
we reached, in such way as we could, — the west side of the Island 
of North Hero, in tuU view of the shattered fleets, and the battle 
field on the land. Not being able to find a passage that night, we 
oocupied the neighboring hay-mows for our lodging. The next morn- 
ing we found boats to take us to the fleet, and were very courteously 
received by Commodore McDonough, with whom we were well ac- 
quainted. He had married a Miss Shaler of Middletown, Connec- 
ticut. While he was in the neighborhood of the lake, building and 
preparing his fleet at Vergennes for the conflict, and superintending 
its operations, his wife, a most interesting women, spent her time in 
Middlebury, in the family of Mrs. Latimer, with whom she had 
been acquainted while Middletown was the residence of both. And 
of course the Commodore spent his leisure time here, and became 
intimate in the society of Middlebury. It is not too much to say 
that every body admired him as a gentleman, and singularly quali- 
fied for his responsible position. We also visited the vessel, in 
which Commodore Downey was killed, and in which we saw his 
corpse, and the fort, where we saw several acquaintances, belongihg 
to the regular army. 

Of the state of the troops, before and after the battle, and of the 
success, which attended the contest, in the battle. Gen. Strong made 
regular conmiunications to Gov. Chittenden. On the 10th, the day 
before the battle, he wrote — ^'^ I have been up the river this morning 
five or six miles, which was lined with the enemy on the north side. 
They have made several attempts to cross, but without success. This 
is the line that is to be defended. I have ascertained, to a certainty, 
the number of militia from Vermont, now on the ground well armed, 
is 1812 ; from New York, 700 ; Regular troops under Greneral Ma- 
comb, he says, 2000. He treated me very friendly." " We have 
strong expectations of 2000 detacfted militia, ordered out by Gen. 


Mooert, arrivkig soon." " I hope you and our friends 'W'ill send 
four or five thousand to our assistance as soon as possible." Sep- 
tember 11, Sunday, 7 o'clock, P. M., he wrote again, — " We are 
now encamped, with 2500 Vermont Volunteers, on the south side of 
the Saranac, opposite the enemy's right wing, which is commanded 
by General Brisbane. We have had the satisfaction to see the Britr 
ish fleet strike to our brave Commodore, McDonough. The fort was 
attacked at the same time, the enemy attempting to cross the river 
at every place fbrdable, for four miles up the river. But they were 
foiled at every attempt, except at Pike's encampment, where we now 
are. The New York militia were posted at the place, under Gens. 
Mooers and Wright. They were forced to give back a few miles, 
until they were reinforced by their artillery. The General informed 
me of his situation, and wished for our assistance, which was readily 
afforded. We met the enemy and drove him across tlie river, under 
cover of his artillery. Our loss is trifling. We took 20 or 30 pris-^ 
oners. Their number of killed is not known. We have been skir- 
inishmg all day on the banks of the river. This is the only place he 
crossed, and he has paid dear for that. I presume the enemy's force 
exceeds the number I wrote you. What will be our fate to-morrow 
I know not ; but I am willing to risk the consecjuencte attending it, 
being convinced of the bravery aq^ skill of my ofiicers and men.^' 

Gen. Strong had no occasion for alarm for what was to take place 
" to-morrow." As soon as the British fleet had acknowledged their 
defeat by the bravery of McDonough and his men, Gov. Provost or- 
ders! a retreat, and the whole British army were on their way to 
Canada the same night. 

There was a recruiting station continued here during the whole 
war ; and it is said that as many as two hundred and fifty, from 
this and the neighboring towns, were enlisted for the regular army.